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In the endeavour to trace historical proo&, that the fossil bones of 
elephants and wild beasts^ which have been found in Britain, France, 
Spain. Crermanf, Russia, Siberia, and other coontries, are the remains 
of those animals which have been employed in the wars, retigions 
ceremonies, and amphitheatrical sports, of the Romans and the Mon- 
gtds, (or Moguls) : the author has been led on by the extensive scenes 
of conquest, the extraordinary grandeur of the Mognl Khans, the 
nagniflcence of their hunting expeditions and court parades, which so 
far exceed any thing ever witnessed in Europe; to make a quarto 
volume of what he imagined nlight have been comprised in a' small 

In the progress of these researches, there was such a convicticm in 
the writer's mind of his success in the mam o^ect of his wch^, in con- 
sequence of some extraordinary discoveries which he has made; that 
he has been induced to write an epitome of the life of the Siberian 
C^ghis Khan, the most fomous conqueror that ever existed; and 
whose grandson Kubhu, on his completion of the conquest of China, 
governed and controlled an empire much more extensive and populous 



than was ever swayed hy the Romans, when their greatness was at its 
utmost height*. 

It will be seen what efforts, during this Grand Khan's life, were made 
to subdue Hindoostan ; but they were repelled by the vigour of the 
Afghan Emperors. Eastern Bengal, or Bangalla, was the only part of 
that country which submitted to Kublai. A description of the very 
ancient capital (now submerged) of this Bengal, has, fortunately, been 
met with. 

Siberia, a name which conveys to most readers the idea but of frost 
and exile, will be found in summer, (which season only is here described), 
a most magnificent region in many parts; the cradle of the greatest 
conquerors recorded in history; a country unknown to Russia till the 
sixteenth century ; of greater extent than Europe ; and so rich in zoo- 
logy and botany, that the discovery of America, says Pennant, has 
scarcely imparted a greater number of objects to the naturalist. TTie 
reader will find that country connected with China and India, from 
the earliest ages : and in the thirteenth century vast invading armies, 
composed of Mongols, Persians, Chinese, and Arabs, commanded by 
Timur Kaan, governor of Yunnan, Eastern Bengal, and other elephant 
provinces, stattoaed in Siberia for many years; to contest, upon the 
banks of the Irtish and higher in the north, the possession of the moat 
powerful monarchy that has ever been known. No notice of theae in- 
vtuions- has been met with in amy history ^Russia or Siberia. 

AboQt a century afterwards, Tamerlane, who as a conqueror is 

' * In the year 1S80 the femily of Geogbis Khnn possessed, in loogitade, from 
Behnng's Straits to llie Don; nnclall Russinwas tributary: — In latitude, from tbe 
•oath of China to the Arctic Ocean, (flindoottan and Arabia eicepted). 



seccAd only to'Gfenghis Khan, will be foand in Siberia and RuBsia bo 
high in the nortb, that the morning rays appeared in the east b^bie 
the dun was entii^y set, (the Mahomedan doctors from this pheno- 
menon omitted the evening prayers), with armies that astonish us at 
their numbers and discipline; and in opposition to monarohs as power- 
fiil as himself, but never so fortunate. The splendour of the court, and 
of the " big wars *, which seemed to make ambition virtue," of this 
destroying prince, surpass every thing but the fictions of poetry and 
romance ; and it will be seen how extremely probaUe it is, that he has, 
in several instances, been adopted as the prototype of the infernal 
hero of that great effort of the human intellect, the Paradise Lost. 

The vanity and folly of ambition were never more forcibly exempli- 
fied than in the instant dissipation, by Tamerlane's successor, of the 
countless and inestimable gold and jewels, the plunder of Ddhi, Bag- 
dat, Damascus, and Bursa ; and all to indulge the capricious humour 
of one of the concubines of the Emir Hadji Seifeddin, whom he had 
privately married, and whose fatal charms destroyed an empire, which 
was inferior to none on the earth. 

The history of Britain will be found to exhibit that province, while 
under the power of the Romans, as deemed of the greatest importance 
to those conquerors; and which is evinced by the many Empermrs 
who visited and resided in the island, some of them with their fiuni- 
lies. The obstinate wars with the unsubdued Caledonians lasted to 
the term of the Roman domination, and attracted the whole Court of 

* The arniy, ft'oin ibe extremity of one wing to that of the other, extended be- 
tween three and four leagues. On the approach to Danuuca* the elephanti, ina 
great rank, marched in front, — See Cfa. IV, 

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the Empire to Tork, during the long residence in Britain of tlie three 
Emperora, Severus, Caracalla, and Greta, the latter of whom hMl the 
command of London. It was in the city of York, which was forthree 
years the head quwrters of the Roman Empire, that Severas odebrated 
a triamph for his rtctories in Partfala and Arabia. 

The greatness of several of the British Emperors, their powerful ar- 
mies, fleet, and their conquests on the continent, attest the wealth of 
the island; and how justly the loss of its nunes, its com, and very no- 
merous recruits for the Roman armies (on the continent), was de- 

No other person having given a history of Britain with the viewt qf 
the writer, a stronger light is thrown on that part of these researches 
than has before been collected in a small compass; and nevertheless 
every essential historical event, that is extant, is related. 

That most nohle of the brutes, the elephant, will be found in great 
numbers, climbing the Alps with Hannibal and Asdrubal ; crossing 
the momitains of Greece; and fighting with the Roman army under 
the command of Acilius and Cato, against Antiochus at Thermopylae ; 
marching with the Emperor Qaudtus to the conquest of Britain; thir- 
ty-nine slain in one battle in Spain; a hundred and forty employed in 
a battle with the Carthaginians, at Palermo ; of which a great number 
was killed by the Romans, and above a hundred were captured. 

Thirteen hundred elephants at one time, and five hundred on ano- 
ther occasion, were led by the Emperor Mamood against the king of 
Cashgar, and supported the cold of Tartary, when men and horses per- 
ished by its severity. The numbers possessed by the descendants of 
Genghis Khan would be incredible, if we did not know that all the 


d^ihaat iffDvinCM east, of the Bunrao^ooter were undar theJE con- 
tl^ and thai no mobarchB on earth. were ever so potrdifid. : i.,-; 

The variety and immense numbers of wild beasts destroyed an tbd 
circus and anqyhitbeatre are recorded by many historians. H^tpoi- 
potami, rhinoceroses, camelopards, and abnost every, known qciadnh 
ped were employed in these amusementa; sometimes SflVenl thmr 
Mnds 4m a sin^e occasitm. On one day, forty elephants, were Ex- 
hibited in these cmel but grand ^rts, ijritb which the Roaiait 
people were indulged for many ceutwidi. 

Such respectable authors as Pallas and others having asserted^ that 
all the elephants employed in the armies of the Moguls would not ac- 
count for the vast number of mammoth's remains found in Siberia, it 
was indispensably requisite to give sufficient historical proof of the 
contrary. The evidence produced in this volume, accompanied with 
the elucidation of the misunderstandings and consequent exaggerations 
on this topic, arising from t he Siberia ns celling the ira/nw, (which 
they kill in immense numbers), by the name of Mammoth, and Eu- 
ropeans always supposing them to he speaking of elepAimis, is deemed, 
by the writer, a satisfactory proof of the errors and misconceptions 
on this subject: but sufficient conviction regarding the numbers of 
elephants, could not be conveyed to the reader, without present- 
ing him with the causes for such extraordinary wars and scenes 
as are here described; and he was therefore necessitated to lay 
before him those circumstances which have reached us in various scat- 
tered authorities, in order to make out a constructive evidence in those 
cases, for which direct proof has not been found. In this pursuit many 
readers will find descriptions and scenes of a nature entirely different 
from what is usually met with. 



The various Chapters consist of those extracts of short pass^^, 
and abstracts of long ones, and even of whole rolames, which contri* 
hute to prove the point umed at. The dates and circumstances are 
sometimes so distant or various as to preclude the possibility of alwvfs 
mainttuning a connected narrative like a regular history, nor does the 
nature of the subject require it. 

The author considers himself merely as a pioneer, who has, on a very 
interesting question, endeavoured to open a new road, which may pro- 
bably lead to a more extended knowledge of nature and of man. 



Inteoductioh P^« 1 


Sketch i^tie History ^the Grand Khant <^the Mtrngok and Tar- 
iart,fiom the Birth qf Genghis, A.D. 1 154, to the Accession ^ 

Kublai, in 1257.. Ut^paraUeled Conquests.- Genghis's 

Laws. Sieges ^Samarkand and <^ Soehara. In^peritd 

Hunting Circle. A Courailtm, or General Council, held at 

Toncat. Description <^ Caracorvm, the Capital <if the Mon- 
gol Empire : 15 


Of the Grand Khan Kublai, whose domination exceeded that 0' 

Augustus. Conquest (if Mar^i, or South China; BtmgaUa; 

Burmah; ^Fc.-— Numerous El^thants received in tribute. 

Rebellion tn Siberia. Invasion of Java, Invasion ^Ja- 
pan. Rimp and Splendour <^ Ms Court. Magn^eent 

Hunting EapeditUmg. Failure ^AtieagOs to conquer Hin- 

dostan 58 



CHAP. ni. 

€fthe JEagtloymeiU {^EkphaiU* from the earliest timet m Chims 

I'ierna Turan Seytkia Turquestan Oomko 

TMbet Astam; from wkick ComUriet ihey may have 

been introduced into Siberia 86 


Sietch ffthe Life <f Timur Sec, or Tamerkme. Hi* BtttOer in 

Siberia Russia Hindostan Syria Georgia 

AsiaMinor. Elephants. •Extraordinary Splendour qf^ 

Court. His Death Emn of his Empire. Emha$sy 

from hi* Son, Shah Mohk, to the Etigmor if China. Origim 

if the Gypsies f09 


qf Siberia. JDeseribed in Summer. Ferity. WUd 

Animtdst Magn^cent Scenery. Mongol Sovereigns. 

Coronation of the Grand Khan Keyuc, at Olougyourt. In- 

vadedjrom China and India beyond the Ganges. Immense 

Armies stationed on the Tt^h, and Battles in the Thirteenth 

Century. — ■ — Invasions if Tamerlane, Fomrleenth Century 

Tombs; Elephants* Bones, €foiden Chess-hoards and Men, 

Golden Ftaies, ^e. found in them. JVote on the Conquest ^ 

Russia by Batou, Grandson (f Genghis. Tamerkmeinvftdes 

Russia. Sis terrible BatHe m'M the Khan of Capsehac 

described 183 



Fossil Bemtttn* tfElepiumtti RMmeerotes^ and Bi^lidoesjhtmd 

M SHeria and Mnssia. Eemaris an tke Eiephmt Jbimd m 

the lee at the Mouth i^the Lena. JSuhUme Sceaerf.— 

Riuns of Ancient Forts. Happiness of the Natives. Nur- 

merous Errors arising from Europeans having transferred the 
Word Mammoth^ the Siberian Name of the Walrus, to the Re- 
maiHs <jf Elephmts, Whale*> ^v 328 


Deseryittion ^ the Ancient City qf BangaUa, which stood at the 

Eastern Momlh tfihe Ganges, nowovet-fioufed. Burmak, 

Pegu, ^. m the Sixteenth Century; ali qfuMeh had been siA- 
ject to the Broad Khans, in the Thirteenth tmd Fowrteenth 

Centuries. Bloody Wars for a White Elephant. Siege 

if Pegu. DtydoraNe Famine. Immense Treasures . . . 261 

CHAP. vin. 

Hindostan. Heroism tfthe Tn^an Ladies. Court Parades 

if the Emperors Ahbar, JehangUr, and Aunmga^.- Com- 
bats if Elephants with Horses; tfEngUsk Mastiffs with Ele- 
phants; ^ Crocodiles with Horses 276 

CHAP. rx. 

Q^ Rtman tatd Greek Wars in which Eiephants were employed, 
— -^Marches ^ Haim&al and Asdmbtd over the Alps, wUh a 



xii coNiEirrs. 

great mmber if Elephants. Arduous march of the Consul 

Marcius, with Elephants, over the Oh/v^ chain qf Mountains 

in Greece. QfAdUus, mith Elephants, oner Mount Corax. 

Elephants killed, and some Matured ht/ Cato, in the defile 

(jfThermyx/la 291 


OfSonum Amphitheatres, remains <)f which exist in Britain 

Italy France Spain Sieilji Greece Syria 

and other Countries 308 


Sportsand Combats in the Circus ondAmpHthealre; in which were 

slain, EhfJumts Bhinoceroses Hippopotami Bears 

Lions— — Tigers Hyisnas Camelopards -Cro- 
codiles Ostriches, Sfc. in surprising nxmbers. Grand Tri- 

umphaX Processiims at Rome. -Chariots drawn by tamed 

lAons, Leopards, Tigers, Oryges with one horn. Stags, 4'c. . 317 


Bemainsijf Elephants and Wild Beasts/ound in Italy France 

Sicily Spain Germany and other Countries . 338 


Sketch if the History (f Roman Britain, ending A.D. 42T. 

Julius Cxsar. Clan^us.— Elephants. Britain is ri- 

sited by many Emperors. York, the Head Quarters if the 

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Soman En^pirejbr three yeart. SSneg. Wealth. 

Temples. Baths. Amphitheatres. British Er^perors. 

Carausius; his power/iil Jleet; he sails to Africa. 

Conquest qf Oaid and Spain hy Maximns ; he passes the A Ips. 

Inoation qf Oaul, Spain, and Italy, by ConstanHne. 

Sudden ruin and destmetion qf Colonies, Towns, Temples, and 
Palaces 851 


Remains of Elephants and Wild Beasts, foundin England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland 423 


Description qf the living A static and African ElephasUs, which are 
noticed by Naturalists. lAst <f Countries in which Ele- 
phants and other Wild Beasts are found. Tusks (fjyteen 

thousand Elephants imported into Great Britain in Eleven 
Years 440 


On the Fisheries in the Arctic seas, qf the Walrus, (the Mammoth 

^Siberia), and the NarwaL Surprising numbers qf these 

Animals. Description of the Walrus by the Emperor 

Kang-^ 464 


On the r^d changes which the surface qf the Earth undergoes 
from Floods, Earthquakes, and other Causes 471 




Erronewu Notmu retfeeUng Giaxtt, MammoiJuj Exttaiet Spe- 
eie* qfQuadnip«A,aml Spiral Tmsiu, — ^Concluditig Stmarlu 179 


EiBplanaiion qfthe Flag$ upon the Map; showing the Conqueslt 
and some of the Places t^ Residence i^the Family tjf Genghis 
Khan, 4rc SOO 


qf Boohs referred to in this Wort nt 

Errata 516 

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1 THE Map of Asia is to be placed opposite to the title page of the volume. 

S The Emperor Kublai, in a caatle borne by four elephants, to face the title of 
Chapter 11. This print is composed from the dcBcriptions of Marco Polo, 
and the histories and plates of Du Halde and the Abb£ Grosier. 

S The Portrait of Tamerlane is to face the title of Chapter IV. It is from an In- 
dian coloured draving, in the possession of the Author; in which the dress 
is rose-colour; the buttons are emeralds, surrounded with pearls; and (he 
turban is white, striped with gold. 

4 An Um found in a tomb in Siberia, copied &om Strahlenberg ; and Tartars 

travelling, copied from an old book ; to fiice the title of Chapter V. 

5 Defeat of Hannibal by Scipio, at Zama, from Catrou ; to feoe Chapter XI. 

6 Mapof the March of Hannibal and Asdrubal from Spain, over the Alps, to Ita- 

ly, — Hairs of a living ElephanL — Tusks of the Lena Elephant, &c. to face 
page 395. 

7 A Temple for Sacrificing; ao Amplutheatre ; and a Circus, with twenty of the 

most remarkable hhitimI* slain by the Romans ; to face Chap. XI. 

8 Hate 1. — Coins of Andent British Kings, to face page 854. 

9 Hate 3. — Medals and Coins of Romans who were in Britain, to face page 385. 

10 Plate 3. — Medak for Victories in Britain; and Emperors of Britain; to face 

page 395. 

11 TheWalms, or Mammoth; and the Narwal; to fece the title of Chapter XVI. 


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XXOW defective is History, and how small a portion of that which 
does exist is known to any one po^onl Britain was connected with 
the Romans aboutfour hundred and eighly one-years: of which a space 
of three hundred and twenty years is a perfect blank. What little is 
known is collected from the incidental mention of that island- by Ro- 
man, and a few Greek authors; Britain itself, it is supposed, not hav- 
ing produced any writer whatever. Siberia was above three centuries 
governed by the Moguls; and not a word of its history, during that 
period, is to be found, except what may be gleaned from authors fo- 
reign to that extensive region, — Persians, Chinese, Russians, and Eu- 
ropean missionaries and travellers. 

The pride of man, in his intellectual attainments, is humbled at the 
reflection, that he who can "unfold all Nature's law," measure the 
diameter of the sun. and the distance of the stars, should, at Uie 
same time, be frequently as ignorant as the savage of the most 
important events which Qccur, during his own existence, on the 



otofli of the universal irame which he inhabits. Scarcely a!ny one 
in Europe believed the narrative of Marco Polo. The information 
received since the discovery of the Cape of Grood Hope, has proved 
the truth of that intelligent traveller's book in a remarkable degree. 

At the death of the Black Priooe, Timtir Bee had worn the 
crown of Zagatai ahont seven years; but his exploits had been con- 
fined to Persia and his wars with the Mogul princes who pos- 
sessed Siberia. It is, therefore, very probable, that these heroes 
never heard of the existence of each other ; although a battle, in 
which ninety thousand men were kWed*, would have commanded the 
admiration of that great conqueror. 

To this day, in most parts of Africa, the assurance that, in other 
countries, elephants are tamed and ridden, passes as one of the 
" white man's liesf." And can this be wondered at, when my Lord 
«f GlouoeBter, on examining the grinder of an Elephant, (whioh 
animal was dug up at Gloucester, and King James sent Lord Her- 
bert of Cherbury to ascertain if it were a giant's), assured Bishop 
Hakewill, that " he himself was not confident that it was the tooth 
of a manf*, 

The discovery of fossil bones of Elephants and certain other 
animals, has filled the world with amanement; and though history, 
imperfbot as It k, presHits ua with the solutMUt of the enigmaj it 

* See Hwerajr, Historiographer of France wkh a penflion ot ibnr thoasand livrca. He 
giTei thepirticukrsofthe twodaysatCrecy: HmM »t«t« (be munlwr of both dayi tq be 
thyty-Bi^ t]:v>vuaiid an^ lix huodred. 

■f A French veisel touching on the coaat of Ouinea, aome of the crew were taken before 
Aa hi^, ite Has aaaMdvpnolvg tn^era tt^t irith ttwqwco, bwh nalied, aKr > ^ < by ' 
f)!ff gpard^ frith wooden jpkea : thip was his pi^tjr'4 Court of Justice. His enquirjr of tl)e 
atrangeis was, whether they talked much about him m France t Montesquieu, Persian Letter 



is qaite astonishing that no one faaa hitherto searched into the U*- 
torieal origin of the most remarkable of the«e remains*. 

The ingennitx of the greatest and most respectable autbcHs has 
been tortured to invent abstruse systems and causes f»T vhat ap- 
peared so truly wonderftiL They, however, hare iailed to eonviace 
mankind of the truth of their hypotheses. The various theories 
of the earth have been resorted to. Of those which are supposed 
to have reference to the subject of this essay, the fic^owing are 
the principal; but they are aU invcdved in such difficulties, that 
perhaps the mind of no person has ever been satisfbctorily cimvinced 
of the truth of either of them. 

Leibnitz supposes that the earth was a luminous ^ow^ star; which, 
after burning for many ages, was extinguished from a deficiency of 
combustible matter; and that, when coined, the moist vapcwr fell 
and formed the ocean. This theory is deemed altogether hypothe- 

Buffon conjectureB that the earth was a portion of the aun, de- 
tached from it by the oUique stroke of a comet; and that, being 
removed to a considerable distance from the son, it gradually cooled, 
and the vapours condensed by d^rees and fbll down in water. But 
this original fbrmation of the earth has been thought hypothetical 
by all, and by many jhncifulf. It has, however, bcnoe baen sup- 
posed, that what are now the froaen regions, were once warm enough, 
firom the earth's own heat, to maintain wild Elephants, Rhinoeerosea, 
ftcj. Others have imagined that the oUiquity of the ccUptic was 

' The writer hu peilwpa been more attnctcd to thu tntgect than mbj other pnwn, t^ 

the drcumstance of hia banng paued upwardi of twen^ ycwt of hit liie in HindoatMi and 


■f See Reea's Cjc " Earth," " Deluge." Encyc Brit. "Hanmxrth." 

X Pallai at first concluded that the Northern rqtiooa had been nflkiendy warm to be 

de native countij of Elefrfuuta, Shlnoccroaei, ftc. but, on leeli^ dw ipota wfaere bonea were 

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once so great as to include the Arctic Regions within the tropics. 
But the obliquity being caused by a vibratory, not a rotary> motion; 
and the mean variation not ever amounting to one mile in a cen- 
tury, rendera it impossible that the Arctic Regions could have ever 
been warmed by that operation, so as to affect this question: for, 
granting that the obliquity does arise from a rotary motion, it would 
require more than sixty thousand years to produce a difference of 
only ten degrees of latitude: and how would this accord with the 
finding of a Rhinoceros upon the sand of the bank of the river Vilui, 
in Siberia, Lat. 64°, with the skin upon the head, and the eyelids not 

A long list of eminent authors attribute the fossil remains 
of Elephants, and other animals in question, to the great Deluge. 
" I give the fiwit," says Pennant, " let others, more &youred, explain 
how these animals were transported from their torrid seats to the 
Arctic Regions. I should have recourse to the only one we have 
authority for, and think that phenomenon sufficient. I mention this, 
because modem philosophers look for a later cause : I rest convinced, 
to avoid contradicting what can never be proved." It is not to be 
supposed tiiat this amiable man and excellent writer deemed that 
this fact was required in support of the truth of the deluge, scarcely 
any one doubting it, and, least of all, a philosopher tike Pennant. 
In addition to holy writ, almost all the historians of the world agree 
in this catastrophe; and, therefore, the deluge stands not in need 
that this additional testimonial should be substantiated. In mat- 
ters of science, truth alone is the object which every one ought to 
have in view; and, with regard to the present inquiry, the usual 
interests and customs of society will perhaps be sufficient to bring 

found in Siberia, be clianged faia opinion, and thought they could have been transpoited only 
by a nidden innndation. Reea't Cyc. " Elephants' bones." 

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the subject home " to the busings and bosoms of men," without 
disturbing either the heavens or the earth. If any one can fairly 
Mki cosapletely answer my arguments, I shall admire his ingenuity, 
and will adopt his better proofs. In the words of Junius. " grateful 
as I am to the Good Being whose bounty has imparted to me this 
reasoning intdlect, whatever it is ; I hold myself proportionably in- 
debted to him from whose enlightened understanding another ray of 
knowledge communicates to mine. But neither should I think the 
most exalted faculties of the human mind a gift worthy of the Di- 
vinity, nor «ny assistance in the improvement of them a subject of 
gratitude to my fellow creature, if I were not satisfied, that, really 
to inform the understanding, corrects and enlarges the heiurt." 

To return to the subject: The following opinions have been held: 
Peter the Great conjectured that some Elephants' bones had been left 
on Alexander's expedition, when he crossed, as is said, the Don*. 
The .Emperor was probably not acquainted with the history'of the 
Moguls, as the books on that subject were then scarcely known. 
Quintus Curtius was the author whose works heated the brun of 
Charles XII. and, thereby, created the formidable military power 
of Russia ; with the history of Alexander, the Czar was of course fa- 

Voltaire gave it as his opinion, that the tusks found in Siberia had 
been lost by traders. Mr. Tooke says, " if Mammoths lived opce 
where their bones are discovered, it is certain that these countries 
must formerly have had a very different climate. Did tbey get thither 
while alive t what inducement led them ': have they beeo drifted thi- 
ther after death, or are they the bones of sea anunalsf I" Leibnitz 

■ Alextader croMed the Jaxartea, which be Bupposed wu the Taiuu*. (See Plutarch in 
Alex, and Q. Cartiiu). Thia led the Czar to make that erroneotu conjectuie. 
-f- RusaiM) EmiKre, Vol. I, p. 29, ' 

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and Liniueus are of opinion that the Mammoths' honu mi^ be mone 
tusks, but thejr are differently composed * ." Marsigli supposed the 
fossil remains found in Europe were of those animals slain in the Ro- 
man games. Father Martini, who was in China before Du Halde, 
was of opinion that the fossil bones found in Siberia were the remains 
of the aniinals employed in the wars of the Mongols with the Chinese 
and Indians. Camden says, "the bones of the abundance of Ele- 
phants which Claudius brought with him to England, being casually 
found, have given rise to several groundless stories f. 

The reader is requested to keep in mind that the bones of the Mas- 
todon or Mastodonte found in America, on the Ohio and in other 
places, form no part of these researches ; nor do the fossil remains of 
Elephants, a few of which have been found on the ihorea of America. 
Some fossil Mastodontes have been found in Europe. The writer is 
not without hope that he shall be able to meet wiUi something inter- 
esting respecting the eariy connection of Asia with America, and 
about these animals, when he is more at leisure ; some very extraordi- 
nary indications, relating to periods long before Coliunbns, having oc- 
curred in the pursuit of these researches. 

In reading Eastern History the names — Scythians, Tartars, Turks, 
Mongols, are often used without discrimination; and without convey- 
ing to the reader a clear idea of wliat people are particulariy alluded to. 

Scythians, in ancient history, seems to mean, in general, all those 
people eastwurdof the Black Sea, from the latitude 40 to the Frozen 

Tartars, in modem times, h a general term ap^ed to all the tribes 
betweoi the Volga and the J^aa Sea, from about the latitude <^ iO 
to tlie duun of mountains which divides the flat territory from Siberia. 

. * CuTier, p. £5. f Bnuimn, p. S«7, (ftil. ed. 1«»5). 



Turks have been known in modem times cfaiefij by their conquests 
in Eorope; but Tnrquestan, the head quarten of which has always 
heea in the Ticinify of the Altai mountains, a couMry rich in pastures, 
horses, and cattle, has Avm the earliest times produced some of the 
greatest conquerors known in history. More oh this subject will be 
found in this volnme. 

Mongols are not distinguished in history till Genghis, at once, by his 
bloody victories, immortalized their name. Their native country is 
the neighbourhood of Nertshinskf in Siberia, both on the north and 
south sides of the chain of mountains. The Russians describe 
those terriUe invaders by the name of Tartars. The armies being 
fbrmed of all the nations in Tartary, and the leaders not having yet 
become much known, they were, nodoubt, at first called Tartars; and 
tiuit name has generally been used in Russian history. The Chinese, 
in their history, call all their northern invaders by the name of Tartars : 
Ogua was a Turt, Genghis a Mongol, and Sbun-Chi, the cMiqueror, 
A. IX 1644, was a Mandshor *. To enter further into this subject 
would lead to perplexity; all that is aimed at, is to give those readers, 
to whim Eastern History is not Ismiliar, a guide, however imperfect, 
through a path which no historian has yet satisfactcnily cleared of its 

it has been the object of the writer to> give as mnch ioforaiation as 
poarible on Ae aohjeot of this esaay in a small compass: any one who 
k deuMoa of fiirth^ information may, by means ctf the reference!^ 
procnre H vitk &cifity in Emn^wan works. With regnd to £aatcn 

* PiA»fa. • gmt rm^m wm wtwm aadartakni wilb mm* koMr, or addwed with 
K»r« WMdcm^ dyui thM (tf Ck« by the Ifandskur Tartan^ who ue Mt ra naovilb^ 
pie. 8MdwI&l«rr«(lbeCMiqaeMafCyMt, by Pdbfox, Biihi|K«f OtaM Mi VicaMy 
•eUnDD(^a«it.LoiidaD,ia71; TMkrfi Bmmo Ea^^ wL 9^ p. M; MiDalMdei 

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History, as those books are rarely read and little known, he has detailed 
as much as he deemed requisite to give the reader a snfficaent know- 
ledge of the customs, and immense conquests and power of Genghis 
Khan and his descendants : to some readers that portion of the volume 
wilt be found very interesting. 

The character of the Mongols is a mixture of aflfection, jusUce, and 
mildness among each other; but they exercise the most barbarous in- 
justice and terrible cmelty to those against whom they make war*: 
one example will shew this in a strong light In 1221, Greoghis besieg- 
ed the city of Bamian in Zabulistan, belonging to Gelaleddin, King of 
Carisme. Towers of wood were built to commuid the city : wild fire, 
mill-stones, flints were thrown in ; and every kind of warlike engine 
was used. Every day, as many cows and horses were killed as would 
provide Genghis with iresh hides to cover over his towers, to preserve 
them irom being burnt by the fire cast from the walls. In the midst 
of the havock, news arrived of Gelaleddin having defeated a Mogul ar- 
my near Gazna. Genghis swore in his rage that the city of Bamian 
and the Sultan himself should give him satisfaction. One of his grand- 
sons, during this fury, exposed himself, to please the Emperor, and was 
kilted by an arrow shot from over the walls of the city. He fell dead 
at Genghis's feet; he was prince Octai's son. The Emperor, who ten- 
derly loved him, was mollified; he groaned, and mixed his tears vrith 
those of the mother, who, in a state of distraction, wept over and bath- 
ed the body of her dead son with her tears. The Grand Khan, reco- 
vering somewhat from his sorrow, endeavoured to comfort this lady; 

* " Qae d'un c&t£ Ton m mette devant let yenx )e* masMnei continiielrdea rah et dea 
cbefs GrecE et Romaiiw, et de I'Butre la deatnictioa dei peuples et da villet pw cea mCinea 
cheft, Timur et Gei^hii Khan, qui oat devaat$ I'Aaie; et nous verrotu que nous devona mu 
ChriitiaDumcetduialegoaveniementuneertain droit politique, et damUgtuara anoeitaia 
droit des gens, que U natun: humaine ne Muioit asaes reconnoitre. Eaprit desLoix, L. Xi, C. 8. 

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and left to her ^scretion the punishment of the inhabitants, when the 
city should fan. He lavished gold and silTer on his soldiers ; and, at last, 
the walls were ruined and Bamian was taken. The mother of the young 
prince, entering vfith the Mogul soldiers, could not foe satisfied with the 
murders, but spared neither age nor sex. Not a single person was left 
alive. Even this dire revenge did not assuage her; but, with the nn- 
distinguishing ferociousness of a brate, foy the order of this affection- 
ate mother, the beasts and every living creature were killed. The 
mosques and houses were demolished, and the city was reduced to a 
heap of ruins. Since this dreadful fate, Bamian has borne the name 
of MaabaUg, or the Unfortunate Dwelling. Octai was absent, and the , 
Emperor commanded that the prince's death should not be made 
known to him. A short time afterwards, the Grand Khan called the 
family together: and, purposely, talking unintelligibly, -Octai made 
no answer. " Whence comes it," said the Grand Khan, with [a fierce 
look, "that yon answer not. when I speak to you?" Octai, believing 
his fother to be angry, threw himself immediately at his feet, and said, 
" My Lord, if I have displeased you, put me to death ; I will not mur- 
mur." The Khan made him repeat these words, and asked him, " If 
it were true that he so much feared his displeasure ? " " Yes, my Lord," 
was Octu's reply. "Well then," said the Emperor, "MuatouKhan, 
your son, has been killed ; and I forbid you to abandon yourself to 
grief." It was not without much pmn that Octai obeyed a command 
so contrary to nature; and, to diminish his affliction, his &ther gave 
him the command of an expedition*. 

It is probable that the poptilout North has not contained the multi- 
tudes generally attributed to it. The antient natives lived by pastur- 
age and hunting, and, consequently^ did not ia general build cities. 

* Petia de k Crdx, p. 306. 



Their cavalry ^as the best ia the world*. Wbeq Aeii popnUtioa 
became strong enou^ it required <ady an avabitious leader to take 
the field; and perhaps half, or more, of the nation would join him; all 
the principal persons taking their fomilies witii themf ; and th^ could 
recruit their armies out of the conquered provinces. The launder being 
fairly divided, would command volunteers. When it is considered 
that these troops were in the habit of fiicing lions, bears, tigers and 
other beasts, in the manner described in Chapter I. the wonder at a 
million of such warriors overturning kingdoms and empires, perhaps 
enervated by peace -and wealth, will cease X- 

Hindostan did not fall to the Mongols till the year 1535; that 
Empire and Arabia excepted, the continent of Asia and part of 
Europe were overrun by Grenghis Rhan and bis descendants in 
about eighty years; and the kingdoms were taken possession of, 
or subjected to heavy tribute. All the countries between the land 
communication from China and India with Europe, were then, and 
ever had been, enriched with the Asiatic commerce, and, conse- 
quently, possessed inunense wealth §. The Cape of Good Hope was 
not discovered till near a century after Timur's death. Therefore, if 
extent of territory, number of siil))f!cts, and command of the greatest 

" Montesquieu, Grandeur et Decadence des Ronuuns. Ch. XXII. 

f Some of the Medes drove up several waggons loaden with things that the army was in 
want of. Some of them brought charioU full of the most coniiderable women, some of 
them legitimate, others of them courteaana, that were conveyed up and down on account of 
thdr beauty ; for, to this day, all the inhabitants of Asia, in time of war, attend the service 
with what they value the most ; and aay, that Aey fight the better ^en the things that are 
ntqtt dear to them are present. Xenophon, Cynfta^M, B. IV. p. 103. 

I For the manner of fighting, see Timur's battle with die Emptor of Capshac, when he 
invaded Russia. It is in the note on Russia, Ch. V. of this volume. 

J " The silfc of China was conv^ed by a caravan in ogfaty or a hundred days fromSheii-si 
to the banks of the Oxus, where it was embarked and carried down the stream to the Cas- 
pian, and thecce to Constantinople by the Cyrus, the Phasis and the Euxine." Robertson's 
Ancient India, p. 98. 

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iNTttODUcnoN. n 

wealth, with whatever havock obtained, can be justly deemed to make 
men illustrious, Genghis's family is the most so of any that are known 
ever to have existed. *' What are the conquests of Alexander com- 
pared with those of Genghis Khan *? " Their character as conquerors 
makes the reader shudder with horror ; and it hto aptly been said of 
them, that, " Vangvighed, they tuk noJwDour: vanquUkitig, they show no 

Justice requires that something should be said of the opposite 
quality of these persons, so awfully terrible as enemies; G«nghis 
never let a good action go without its reward, nor virtue with* 
out commendation X- 'I'he fiercest of men were mild and just in 
their intercourse with each other §. " We are assured by the learn- 
ed author of the Dabistan, that the Tartars under Grenghis were lovers 
of truth, and would not even preserve their lives by a violation of ity." 
" Master Geoige Barclay, a merchant in Londcm, having travelled 
through Russia, went from Cracovia with a Tartar duke, who had 
come thither to sue for his two daughters, taken by the Polacfas. He 
staid six months with the duke in his horde, which consisted of about 
a thousand household of one kindred. These Tartars sowed a three 
square grain called Totarca. They lived in such ease and delight, 
every day hunting, that, for worldly pleasiu'e, he never, any where, en- 
joyed such a life; with such liking of his Tartar host as if he had 
been his son. They used to make sudden inroads on the Polachs ; 
the gentlemen of Poland not dining without their guns and soldierly 
serving men ready to give them entertainment. If the Christians 
m^e head ^^alnat tJiem, they know not where to find them. .Re- 

* MonUfquieD, Fenian Letter, LXXXI. 

f Xietter tma Yvo de Nubone to the Archbiahop of Boutdeaox. Hakluyt, Vol. I. 

X Abul Ghui Bahadur, VoL I. p. WT. 

) Gibbon. VoL VI. p. t90. 

II Sir W. Jooea, Vol. I. p. 65. 




solute they are, and will ride with their bows in the &ce of a 

The simplest spelling of eastern names has been followed. In refers 
ring to Tarious authors, the reader is perplexed by the different spelling 
adopted by several nations, according to the prommciation of their own 
languages. Thus the French write Cha; the EngUsh Shah, Shaw; the 
Portuguese Xa ; others write Scha, Shaugh, Sa. Kublai is written Cub- 
lay, Koplai, Cobila, Ho-pi-laL Baton will be found written Bad, Baatti, 
Bathy, Baydo, Baiothuoy, Baythin, Baythus; so that it would some- 
times puzzle the reader to know to whom the name alludes, but for 
the facts connected vrith it Khan is spelt, Can, Kawn, Cham, Cane, 
Cawn ; — Khaan, Chagan, Khankaun, are said to mean Emperor, or 
Klian of Khans. Mongol is spelt Mogulf , Mungul, Moal, MagoreJ- 
A list of the editions of many of the books referred to is at the end of 
the volume. 

It may here be observed, that in these researches, very frequent 
mention is made, in Asiatic histories, of Chain Elepheotta; which al- 
ways means elephants trained for war; but it is not very clear why 
they are so denominated. One instance has occurred in the course of 
reading, long ago, but it is forgotten in what book, where it is men- 
tioned, that a chain being held in the elephant's proboscis, was 
wielded like a lash among the enemy, but no instance of a chain being 
thus used has been met with. I find in the Ayeen Akbeiy the follow- 
ing description of the arming of an elephant. " Teyeh — Five plates of 

* Purduki, Vol. L p.4Sl. XVI Century. Bell of Antenaony alto spealu of thnr agree* 
able kind of life in eulern Siberia. See Chap. V. of this vol. 

f Before the couqneat of Hindostan, Mongol waa the luual spelling ; bat with relation to 
that empire, Mogul haa generaUj been preferred. 

X For the great difficulty there is in (he orthography of Asiatic words in Roman letters, 
and the faopelesanest of uniformity, the corioos reader is referred to a dissertation by Sir W. 
Jones, Vol. I. p. 175. 



iron, each one cubit long and four fingers broad, are joined together 
by rings, and festened round the ears of the elephant by four chuns, 
each an eU in length; and betwixt these another chain passes over 
the head and is festened in the keSmveh; and across it are four iron 
spikes with katiutet and iron knobs. There are other chains with 
iron Bjnkes and knobs hung under the throat and orer the breast, and 
others &8tened to the trunk; these are for ornament and to frighten 
horses. Pakher is a kind of steel armour that covers the body of the 
Elephant : there are other pieces for the head and proboscis. G^- 
jhemp is a covering made of three folds, and is laid over the pakher*," 
The Grand Khan, Kublai, is said to have had five thousand ele- 
phantsf. When it is recollected that be controlled nearly all the con- 
tinent of Asia, including so many kingdoms which produce elephants; 
that they were used in his wars, (which were principally against his 
rebellious relations in Siberia); that it is the invariable and indispensa- 
ble custom among the Mongols to send to each other presents of such 
tilings; that elephants were always employed oh Kublai's joumies 
and hunting expeditions; that they were sent to any distance to fetch 
rare trees for his green mountain, &c.; the number will not be deemed 
extravagant, and especially when it is known that Asoph ul Dowla, 
nabob of Oude, kept considerably above a thousand, in his trifling dis- 
trict, merely tot pleantre, they not being now considered, as they were 
before the introduction of fire-arms, a principal strength in warfare J. 
A gentieman of unquestionable veracity, at this moment, assures me 

• Ayeen Akbery, VoL I. p. IS6. 

f In the emperor Akbar's etubluhment two hundred dephanU were allotted to each tonun 
(10,000) of CBTalry. Ayeen Akbery, Vol I. p. 193. 

]; Captain Hawkins, who was at Agra in te07ttwo yean aAer Akbar'i death; and who de- 
liTeied • letter from king Jamea to the emperor Jdianghir, and wai received and treated 
with particular fkTOur; relatea that the emperor had "twelve diouBand elephants: aboutfira 
(houauid with leetb, the rest femalea and young ones." Purehas, Vol I, (B), p. S9S. 

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tbat he was on one of Asoph's parties, when ahove twelve himdnd 
elephants were in the field. Instances win be found in this Tolume 
of numbers quite incredible ; but th6 author was not at Kberty to alter 
the text The Truth in Eastern history is often suffident to remind 
the reader of the Arabian Nights; the authorities are given, and every 
one, according to his knowledge, is expected to grant his belief only 
to what he may deem probable. It will not be just to cha^ the wri- 
ter with credulity. 

In these researches the chronology of Petis de la Croix has been 
adhered to as much as possible; it is the most consistent, and agrees 
with the Chinese history. In some histories, there is as much as ten 
years difference in the date of some of the events ; but De la Croix 
is ahnost always a safe guide. 

If some parts of these researches should at first sight appear to the 
reader rather incongruous, they will, nevertheless, be found to bear 
directly or indirectiy on the main object of this volume; as relating to 
the power, riches, customs or manners of the Romans and Moguls, 
and thereby, in the dearth of better materials, tending to prove that 
what they practised in one country, they probably also pursued and 
adopted in the others which were under their government 

The writer takes this opportunity to acknowledge the assistance 
that he has had in these extensive researches firom the excellent library 
of the Royal Institution. 



Sketch of the History of the Grand Khans of the Mongols and 
TartarSifrom the Birth of Genghis, A. D. 1154, to the Acces- 
sion ofKvhlai, in 1257- Unparalleled Conquests. Gen- 

ghis's Laws. Sieges of Samarkand and of Bochara. Im- 
perial Hunting Circle. A Courailtai, or General Council, 

held at Toncat.—' — Description of Caracorom, the Capital of 
the Mongol Empire. 

GrENGHIS KHAN, according to the eastern historians, was de- CHAP, 
scended from the most aocietit conquerors^ who have generally resided . ^^- 
in the neighbourhood of the Altai, or Golden Mountains*. Koadou, 
in Daooria, or Dauria, an ancient place, considered to be the same 
with Tchindat-turookuoy, on the river OdoDj In the province of N^rt- 
shinsk, in Siberia, bears the reputation of having given birth to the 
greatest conqueror and destroyer recorded in the amuds of mankind f. 
Ptolemy places the ancestors of the Mongols J in the parallels of 50° 
and 60°, and longitudes 120° and 140°. They are described as a dis- 
creet and valiant people§. 

* Abul Ghaii Bahadur, P. III. Ch. I. Fetis de U Croix, B. I. Ch. 1. 
t Captain Cochrsoe's Pedestrian Journey, p. 489. Lat. 50*23', long. 114*25', 
by Arrowenuth'a large map. 

} Spelt also Mogul, Muqgl, If oal, Blagor, Mogore, MungalL 
$ Stnhlenberg, p. 454. 

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CHAP. Jouini, who died A. D. 1284, says, that Genghis Khan's country 
•_m~^-m^' vu much to the east and north' of the desert side of Tartary: that 
the Mongols were divided into tribes: and that Genghis's tribe, 
called Niron Caiat, was the only one that was civilized*. Grenghis 
was the first who united all the Tartars of the vast regions above the 
latitude 50° westward (of Pekin), and 55° eastwardf. 

The sHver mines near the river Argun, formerly belonged to the 
Mongols. The rivulet near them is called, by the Mongols, Mun- 
gagoll: Munga signifying silver, and Goll a brook. By the Russians 
it is called Sercbrenkaia-reka, which also means Silver-river J. 

A.D. 1154. Timougin, afterwards sumamed Genghis, was bom A. D. 1154§. 
His father, Pisouca Bahadur, was khan of Caracathay, an extensive do- 
minion [|. Pisouca having been for some time a prisoner in the hands 
of the King of China, and being iD treated, made his escape. To aid 
his revenge he married his son Timougin, not thirteen years old, to 
the daughter of the khan of the Naimans, who had also cause to hate 

A.D. 1166. the Chinese monarch. Pisouca died, and was succeeded by Timougin. 
The nations under him revolted. His mother, a noble minded prin- 
cess, animated Timougin to set up his standard. He was .taken pri- 
soner, but made his escape. 

A.D. 1 168. Purta Cougine, another wife, daughter of the khan of Congorat**, 

• Petifl de la Croix, p. 4S8. 

t Du Halde, Vol. U. p. 255. 

X Strahlenberg, p. ^11. Abul Gbazi, Vol.1, p. 39. isbrante Idee, in Harris, 
Vol. U. p. 933. 

§ The Chronology and principal events are generally from PetiB de ta' Croix; 
numy are fi:<Hn Abul Gban Bahadur. 

II Between N. Latitude 50* and 55" — north east of Caracorum, by De I' Isle's 
map to the life of Grenghis Khan. 

** Congorat, on De 1' Isle's map, is in lat. 51*, and west of Lake Baikal. This 
wife was the mother of Genghis's four sons who succeeded him. 

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was takea prisoner and sent to Oungh*, klum of Hie Keraits, who CHAP. 
kept liis court at Caracortun^ as Crrand Khan; and whom Timougm'a v^^v^^,^ 
enemies pressed to marry this Ukly himself: bat, having been in friend- 
slup with Timougin, he treated her with the kindness of a lather, and 
not long after restored her to her husband. 

Timougin sinks under the weight of his enemies, and takes refuge a.D. 1174. 
with Oungh Khan, who grants him an asylum, accompanied by his 
most &ithful and brave forces, who were few in number. He, by his 
prudence and wisdom, gains the ascendency over the mind of Oungh 
Khan; whose daughter, charmed with the valour and perscm of Ti- 
mougin, falls in love with him ; and their marriage is celebrated with 
as much pomp as if it had been the Grand Khan's. Cremouca, a de- A.D. 1175. 
spairing and desperate lover of the princess, now Timougin's wife, ex- 
cites a conspiracy. Oungh Khan, dethroned by his brother Erkekara, AJ). 1177. 
flees, and takes refuge in Timougin's camp. A victory is gained over 
the Tanjouts. 

Timougin 6ghts the confederate khans, and gains a most bloody 
victory. It was not known what became of Erkekara. Oungh Khan a.D. 1179. 
vraA re-established on his throne at Caracorum. 

Sungun, a son of Oungh Khan, succeeded in producii^ hatred and a.D. 119S. 
jealousy of Timougin ; who, fearing he might be seized, retired from 
Oungh Khan's court. 

Timougin is declared general of the coinfederate khans. The ar- a.D. 120S. 
mies of Oungh Khan and of Timougin meet in a plain called Tangut. 
The Grand Khan commanded in person, and his son was with him; 
both confident of victory. The battle was disastrous to Oungh Khan; 
he was wounded, lost forty thousand slain in the action, and the best 
of his trocrps went over to Timougin. The booty was immense. 

* Spelt also Um, Un, Aunac, Ung. 

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Oungb Khan took vefag9 with Tvym IUmh, at whose f»>art th«nt 
. were Bomei Naimaa lord*, who pei^uaded Tayan Khap to put tbft 
Grand Khan to death; and he was breaded. Hia son flad to Tib«fi> 
aad lived in obscurity; but was aeiaed as a spy, and eseonted. Xi- 
mougin took possession of all the Grand Khan's donusiom, trwmrefi, 
and palaces, by right of oonqueet. He was declared Emperor of all 
the Mogul nations, crowned, and all the khans bowed the koise niw 
times before their new Grand Khan. 
E. Ximougin vanquished the khan of the ^N^aimaas, in a %ht irtiieb 
lasted from the rising to the setting sub, most bloody and obstinate^ 
The khan was wounded mortally, and the slaughter was t^rribte. Ge^ 
mouca was taken prittc»ier, and torn limb from limb. In the midat of 
his tiHtnres he declared, that had Timougin folJen into his hands, h« 
would have served him the same *. 

Ximougin returned to Caracorum, where, during the winter, his 
court was filled with ambassadors. 
>■ Timou^ established and arranged his army in tooianB of too lUwu- 
■and; regiments of one thousand; companies of one hundred; and 
smaller, of tenf. 

At the general diet at Caracorum, sitting upon his throne, imd sur- 
rounded by the princes of the blood, the nevians, khans, ^njrs, wid 
other lords, Ximougin promulgated the Mogul laws, and took tJ»« 
i wBfe of Genets Khan {. " By the firrt Uw, it is ordained to believe that 
there is but vne God, creator of heaven and earth, wbo alone gives Mt 
and death, riches and poverty, who grants md denies wh«tera- hie 

• Alnl Ghszi Bafaadar, Vol. L p. S7. 

t This arrangement is very similar to that in the Cyropeedia of Xenophon. — 
See B. XI. p. 46. 

J Spelt Zingia, Tchimkia, Jenghis, Tchinguis, Chungaze, &c. Zin is eaid to 
mean great, and gi» is tbe superbtne tfnwnation. 

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GBMOtllS feHAM'6 LAWS.-ARUy. 19 

pltofte^, and who hai oVer all tbitigs an atisoliitig pOker ." AD tcllgion^ CHAi^. 
were tolerated. Sottie of his childr^ Were ChrUilatiA, and Jews, ftrid v^^iiy T ^/ 
Mahotnetads ; sotte, Hke faib^If, w^ttg DetetS: 

"The enemy is not to be pillaged, till the general has granted 
leaTe. nndet pain of fledtli. Th^ tneanest sdldlfer is tti share US the 
offlceiSi. There shdl he a geileral huniilig ^ery wint^, to exet- 
eise th^ troops. Ever^ one of his subjects is to serve the &tate 
tome wfly or other. Whoeyet steals tfn ox, or the value of one, is (6 
atiffer death; for less fheftSi ftotn seven to seven hundred blows, ot 
to paj' nine times the value of the thing stolen. Hasbatids are to 
be employed solely in hunting and war; all other occupations beldng 
io ^omen. Children botn of the first wife afe fA be most respected. 
AduHetets are to sulfer death. Gov«rn0ft of distant countiiea firiHh^ 
in th^ daty; ttte to suffer Oeath. 

" The arms appointed^ are the sabre, the bow^ the battle axe, wHH 
some ropes, the officers to Wear helmets, and breast-elates of Iea~ 
ther er ir<m, or an entire coat of mail. 8otdlera who can afford H, 
are permitted to wear arniour. Th6 dfBeers are strtcfly tft 6xafAnte 
the edges and points of tlrti teliVes*^'* 

GengMs takes Campion, the eapHal of Tahgut,- and the c6nntries of ^.p, i^i^ 
Crequir and Ctfchin. HevancftrisheatbeMei^tei, by tfieriverlr^sh: ^0 j^^g^ 
he reduces the Kergi^ under his dtrtmnite. 

Genghis gfves his daughter hi marriage to fh6 hhan of the Ynghai>s. 
He invades China, entering by th^e great gat^' in the wall, and comes ^p j^k^ 
to action wTtb the king, Who loSes thirty thousand men; the Hior 
peror loses a great many officers, and more soldiei% than the Chi- 
nese. He makes peace, and obtains Cubcou Catune, the king's daugh- 

* For the whole of the lawa, see De la Croix, p. 78. 



ter> in marriage. — ^Betnnis to Caracomm with the princess, a tribate 

J of gold, silk, and five hundred young persons of each sex. Altaa/ 
king of China, leaves this goremment to bis son, and retires to Nan- 

[. Genghis invada the extensiTe country of Capschac, of which the 
principal rivers are the Volga, the Yaik, and the Irtish, and extend- 
ing northward to the Frozen Sea. This country had been subject to 
Oungh Khan. The whole kingdom submits; and the Grand Khan 
returns to Caracomm, leaving half his army with his son Touschyf, 
to govern this new empire, the other half being sufficient for any un- 

!. The Grand Khan quarrels wiUi the king of China, who had ravaged 
a part of Caracathay. In consequence of indisposition, he appiunts Sa- 
mouca Bahadur to take the command of the army, with the eldest geqe- 
rals, khans, princes, and emirs, to invade China. The king, hearing that 
Genghis does not command in person, attacks the Moguls, and is 
driven back into his cities. The king's son, with the flower of the 
army, defend Pekin. The besiegers and the besi^ed were alike re- 
duced to the necessity of eating one another. The city, being under- 
mined, was taken, and no quarter given. The king poisoned him- 
self; and the northern half of China, and all Corea, were added to the 
Grand Khan's empire by Moncly Grouyanc, the general who was left 
in the command. Every thing of the plunder that was precious or 
valuable, was divided according to Grengbis's law. 

'. Tturquestan, of which the capital is Cashgar, is added to the em- 
pire by prince Hubbe. 

• AbulGhaw,VoI. I.p.91. 

t Spelt also Pjoudgy, Giougy, Dzqji, Joujy, Zuri. See Peti^ de la Croix, 
page 104. 



Neasir, Calif of Bagdad, who was in enimty witii Mehemed, King of CHAP. 
Carinne*, wishing to send an ambassador to Caracorum, found it at- '^.■^■•v'li-^ 
most impossible; Meboned's poww reaching from the Caspian sea to 
the Indus. Nesur and Mehemed were both Mahomedans. The ca- 
lifs council were divided in opinion, but NesBiKs policy prevailed. It 
was impossible to send any letter or paper ; which would, if discover- 
ed, cost the ambassador his life. It was therefore resolved to shave 
his head, and write his credentials by puncturing it with a needle, and 
colouring the marks with nil (indigo)-)-. He soon departed and ar- 
rived at the khan's -residence, assuring Genghis of his master's esteem 
and affiectbn. Having no credentials, and the Emperor expressing his 
doubts, the ambassador requested that his h«r might be cut off; when 
Genghis read, that the calif promised to make war on the king of 
Carisme, if the Crrand Khan would attack him on his side. Genghis 
assured him that if anything should, from the restless spirit of Mehe- 
med, occasion a quarrel, he would not fail to declare war. The envoy 
returned to Bagdad. Neastr drew on himself the reproaches of all 
Mahomedans by this act. 

Genghis was however desirous to live in amity with Mehemed king of 
Carisme, to establish a commerce for gold, stuflb, silks, stiver, &c. An 
ambassador was sent attended by one hundred and fifty Mogul mer- 
chants* with gold and silver for purchasing merchandize. The governor 
of Otrar, {oretending to suspect that this was a mission for the purpose 
of espionage, murdered the whole embassy, consisting of four hundred 
and fifty persons, except one, who fled to Mogulistan with all dili- 
genee. Genghis swears revenge. He sends ambaaudors by another 
road to Mehemed, to demand an explanation. Mehemed beheads 

* Spelt also Charum, Karasm, Kworasm, Chowaraflia ; the ancient Corastnia. 
t It appears that this b an old practice ; see HerodotuB, Terpsichore, Ch. XXXV. 



CHAP. The Emperor with tus fonr fiiTOurite mu, TotiMlu> Zdgatoi, Oktai, 
x-^-C'^m^ and Tuli, arrircs oeai Otrar (oa tiie Slbon) with MTen hundred thotua&d 
A.D. 1318. troops. Mehemed bad collected from KhorasMa, Balb, Pemft,dtidtil« 
borders of India, £Dur hundred thousand fighting men. His son, £relA> 
leddiDfComnutndedthetToopsofTounm; the king eotnmanded in chief} 
Mehemed crossed the Sibon to cover Otrar. The armies meet and 
immediately range in order of battle, in a ^ace cafled Caracou. The 
great trumpet kerrenai, which was fifteen feet long, brass timbrels, ' 
drums, fifes, and other warlike mstroments sounded the charge. Jou- 
gi Cassar, Genghis Khan's second brother, who commanded the van' 
guard, adTanced towards the first ranks of the enemy, who immedi' 
ately detached some troops to charge him; but this prince defeated 
them. Then Gdakddin began tbe general action by charging prtoee 
TouacU, who was at Ute head of the first body of Moguls : after a sharp 
dispute, Gelaleddin got tbe better, and the Corismeans shoated fat joy. 
Genghis sent other troops under the command of Tidi t« support 
his brother Touschi, while he hisEiself, at the bead of tbe midn body of 
the army, with his son Zagatai, fell on the Scdtsn. The shock was 
terrible, and the left wii^ of the Mogals soAred greatly. The Caris- 
mcans, animated by the extraordinary bravery of their sovereign, nuun- 
tuned their advantage as kmg as they were able: but being forced to 
^ve way, Gelaleddm, bavii^ beaten the troops sent against him, hasten- 
ed towards hie father, and renewed the battle. On this occasion, Gela^ 
leddtn, his oSkers, sad troops, performed actions of surprising valour. 
The slaughter was protBgious. Genghis new ordered his son Octai 
to charge the enemy in tbe flanh: the fight continued till dark, when 
each party gathering up their wounded a» well as they could, retired 
to their camps and fortified themselves, to prevent surprise in the 
night, with the design to renew the battle the next morning. When 
Mehemed found, on enquiry, that a hundred and sixty thousand of his 



(r9Pp« bwl been IjilW W»<i w«l»dpd, mi the spies Tep(Hrting how CHAP- 
S^ttc^ qupeiior ^ Hoguls were iq Humber, he mtrenefaed himself bo- <^-^/r^^ 
iWfUy, and Ben^ part of his forwaj into the fortresses, keeping wiUi bim- 
velfaSfiageuiipfoi- wswt^ occasifw?, md giving the command of 
the remainder of his troops to Crelaleddin ; who, not approving of his 
father's design, contrary to Mehemed's command, retired to Khorassan, 
and reinforced his corps. 

Genghis smt Oct^i and Zftgttai with two hundred thousand men. 
to beside Otrar; and Touschi, with one hundred thousand, to observe, 
westward. The ^mp^ror axid TuU, with more thqn two hundred 
thousand, marched towards fiochara and Samarcand. After five A.D. Iiji9. 
qumths sic^e, and a most brave defeBce. Otrar was taken, and the nu- 
merous troops in it were butchered. 

ToDoat, Cogwde, and oth» i^aces, were beueged and taken by 
Tonsofai KJian. Cogende was defended against Elac Nevian to the 
iMt extremity, by Timur Melee, who, when all hope was at an end, 
made hia esjeape in seventy vessels, which he had conslnicted. They 
were plaiatored over with a composition made of wet felt, kneaded 
with elay and vinegar, so that neither fire nor arrows could hurt them. 
He was acooBopainied by his friends and bravest warriors, with his 
woat T^uable efieots. They escaped by causmg a sally, and setting 
flie to tfae bridge. AAet fitting their way down the Sinr, as far as 
Toncat, they ware stopped by a i^ain across the river ; and before 
they couU sever the diain with files and hatchets, they suffered great 
loss, stiU beittg pufsued by the Mi^fuls. The prince, with his re- 
maiaing fighting men, landed, and the fleet escaped i^to « safe port 
bdonging to Mejoemed. Aiter losing all his companions, Timur Me- 
lee was pursued by tbnee Moguls: he killed one of them, and bribed 
thB other two ; after which he arrived safely at Quent. Many years 
aftwwards, he was in convenation with a Mogul prince, who, speak- 



CHAP.' ing to him contemptuously, was answered with spirit. A Mogul, wh© 

^— ("-v-^fc-^ was present, and who had fonnerljr been wounded by him in the ejtf 
charged him with disrespect, and killed him with an arrow. Thus 
fell the generous Timur Melee, who has been compared with the Ruft- 
tans and other heroes. 


The walls of the dty were very strong, and the outer wall was 
twelve leagues in compass. It included not only the suburbs, but also 
many pleasant seats, and five farms. The Moguls forced the outer 
wall in March. The Grand Khan, accompanied by his son Tuli, en- 
camped his army and invested the city in form. The three command- 
ers, with troops, basely deserted the city. They were overtaken by 
three thousand Moguls, defeated, and nearly all slain. The gates were 
opened to Genghis. The governor retired to the castle, resolved t9 
defend it. The city was entirely filled with the Mogul cavalry; they 
made stables of the libraries, and litter of the leaves of the Koran. 
The populace were inconsolable; the wise men said, it was requisite 
to suffer, without murmuring, since it was the wind of God's anger 
blowing upon them. The Emperor addressed the principal men. He 
praised God for the fevors he had received ; declared that Gayer Khan, 
who was in chains, should lose his life for murdering his ambassadors 
by command of Mehemed ; whom also he would punish for his cruelties ; 
and that he would clear the earth of him and all other tyrants; for he 
was inspired by God to govern all the kingdoms of the earth. He 
then ordered the inhabitants, in proof of their obedience, to discover 
all their hidden treasures ; and to be cautious not to conceal any of the 
Sultan's friends. In the city, being a placO of great trade, there was 




abundance of gold, Bilrer, precious stones; and rich gold and silvA OIAP. 
stufik. One part was carried into the ro;ral treasury, the officers v.^-v-^^ 
had a large share, and the soldiers enriched themselTeB. The Mongul ^ ~ 

officers discovered that some of the inhabitants had sheltered a few of 
the Sultan's relatioi^. The Emperor commanded that the city should ' 
be laid in ashes. The greater part of the buildings were of wood, 
stone being scarce: That great city, which in the morning jvas one _ 
of the most beautiful in all Asia, was, on that fatal evening, litlr the - ,, 
exception of the brick-built mosques and caravanserais, a hegp of.cin- 
ders and ruins. The governor of the castle, finding the plac| over- 
whelmed with pots thrown in, full of naptha and fire, and tbe gate in 
flames, surrendered at discretion. The castle was demolished, and 
the Sultan's principal adherents, who had so ill served their master, 
were put to death. 

Bochara was the seat of the arts and sciences: in the university of 
this city, the learned Avicena studied philosophy, and produced, in 
prose and verse, more than a hundred volumes, called The gloriotu 
Works. It is observed too, that he extremely loved wine and women. 
(He died, aged 58, A. D. 1036). 


After the taking of Bochara, prince Touschi joined the Emperor, 
his father, in the camp, within one day's march of Samarcand, at this 
time the capital of Transoxjana, and the Maracandis, capital of Sogdi- 
ana, of Pliny and Strabo. The city was now in circuit about three 
French leagues, surrounded by an outer wall, better built and fortified 
than that of Bochara; having twelve iron gates, distant a league 
from each other. At every two leagues there was a fort able to hold 



t ^re«t body of troops; mnd the -wdli were fenced with towns teai 
bstdements. The city wai weU suppBed, by ieadeo papei, iritfa -nt^ 
ter, and fountaiiH and caseadee; and verf 'fine gandeiu, ererj houfe 
having one. From die top of the fortress one seei ttotJiing but ttrees, 
rooA of bouses, ploughed lands, gardens, and eveqiDoaatawand tsI* 
fies, within the onter yraH. 

The Siritan M ehemed, king of Gansme and aU Persia, bad retired 
from Samarcand, notwithstandiog the Mongol Emperor's atdeartHiw 
to prevent him. Expectisg that phwe to be besieged, he had caused 
sixty tboueand Tnilcs, and ^£by thoasaiid Persians, tinder oommandffls 
of renown, to enter it; he had also twenty of the bi^eat andatvonf^ 
est elepitantt; and so many people had taken shdter tbere, that the 
|»lace, extensive as it was, could hardly contain them. 

The Emperor, having arrived .before Samarcand, marked out the 
iposts which the generals were to oceupy. When the engutes were 
■eady, he caused several places to be attained at the same time : these 
attacks were snstotned with great courage, and «ome of the beat tooop» 
salHedout, and ovevt^ew all they met with; but, perceiving a freefa 
reinforcement of Mongols, they retreated in good order into the city, 
with a great many prisoners. Discord crept in among the besieged; 
some, feeling certain of death if the place should be stormed, were for 
surrendering the town. Bat Alub Khan, the goy.emor, trusted to 
numbers and valour, and was for defending the place to the last ex- 
tarenufey, in the oastje and bast posts of tbe city. The cady apd inuf- 
^ were deputed by 4he other party to wait on tite Edmperor. A^er 
4bey hftd saluted him, he asked them^What ivras their budness ? 
They replied, t« iinrteroede for the besieged ; to bf^ pardop {for the 
refliatanoe tiiey had made, and to assure the Khan, that they were not 
^bie to their duty ; but that they found them^lves cpnsftrawed by a 
.ntpeniior power; wfaidi tHmvinoed them, l^at H was Crod!s plew»iir« 



th«7 lAoDld submit to tke Great Genghis Khao; wboae ckaoency CHAP. 
^brf im^ored for tfacBOBelves^ and those ot ihtar fidends who were in ^.tf^v-^ik^ 
the otty. The Grand Khan raceiTed them with civility ; asd, feaxing 
to drive the caty to despair^ he granted the cady and mufti life ai^ 
fintmie, and also all of their party; but flmdy reinsed &Tor to the 

He sent cMumisBioBers to take poMession of the gate tbey were to 
ddrrer to him. The cady, mufti, and more than fifty thousand per* 
■0B8 came out, and were distributed by hundreds in the fields. The 
goTemor resolved to seek better terms by resistance, or to die giori* 
ously. For four days they could not force him to yield; the fifth, 
having lost all the posts but the one he defended in persrai, he re- 
Sfdved to pecish ; or^ with his chief officers, and a thousand diosen' 
horsemen, to break through the Moi^l csmp. They surprised the 
camp, and, in spite of resistance, effected their escape. 

The forces remaining in the dty lost all courage, and the Kongnia 
were soon masters of the place, which they jdondeved, ruined the 
walls, and put to death thirty thousand Turks of tribes that had been 
subject to the Sultan's mother, amongst whom was the prince of 
Calculi, and some petty princes. All the people they intended to 
mfUce slaves of, men and women and above thirty thousand tradesmen; 
were ordered out of the dty, and distributed among the princes, go* 
nerals, and other officers of the army; and the soldiers loaded them- 
selves with the spoils. The rest of the inhabitants were pardoned, 
on paying two hundred thousand dinars, or crowns of gold. 

The reduction of Samorcand pleased the £mp«rw, he not expect- 
ing so soon to reduce it. He put the city into conditiou, reposed his 
troops, and prepared for other enterprises. 

At Gheucserai, without the city, Crayer Khan, the governor of 
Otrar, was put to death by the Emperor's orders. 



" Samarcand," says Abulfeda, " where the sky ia perpetually clear, has 
' fine atone buildiags and public market-places, and has considerable com- 
merce with Great Tartary, India, and Persia, from whence all sorts of 
merchandize are brought; and this ctty funuBhes Hindostan with the 
best fruits, green and dried. The silk paper made here is the finest in 
the world. There is a famous academy of sciences. An Usbec 
prince is at present lord of the city: he is much greater than the khans 
of Bale or Bochara, who are also Usbecs. These three petty princes 
are almost alwaysat war with the king of Persia, and are leagued against 

The Sultan Mehemed having escaped the vigilance of Genghis 
Khan, the three famous generals, Hubbe, Suida, and Emir Touquer, 
each with ten thousand cavalry, were despatched in pursuit of him. 
" Go, (said the Emperor), do no injury to those who yield, give no quar- 
ter to those who oppose you; penetrate even to Derbend in Georgia; 
raise troops; spare no pains to seize the Sultan, and bring him to me." 

Mehemed had fled to Nishabour, and from thence to Bestam, a 
strong city. Here, in the castle hall, he sent for Omar, one of the stew- 
ards of his household; he shewed him ten cofi^ers, which were sealed 
with the royal signet, and asked him if he knew what they contained ? 
The emir answered. No. Well then, said the Sultan, they are filled 
with jewels, among which are several of inestimable value, and no man 
in the world except these two (who were present) knows what is in 
them. He then ordered Omar to see them carried to the fortress of 

Mehemed had raised some troops, and having arrived in Irac Agemi, 
his son, Rucneddin, the governor, joined him. He had now twenty 

• Abulfeda died A. D. 13S1. The Uabecs were sovereigns of Samarcand when 
De la CroU compOed the life of Genghis, which see, p. 828. Abul Ghazi, P. VII. 

ch. n. 



thousand hrarse. The Mogul generals surprised him at Farzine, and CHAP, 
cut to pieces the best part of his cavalry. The rest fled. The Sultan v— -v-»*-i 
escaped bj ctobs roads and arrived at Astrabad. Here he remained, 
concealed from the eager enquiries of his purs uers. A lord of that 
country, whose uncle Bfehemed had put to death, to be reveuged, 
headed some Mogub, discovered his route, and was told by some pea- 
sants, that the Sultan was in a town near the Caspian sea, where be 
assisted at the {wayera in the mosque. It is said, that the unfortunate 
monarch, at bearing the Alcoran read, melted into tears, and made 
many tows with a lond voice, that if God would deUver him from his 
danger, and re-establish him on his throne, he would govern his peo- 
ple with genUeniess and equity. Tbe traitor lord led on the Moguls, 
and the Sultan had but just sufficient time to escape into a ship at the 
sea diore, tbe Moguls vainly shooting their arrows after him; some 
even swam after the vessel and were swallowed up by the waves. 
The Sultan's sufferings brought on a pleurisy, which became so vio- 
lent, that he was obliged to stop at a desert island called Abiscon. 
Here, in a profound melancholy, Mehem^'s sentiments were divided, 
whether to chuse life or death. " How uncertain a dwelling, said he, 
is the world! Is it possible that of my immense territories no more re- 
mains but two cubits' length to hold my body?" 

His son, Grelaleddin, having discovered this retreat, with two of his 
brothers, secretly arrived. " Prince, said tbe afflicted parent, you are 
the person who, among all my children, are the most able to revenge 
me on the Moguls ; I therefore revoke the act, made at the request of 
the queen my mother, in fevor of Coutbeddin. He then gave his 
sword to Gelaleddin, and conmianded those who were present to obey 
him. Under the cover of a little tent, this migh^ king expired: and 
the first gentleman of bis bed-chamber washed his body and wrapped 
it in a shirt, having nothing more. Some time afterwards, Gelaleddin 



bad ^e bona disinterred; and removed wit^ great pocap to Af- 
•^ daban. 

Tnrcan Catun, queen of Teki A, the king of Cariaioe, sometime de> 
ceased, was motiier of Mefaemed. Sbe was dau^^rter of HaBqatscb^ 
a king in Turquestai); who dying witiioat male isBUff, bis sulyects 
went over to Mebemed, and thus grcotlj extended iaa enqnrc, wUoh 
reached fivm the Caspian sea to the rirer Indus. This gare't^ 
queen almost absolute authority in her son Mefaemed's dominimBL 
She bad seven secretaries of state, men of the greatest abilities is tiie 
onpire, and was called "Ijady of the world; protectress of tbe feitta; 
and queen of women:" she wrote with a very large pen, very cmioin- 
ly, so as not to be coanterfehed. She was just, BMidnoos, and was 
beloved by the poor. Her signature was obeyed in preference to her 
son's, when each issued a command. But she was cruet She pnt to 
death twelve children of sovereigns, who were in her power as pri- 
soners. She hated tbe iamons Gelaleddin, who was the ^dest son of 
Mehemed, on whom she had prevailed to name Contbeddin, whom 
she loved, as his successor. But before bis death, Mehemed annulled 
that win, and named his eldest stm Gelaleddin to succeed to the crown. 
On this. Turcan Catun revived to abandon the em^re, considering 
Crelaleddin's mother to be her mortal enemy. She left tbe city <^ C»- 
risme, with tbe wives and ooncnbines of Coutbeddin, and tb^ cbild- 
ren, and loads of gold and jewels. She took for her guide, a Umd, 
named Omar, who conducted her to Mazenderan. She retreated into 
the citadel ftf Elac, having put to death Omar, her friendly guide, lest 
he m^^t betray ber. Genghis learned from his ^ies where the queen 
was; and bis general Hubb« besieged tbe place closely, for nearly four 
EMUths; when the queen was forced to capitalate. She was sent with 
all her treasury and court to Gr«i^bts. There bad been an opportu- 
nity to escape to her grandson Gelaleddin; but her hatred of him was 



n-noflible And iBi(d»a^)tes «id Ae wiBbed him all Hnti of imsekS^ 
dedtaiuig 4h«t de wou}d prefer toy lAaverj to edl ke could do Snr ha. ^ 

CoiUbeddi»'9 otiiUnm fr«re all put to Ateih. The Queen was 
ireatod wiih Uk Tttmt tedi^tMs, And carried sbaut in triumpb, b^ 
fiei^l^ KhflB, AaroaKh ths tenritoriee wUdb Ate bad gOTera«d*- 

NiBhaboar, Heist;, And Herov wei» l)eaM^ ««d taJtaciJB V l**)^ 
Kihfbi. &am CMateddin. Mishabonr was faattenad ]>f iw<4v« hundnd 
^BgJoCB, and athw imU iwi ta .of wMf. Neither boww n<v (ooaciae 
tiwa deft standing. The M>»<A* nwei? and shwigbter weiw txnaeDdooa. 
*3%i said tliflt Ike iwaediUe Bumbcr of Bev^nteen bnodxed thoneaad 
X^ariaMKWB ▼i«e dain in NiAab(»ir, (which had .often been the capi- 
tal of IKhMaewn), and its dependant (»tie8 and oountiry. Aiter nany 
Mfigea, and hMriUc ihkK>dahed.1iie weet part of Carume was added t« 
the empires ihe cspitol of which wae taken after a siege of aeven 


CrBHOHW KikVi, being at Termed in the midflt ef the winter of 1321, 
a eeaaen that prevented him fDoaa pBosecntu^ the .war, ordered a great 
biHit,>t«fce<9hiaa(Miewinaclion3:. Tonidii Khan, the KmfwnKr's 

* Xbeti«MaientofP«HenfluidhuchiIdreobyPaulwjiBinUiu«,andthatofthe 

b«autijul and aocomplished Zenobia by Aurelian, were aa barbarous. A Briton 
may reflect with pleasure on the humanity and delicacy of the conduct of the 
Mack Prince towards his unfortunate rt^al captive. 
■ f The jMonfp^ bad CbineAe esigiqews. 
{ This is a very ancient custom, as we may suppose that Xenophon represented 
real manners in bis Cyropsedia. " They are careiul to keep up these public hunt- 
ings, i«d the kuig, as in war, is hi -tins their (eadw, hunts bimaelf, and takes care 
that others do so, because it.seema to be the truest method of practising all sacb 
things as relate to war." Cyropsedia, B. I. p. 9. It does not appear that the Per- 
sians bunted m the grand slJle of the Mongols. 

y Google 


eldest son, Master Hnntsman of the empire, being abeent, the Emperor 
i commanded the nerian, his lieutenant, to prepare the chase ; and di- 
rected what circumference of ground they most encompass. The of- 
ficers of the army were to follow at the head of their troops, according 
to the prescribed laws concerning hunting. The officers having led 
their soldiers to the rendezvous, they ranged them round the space 
which was encompassed, in the manner of a thick hedge ; sometimes 
doubling the ranks about the circle, which the Huntsman had appoint- 
efl. They neglected not to remind the troops that it was as much 
as their lives were worth, to let the beasts escape out of the ring, 
which was an immense number of leagues in circumference, and in- 
closed a great number of groves and woods with all the animals that 
lived in them, llie centre of this great inclosure, whereto idl the 
beasts must retire, was a plain marked out by the Huntsman. 

The officers of the chase immediately dispatched couriers to tiie 
lieutenant-generals for the orders given for marching: the pevian 
himself went to receive them from the Grand Khan, and gave them 
to the couriers, who conveyed them to the hunting officers; having 
well observed where the Emperor's quarters were, and in which di- 
rection he would advance. On the couriers' arrival, the orders were 
communicated to the captains. The kettle drums, trumpets, and 
horns sounded the general march, which began every where at the 
same time, and in the same order. The soldiers marched very close 
together, and always towards the centre, driving before them the 
beasts. Their officers were behind, observing them; all were armed 
as if on a martial expedition ; with helmets of iron, corslets of leather, 
bucklers of wicker, scimitars, bows, quivers full of arrows, files, hat- 
chets, clubs, cords, packing needles and thread. It was forbidden to 
kill or wound any animal, whatever violence the beast ofibred. — 
They were to shout and frighten the game from passing the in- 
closure; for the Emperor so ordained. Thus they marched every 



4aj, drivi^ the beasts befcwe them. All that is practised in war, was 
punotoally observed, centinels relieved, watch-word given. Thus, for < 
some weeks, they marched without interruption; but a river, not every 
where fordable, caused a halt: the beasts were driven into it and 
swam across; the soldiers passed over up<m round pieces of hide, 
bound together; several being seated upon oiie of these bundles of lea- 
ther, each of which was tied to a horse's tail ; the horse drew it across the 
river, following a person that swam before. Now, the circle lessening, 
and the Jieasts finding themselves pressed, some ran to Uie mountains, 
some to the vidleys, some to the forests and thickets; whence, scent- 
ing the hunters, they fled elsewhere. They retreated to holes and 
bqrrows; hut spades, mattocks, and ferrets, brought th«n out 

The beasts now began to mix, some became furious, and toiled the 
soldiers greatily to keep them in the drcle. and to drive them frmn 
mountains and precipices ; but not an uiimal escaped their vigilance. 

Couriers went from difiWent quarters to advise the Grand Khan of 
what was passing, and to give him news of the princes who shared 
~ the diversion and confusion of the chace. The Emperor kept a strict 
eye on the conduct of the troops. The wild beasts being now hard 
pressed, the strong leaped on the weakest, and tore them in pieces; 
bnt their fury did not last long. 

The timbrels, drums, and other instruments, were now played upon; 
which, with the shouts and cries of the soldiers, so aOHghted these 
wild animals, that they lost all their fierceness. The lions and tigers 
grew gentle; bears and wild boars, like the most timid creatures, 
seemed cast down and amazed. 

Tlie trumpets being sounded, the Grand Khan entered the circle 
first, holding in one hand his n^ed sword, and in the other his bow; 
his quiver was across his shoulder. He was attended by some of his 
ions, and all his general officers. He himself began the slaughter, 


strHung the fiercest beasts, seme of wlueh heoamm fiuaons, and ea^ 
f dearoiired to Ae&rid. their lir«s*. At last, the Emperor rstreatedtf 
an eminence, seating himaetf upon a throne {H<^ared tot lum. BVom 
thence he observed the strength astA agifit^ (tf his children, aad all the 
officers wbo attacked the savage aaiaoals. Whatever danger ilwjr 
ran, yet no one avoided it or gave batd^, but rathor showed mora e»- 
gemess, well knowing that the Grand Khan, hy this, would judge of 
^their merit. 

After the princes and lords bad had their sport, the jewng soldkars 
entered the circle, and made a great slaughter of the various annnals. 
Then the Emperor's graodsons, followed by several young lordc) of 
the same agie, presented tbemsdves heifyre the thienej aad, by a 
speech made aftertfaeir manner, desired that his Majesty would give 
tiie beasts that remained their lives and liberty ; which he granted 
them, praiwDg l^e valour of the trot^; who were dismissed and smt 
back to tiieir quurten. Those animals which had escaped the araows 
and scymitars got away, and regained their forests aad dms. 

1%as, the hunting at Termed ended, which had lasted.four months, 
and would have continued longer, if it had not been feared that the 
spring would surprise l^era whilst employe d in {Jkese sports, when 
the war must be prosecuted. At length, the spring drew near, and 
tlie Oudemean soldiers beii^ already arrived, ihey bad not a long 
time toTest; for Genghis Kb^ put himself at the head of bis troops, 
about Che end of March, to pass over the Qxus; and afterwards 

* Cyrus, wben in the flower of his age, was food of dangerous hunting. Once, 
when a bear raabed upon hkn, he (dosed wilfa it and was torn fimm his horse, when 
h« Bocetved th^se wounds of which he ever 9^r bore the scars : at lut he kill«d 
tb^ bear. The person who first ran to his assistance, he made a happy man. Xe- 
nophon's Expe^tion of Cyrus, p. 37. It is probable that Genghis was well pro- 
tected 1^ hia tioopi. 



went towtfd« BactriAiu, Tthett ike SuUau G«kteddiii had ^ m CHAP, 
snqr together. v,.«-v-*«-> 

The Bfoi^le were besieging Condabsi, «faen Gelaleddin leanied. 
fiwin bis spies, HiAt tbey were in no apprebension of any suecoon ta- 
tiTii^ to the relief of the beneged. Gebleddio, baviDg porraaded 
Emim Ifelec to join him with ten tboasand Turkish cavalry, atteetod 
them so unexpectedly in the dead of night, that the Mongc^ be^re 
that dtadel were Kized with fear, and the whole <^ their army were 
elain. The booty they h^ accumulated on their mareh was divided 
betwe^ the troops of £niin Melee and tboae of the brave Gelakddin^ 
The plunder that had been taken from th« inhabitants of Oand^ar 
was restored. 

Gelaleddin, who had retired to Scgestau. raised twenty thousand 
men, and arrived at Gazna. Hts subjects received him witii affection. 
Genghis, who was besi^;iiig Bamian, had sent a force towards India, 
and recdved accounts that his general had been totally defeated by 
Gelaleddin ; who had returned in triuii^»h to Gazna. 

H«rat rev<rfted against Genghis ; who now blamed prince 'I uli fmr 
not having put all the inhabitants to the sword. " I forbid yon," said 
he, "to show mercy to my enemies without an express order from me. 
Know, henceftvwatd, that conq>assion resides only in mean souls. Tis 
only rigour that keeps men to their duty; and a vanquished enemy is 
not tamed, but will ever hate his new master." 

Gelaleddin, with a reinforcement of 30,000 Turks, defeated 80,000 
Mongols near Gasna. Gmghis, still bdbre Bamian, attaoUug it with 
every kind of warlike engine, by which wildfire and even mill atones were 
thrown into the city, saw his grandson fall dead at his feet, killed by 
an urrow shot from over the walls; at which he showed the profoondr 
est gri«£ Bamian was taken ; and, at the instigatitm of the youth's 


mother, every living being was slaughtered. Crenghis foUowed Gela^ 
f leddin to the banks of the Indus ; where, after a conflict of ten honrd 
against three hundred thousand Mongols, Gelaleddin's army was 80 
dreadfully defeated, that he had only sieven thousand left out of thirty 
thousand; with which he ventured, from his strong position, to op- 
pose Genghis: and, lest he should be taken alive, he hastily embraced 
his mother, wives and children, mounted a iVesh horse, and plunged in- 
to the rapid Indus. Genghis hastened to the bank, and the heroic 
Gelaleddin continued, while crossing the stretUn, to shoot several ar- 
rows at him and his retinue. Genghis said, turning to his children, 
" Any son should wish to spring from such a father; and a wise man 
who has him for his enemy, must always be on his guard." (After vari- 
ous attempts to recover his dominions, Gelaleddin was killed by treach- 
ery in Cnrdistan, in the year 1230). 

Genghis finds that his army is diminished by two hundred thousand 
troops. The strong places in the antient Media and Georgia are re- 
duced by his generals. Moultan, on the Indus, is t^en. Herat 
and Gazna are taken by prince Octai, and most of the inhabitants 
are pat to the sword, in obedience to the cruel commands of Genghis. 
The generals Hubbe and Suida take Shamakie, march by Derbend, 
and take Astracao, having made the circuit of the Caspian sea. Geng^ 
his leaves Persia, and passes the winter at Samarcand. 


" God never made a more delicious dwelling than the city of Ton- 
cat," was a common saying. Purling brooks watered fdmost every 
■fareet; the suburbs and country seats, were delightful. The gar- 


GftAND Assembly OF THE STATES. »7 

deoB were full of fruit trees, munnuringfoiuitains, and most charming CMAP, 
walks. There was in this city an academy of arts and sciences. Geng- '.*^-v>-^./ 
his Rhan had been a year in Sogdiana, where he had remitted many 
taxes for life, and had given the great lords of the country marks of 
his affection, being pleased with their deportment towards him. But 
the general joy was damped at seeing the queen Turcan Catun, and all 
the great officers of the empire, led in triumph, followed by the ladies - 
of the Haram and Mehemed's principal lords. The throne and the 
crown w^re borne in stated Thus the Grand Khan marched towards 
Toncat. (A. D. 1224). 

The imperial princes repaired to court. Octai from Grazna, Zaga^ 
tai Arom Otrar, Touschi from the f^ntiers of Muscovy; the last of 
whom, on coming into the Grand Khan's presence, knelt; and the 
Emperor gave him his hand to kiss, as he did also to the other two. 
The presents laid at the ftiot of the imperial throne were very consi- 
derable; but Touschi, besides several rare things, presented his father 
with a hundred thousand horses; twenty thousand of which were 
white, twenty thousand black, tvienty thousai^d grey, twenty thousand 
spotted, and twenty thousand brown bay. The Emperor testified, by 
his caresses and rich gifts, how satisfied he was with the conduct of 
his sons. 

A banquet was given, which lasted a whole month; for which were 
supplied thousands of beasts and birds of all kinds by the Khan's fiil- 
eoners; exquisite wines, sherbet, cammez, and hydromel. 

There also arrived the governors of Catai, Mongolistan, Iran, Ca- 
racatai, Touran, and the khan of the Tugures; also many sovereign 
princes who had voluntarily submitted to the Grand Khan. Although 
the plain of Toncat was seven leagues long, it could hardly contain the 
tents and attendants of these great personages. The greatest part 
had brought their movable houses. These houses were built upon 


wUecls, with vety long betoafi upon tbe a:de4reei, md ivatmblsd £«• 
' ropeaotnitsi soiAv covered with fd^nMdeiiapnetrable to ndn, otbesi 
with staffs of variovs ooloursi- aad were of idl sins. Some Ulae W 
pieeM. Each requires from two to thirty oxen to dnw it. The gnsB 
tents were pitched round the Urge oueB of the great lords; and evtfy 
door openis to the south. The oxen are the finest oniaBkent of theae 
equipages. Those f^m Tangut can ont;^ be punabasied bj rioh peN 
Bons. They are extremely strong, have hair like horses, and their t^ls 
are white and soft as silk. la some plsees camels are u^cd. 

The Grand Khan's quarters were two leagues in compass; with 
streets, bazars, and public places. The tent for the I^et h^ two 
thousand persons. It was covered with white, and contained a 
magnificent throne; on an eminence was placed the Uack feU cto- 
pet, upon which Genghn sat when hei was proclsdmed Grand KbaA.- 
This carpet was held in veneration as long as the empire lasted. The 
tent had two open entrances, one of tbffln for the Emperor, through 
which no other being dare pass, of what qutUity soever, though no 
guard was placed. On the tents were streamers of divera colours, of 
tite richest silks. The saddles and hwse furniture were Bet ^th pre- 
cious stones. The habits of the great lords were of gold and sUveir 
stufi^ and rich silks; the weather being still cold, they wore next 
th«r skins, sables and fine furs from Rusda and Siberia; and over 
their habits, great coats of wolf skins. 

Zagatai had put the laws of the em^re into so good a train, thait 
tittle rMuained to do but to ratify them: at which the legislator was 
greatly rejoiced. 

The Grand KhaD> who delighted in ut oceasion to make an oration, 
spoke highly in praise of his laws; declmi^ that they were t^ cause 
of all his conquests, uid of the power the Mragols uow sbazed with 
him. He took occa»on to recount his vicftories; maning eveay s6v^ 


RBv<n;r of the prince op tajiqut- 89 

wapi prince he had ^quesftd; not auMptiag ihe prince of Topg^t; CHAP^ 
who was there .present. Not content to »late the number and i 
of the suhdued kmgdoiis, to coavince the diet of hu greatness, he or- 
dered tiiot rU the ambaModMB who had foUorted the C«iirt> should be 
oaUed into the imperial t«t, and also all the envc^s and deputies of 
various couirtries. The]' appeared at the frcHSt of the throne ; he gave 
them audience : and then dismissed the assembi/. 

Prinoe Touschi returned to Cap^c; his two geuerab> havuog 
dehrered over the oomuand of the troops, returned to the Grand 
Khan; who soon set out. attended by them and all Ins court, always 
making the captive qu*«a Sallow him, mounted on a diariot, tai loaded 
with irons, to shew to the eyes of the nations a proud monument of 
Ins victories. On the march, he gave an hour's conversation each day 
to the two renowned generals, Hubbe and Sulda, to relate to him their 
eoqieditifma, and the rarities they had come to the knowledge of in the 
steange countries they had beem in; and they had someUiing new to 
satisfy the Emperor's curiouty till their arrival at Caracorum, the seat 
of his empire, and which became a &mou8 and populous place. 

Genghis had grandsons, whom he had not seen Cor seven yeard. 
KuUai aged ten, and Hulaeou one year less, were in the city. Their 
inclinations, and pursuit of hunting, endeared them to Gengbiv. 
The first became Grand Khan oi the Moguls, and Emperor i^ all 
China; the latter, King oi Persia. 

Sehidascou, the subdued sovereign of Tangut, intrigues with the 
southern Chiftese and the oriental Turks, who were disposed to sticoad 
him a^mst Genghis. The Emperor's army arrived, mwik fatigued, 
at Caracwum, in 1220. After the trof^ had rested, the usual hunt- 
ing was proclaimed, though the winter was very severe. Before it 
was ended, Crenghis received news that Schidascou had got together 
a considerable army. Ihe graierals wene ordered immediately to col- 



lect the troops> and to clothe them in coats lined with sheep aldiu« 
, and to cover the horses with felt. 

, The preparations for war did not stop the diversionB of the court. 
There were many marriages between the princes and princ^ses of 
the imperial family. Public feasts, suitable to their quality, and m*- 
ny horse races were exhibited. The soldiers who were Udoi wkh 
plunder, purchased and married the handsomest maidens. 

Some troops marched to Tai^t. Schidascou was startled at the 
news, not expecting them till spring. The weather is not warm in 
Tangut till June. The Mogul troops did not advance for fear of ba- 
ing surprised, llie Emperor reviewed his army, and sent a hundred 
thousand troops for China, fearing a revolt if he should not be suc- 
cessful. He then marched with the rest to Tengut. He found that 
he should have, when joined with the forces already there, three hun- 
dred and fifty thousand. His army was divided into ten bodies. Zaga- 
tai and Octal commanded the two first Huhbi, Suida, Caraschar, 
and other distinguished generals, commanded the rest But all of 
them were subject to prince Tuli. There was a flying camp for the 
instruction of his grandsons, Kublai and Uulacou. 

The army crossed a desert of forty days' journey, took the city of 
■Azine, and reposed. 

Schidascou had five hundred thousand troops mostly ftimisfaed by the 
Chinese of Manji. Genghis, whose troops were from Carisme, In- 
dia *, Geta, and other places, and much inferior in number, advanced, 
tliinking he had the advantage of discipline over inexperienced sol- 
diers. The Mogul officers, though very rich, and the troops also, 
were, by Genghis's orders, dressed very plainly. Schidascou's were 
in clothes of gold, silver, and silk. 

• llMfiii^ the coDtiguotu oountrieB «wtf of the Indua. 

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Sdudasopu sent a hundred tbonsuid hone to attack the vanguard 
of the Mognls, but they could not make any impressiou on them; ^ 
and they retired to the main anny with Iobs. 

Genghis advanced, and the armies came in sight of each other: 
Schidascou's army covered a large space. Cienghis took a position 
on an extensive lake, sHU quite frozen. The Moguk liad quickly the 
advantage, but the generals IMayan Khan and the prince of Jurge 
withstood their fury; and, charging the two wings of the Emperor's 
army, killed thirty thousand of his troops. This success was &tal; 
fbr, believing the Moguls defeated, they continued the fight with- 
out keeping their raAks; tmd the corps de reserve coming up, Schi- 
daacou, who shewed extraordinary bravery, was vanquished. It is 
said, that he lost three hundred thousand soldiers on that dreadful day. 
After this victory, Genghis marched against the Turks of Jurge, who 
submitted. -He passed the next winter in the west of Tangut, mean- 
ing to conquer Southern China. 

News arrived of the deaUi of the Calif of Bagdat. New levies were 
ordered; and Genghis secured to himself the countries dependant on 
Tangut. There needed so fertUe a country, and of such vast extent, 
to subsist so numerous an army for so long a time. The conquest of 
the rest of China appeared not difficult to Genghis; and he said, that 
he now wished for nothing more than the good of his subjects. But 
his prosperity and joy were to be turned into sorrow. While he was 
diverting himself in the midst of his fiunily, he was informed by a 
courier from Capschac of the death of Touschi Khan, his eldest son. 
The whole court was afflicted. The Emperor shewed at first much 
constancy of mind; but fatherly affection got the better of him, and 
he fell into a profound melancholy. 

An officer arrived from Schidascou to entreat that the Emperor 
would foigive his revolt, and accept his services. Geoghid gave him 


CUA^, »u«U«W}9« APd prpi)»u9d to grwi SelddaMon his friwdsliip, Th« ar- 
v^r>^^ mr WW) snewaped max » tonaU in ft vwAj omntry, on 1^ rwd to 
China. The Camp, of teofe a«d mpving bouMti, had tlw •ppownnM 
of At^rgQCJtf. 

tii^Vgh)^, findujg himself extremely ill, ordered «U bis sou, th«^ 
cbildrep, wd f^be ppiaoes of ihe hlopd, ij)t» Mb prev^aw. He pl«c«d 
hJwai^If ^pngh^, nq^witbBtwiding bi» p*in; and, with his u««al pm^jofb' 
lie ]pok, yr^ich comrawded aw* aqd reBp^t, even from his ^ikUm 
aft4 the 8pvem^»s of the East, he UM thSQ), that h» found bla ^ 
nte ^uqb, and that h^ must prepare fi>7 de^tb- " I leave f ou," s«id 
h$, '' tb^ gre^teet empire in the woi-}d; if yoi} would pteeexv^ it, be 
pnit^, ^id observe the Uwg wbieh J have established ; but, if jttft 
yffJi}i in the pdtbs of dipsention, your BubjeetB, tbftt w tp Bay, your enfh 
mioe, wiU qpoo b^ masters of your empire." He named hU third son, 
pfrino^ Oc^ for his successor, w KboQ of Khans; apd all the rert, 
bowing the knee, cried — " What the great Oengbis Kban ordaipe 
is just, and f^U be obeyed without disputing." The £mppn>r died 
A.D. 1226. ^yvfx^ (be bttter end of the year, in tb? seventy-third year of bis 


Eigb^ days after fche Emperor's decease, wbidi was kept secret, ' 
Scbidascou, acpQmpanied by bi« children and some lords, arrived. 
4n appeai^flpe of rejoif:ing, as if for the Emperor's recovery, was put 
on, to ^nyei^ him into the camp. He and his party were a}! put jto 
death, aceording to orders left by Genghis'. By this bloody trean 
cbery, Tangwt was aanexed to the empire of the Moguls- After tWh 

*? Ahtd GlHuri Eelstes, (p. 144), th»t Genghis received the eavoy with great ciyin 
lity, but did not put himself under any positive engagement with respect to Schi- 
dascou ; who was afterwards besieged in his capital, (Campion), captured, and put 
to 4ea]b, but Gengbia's unsparing cruelties sanctiMi the suspidoa of a»y ptJidcal 
e^OEOMty whatever . 

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th> Bmywonc's tociwwi wan Made ftiVIk, «id tfttt g^<< Otfi dtfMMrfea- 
tiM, wc*e gMand. v. 

The QaM Khan ww kotied with tb# utauMt r^pdet And raagnif^ 
cence, with all the pompous ceremonies of the Mogul Mlfgi<nr. Hte 
CMpM ms interred aoonrdiag t» his 9«Tt d«tive, imder a trot of slb- 
gulBT height and beauty, where, in his t«t!ura fnm tbe eluu^, soue' 
darfB befiRE he 1e& skk, he had reited faivwdf yrHh mwA st^staetAtm. 
A most noble modunn^ was encted upon bi» grav«. The people 
who eanw ta viA the touby planted attacr ttees^ around it; wMelr so 
avtSally oMered ft, wd in sodi beavtiftil order, as rend«ved it, in tJme, 
amt of the flnett aiAnuiiients in the world. It fe in ktitttde tOf, longii- 
tuda lOft" north of the great wdL Thcte was s great resort of atrve^ 
nigDS to tfia court for six monUis, ta contfert tiie afflicted princes. 

G«igUs KJiaa had ntimeroos wives aad cencabines. The Are 
daat;htaEBoeOuBgh Khan, of the KingftfCtn% of tlK Khans of tlie 
NnimaDB, Congojutt^^ aod the- Herkites, pnincipdly shafed'lis esteen; 
the daughter ef the last was a remarkable beautT-. He left a prodigr- 
QUsly numcTons progeny; but his foer fovonrlte sons and successors 
weve all bora of one mother. Porta Congme, Mte- Congonrt Rhan^ 
danghtcK: ^le restof the princes were appointed and liaiitsd to pett^- 

TouBohi* was tiie elde&t of Purta Congine's sons, the s«>cond was Z»- 
g)Uai, the third Ootai,. and the fourth Tuli. Genghis hnring studied 
theii tAmpers,, had appointed TouscM to be Master Hmitennn of tlie 
empire, the most considerable post; the Mongols being obliged' to ex- 
ercise themselves in the Huntings. Zagatai, was chief judge, and di- 
rector of all the courts of justice in the empire. Octai from his 
pradenee and wisdom, was chief counsellor. The afihirs of war were 
committed to Tuli, and he was paymaster to the royal camp or golden 
horde. At tike deaith of C^uighis, the emjHre remained, neaiiy, as he 
had divided it durmg his life, 

O 2 



Touscbi, the eldest son, just deceased, was succeeded in the sore 

reignty of Capschac by Batou his eldest son; a name terrible to Ibw- 

sia, and alarming even to Europe*. For a descriptioD of Capsdiac, 

see Chapter II. 

Zagatai had for his part Transoxiana, the country of the Yuguree, 
Cashgar, Badachshan and Bale. 

Tuli had Chorassan. Persia, and India (so called) west of the Indus. 
He died while m Catai (or Cathay), with Octai, in 1329. 

Octai, the new Grand Khan, kept for his division Catai or the norUi- 
em half of China, the conquest of which he completed, Tangot, Corea 
and eastern Siberia. His army consisted of fifteen hundred thousand 
troops. He usually resided at Olougyourt, a city not far from Cara- 
corum. where he made a park for game, many miles in circuit, and- 
greatly embelhshed both these citiesf. Octai was, according to 
eastern historians, a more virtuous and enlightened monarch than 
Genghis. He had much warfare and some success agaiust the Chi- 
nese of Muoj) X ; and his armies subduedthe Sultan of Iconium and over- 
ran Asia Minor. " Octai died," says Mr Tooke, "in consequence of a 
propensity worthy of this universal despot, (the effects of a fit of drunk- 
enness) ; and his death saved Asia for a time, and Europe for ever. An 
interregnum of four years succeeded. The widow of Octai (the cele- 
brated Tourakina Catun), by whose intrigues that prince was thwarted 
in all his ordinances, now set herself up as regent of the empire ; in 
which office she was continually making innovations, that tended to ge- - 
neral mischief 

* A. D. 1238. The inhabitants of Gothia and Prize were preventeil, by their 
fear of the Tartars, from sending as usual their ships to the herring fishery on the 
coast of England : and, as there waa no exportation, forty or fifty of these fish 
were sold for a shilling. Gibbon, Ch. LXIV. note 38, (from Mat. Paris, p. 396). 

i" This khan's name is spelt Bometimea Ugadai, Occadai. 

t Levesque, Vol. U. p. 78, Vol. VII. p. 18, says, " he finidied the conquest of 
China:" but it was only Catai, or the northern diviuon, aa will appear in Ch. II. 

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" lUdckiitny, a d«eendant of the detiuoaed imperial house of the CHAP. 
Kitwies, died of grief, at the increasing deeolation of the conn- s^-s^-^-^ 
try which vriu now become his second home: he found all his eObrts 
to no purpose ; he was a truly great and noble minded man. and 
first officer of state under Octai. He poUBhed the Mongols, and in- 
troduced tiie arts and sciences among them, as&r as he was able. He 
saved milUons from their impending &te from the savage Mongols; 
and hi^j merits to live in the hearts of muikind. On his death, in- 
stead of the vaot treasures that were expected^ no property was found 
in his p«flaession, except several books, composed by himself, on histfuy 
astronomy and political economy, collections of coins, maps> pictores, 
&C. Who does not feel satis&ction in finding one man, worthy of 
that name *, among such a horrid crew of blood-thirsty barbariansf ? ' 

Keyouc succeeded his lather Octai; he was not crowned till Uie'A.D. 1S4I. 
year 1244. A description of his magnificent coronation is given in 
the chapter on Siberia. He is there named Cuyne, (a probable mis- 
^nt). Keyoucdied in 1346. 

Mangou, son of Tuli, through the influence of Baton, succeded to A.D. 1846. 
the empire. In 1251 he gave a feast at Caracorum, in which were 

* In the character of thia great man, we may feel the full force of the poet'i 

" Court-virtues bear, like gems, the highest rate. 
Bom where heav'n'a influence scarce can penetrate : 
In life's low vale, the soil die Virtues like. 
They please as beauties, here as wonders strike. 
Though the same sun with all diffusive rays 
Bhish in the rose, and in the diamond blaze. 
We prize the stronger effort of his power. 
And justly set the gem above the flower." 

Pope, Moral Essays, Ep. I. 

tTooke, Vol II. p. 5 to 13. Carpin relates that Octai was poisoned; and that 
his concubine and her confederates were executed while he was at the court. 
HaUuyt, Vol. L p. 66. 



ooiHUmed fiat Beven days, dmfy, ei^t chasiot loadt sf iraiBi^ two of ' 
bnuidy, twenty of kmaia (mwe's milk nuide Eour» tmd twice distHted la 
am earthern pot), wbidi is aatitaaaaAiutgo9AaBaguaviUB,mAdairaim 
grun; three hnndied bonses. three hundrad cem, and two thousand 
sheep for the kitchen*. Mjmgon had svocetded his &ther TiUi in 
ike goT«niia»t of Choraasan, Persia, ftct nhi^ daring htalift, ooat^- 
nned under the Grand KhaAate, and were gorsratd by his brother Hi»> 
lacou. aa Tieeroy. He ^ed in 1397 before the city of Chcu (Hfr-dtea^ 
which fell afterwards to KuUalf . The extensiTv country called 1%)* 
bet, was oonqneored wUb difficulty, uid cruelly dewhtted » tUa kfaan^ 
. reign. (Marco Polo p. 412). Rublai aucoeeded hia teother Mangow, 
and resided in China. By his conunand, Halacon nnaBted tiie thron* 
of Persiai, &c. For the history of KuUai see Chapter H. 


This conqueror, a grandson of Genghis, reduced Russia and 
western Siberia: he afterwards^ with half a million of troops, ravi^jjed 
Poland, destroyed Cracow and Lublin; entered Moravia, Datmatia. 
Bulgaria, Bosnia, and other countries. Massacre and destruction 
marked his course. He invaded Hungary to go and besiege Constan- 
tinbple: but his projects were arrested by death in 1256. 

William De Rubmquis, a monk, was sent as ambassador from St 
Louis to Tartary and China in 1253 J. " When X beheld the court 

• Abul Ghazi, Vol. I. 159. and Vol. II. 403. 

t Sir William Jones, Vol. I. p. lOl. At tbe funeral of Mtingou, it u asserted 
that vast numbers of human beings were slain, to attend their deceased master : 
although this ia the only mention of such a horrid custom baring been actually 
practised at the funeral of a Mogul Grand Khan, it ia to be ffeared that it may be 
true. See M. Polo, p. 200, note 381. Petis de la Croix, p. S89. Herodvtas, 
Melpomene, LXXI. 

i Louis IX. had been informed, &bely, by a Mongol khao and the Annopian 



ff Bttoo,' «;» 8Bkf«««>i, "I wae wtmukiidi *o hoiues in4 tmte 
weiG Uie Home mjgfcty cttjr foj the ajiam oftbroaorfeqr teagws. (8e- > 
rai.wwtliwtaiiigbgitt). TItecvuitisoilMOnla. Atugetavtwiw 
«iMted, w4 th* dny &l|q<riiia w» otImM at mwt. Bttso wt iqwH 
« >e«t, Iwg aa4 hnwd like • Mi gilt All av«r. wilii tlure« atept to wt- 
Dwdi wd one of kid Mim wt baaide him. The imn wt preniKit- 
ffiialy.m the n(^t wd Wt sf the lodr. 4t the entniiKe of the tent 
WW ft benob, fanii«h9d irith fcnpijs, mi with atately cup« of iUver aai 
gold, riehly set with ieweU. We atood b«re.Mt and haFQ-beaded> a»d 
were « gre»t md a atnnge spectafde in their eyes. We bowed our 
Inees, and atood fcr a apace wherein a man mif^ have rehearsed tM 
{Helm mutrertrntn JJitw; and thete was a pvofonad dlence. Baton 
beheld m eameatly, and we bin: he aeemed to resemble, in pera««i 
Monsieur Jean de Beaumont, whose soul reatetb in peMO. jfor> like hiak 
be had a fresh ruddy countenance. 

■< Baton aahed.^ ' If your Mivesty had sent an smhaawidw to him 
or no?" I answered— ■ th»t your Majesty hti sent awbeswidora to 
Ken iUian. and letters to Sartacb, (these were Batwi's sow, md bw 
wetoys between the Volga and the Don), being persuaded that they 
bad beeorae Christians.' The guide direetad us to kneel on be«h 
knees; and we were commanded to speak. Then 1, thinking of a 
prayer unto God. because I was upon both kneea. began to jnj — 
' Sir. we h«>ee«h the Iiord, who hath given yon theae earthly hens' 
fits, that it would pleas* Him, hereafter, to mako you partake of lUi 
heawnly bleaainga, because thei former, without thesci are win an* 
vnproltable, and yon will not obtain the ioys of henvet, wleia y<m 
heoome « CUriatiw.' 

wnbassadoin, (hat the chiefs of the Me^goU had evbrso«d (Siaiitiamty. Thi 
Mongols having vanquished the Saracens in Asia Minor and S^, Lpvis courted 
their alliance. See Mezeray, A. D. 1349. 

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" At this, Batou modestly smiled. 1% e other Moguls began to clap 
J their hands, and deride us; and my silly inteipreter, from whom I ^- 
pected comfort, was utterly out of countnianice. AJt«r sileiice. I 
said — ' I came to your son, because w^ heard he had become a ChilBt- 
ian, and brought falm letters from my lord the King of France ; and 
your son sent me to you : the cause of my coming is therefore best 
fanown to yourself.' The khan caused me to rise; he enquired youl- 
Majesty's name, and my name, and caused them to be written down. 
iHe demanded — ' Against whom you waged war?' I answered — 
" Against the Saracens, who had defiled the house of God at Jerusa- 
lem." (Batou was a Deist, his successor became a Mahomedan). He 
iasked me — ' If your Majesty had ever sent him an ambassadot b»- 
fore?* I answered — ' To you, Sir, never.' He ^en gave us milk ttt 
drink, and kumis, a special &vor. 

" As I sat looking down on the ground, he commanded me to Uft up 
my countenance ; being desirous yet to take a more diligent view of us. 
Then we departed. The guide said—' Your master, the king, re- 
questeth that you may remain in the kingdom; which request Batou 
Khan cannot grant, without the consent of the Grand Khan, Mangu: 

wherefore you and your interpreter must go to him at Caracorum.' 

(Fifty-seven degrees to the east!) 

" We set out; and of hunger, thirst, weariness, and cold, there was 
no end. In the morning, we had a little drink, or some boiled millet; 
in the evening, some ram's mutton, or brotb. Ziughis, the Great 
Khan, had four sons, from whom proceeded many children; every 
one of which doth at this day enjoy great possessions : and they are 
dmly nmliiplied and dispersed over that huge and vast desert; which 
is in demensions like the ocean. Our guide led us to many of their 
habitations, and they marvelled exceedingly that we would not re- 
ceive gold, silver, or precious garments, at their hands. They en- 



qnired about the Pope, and asked if it was true, that he was five hun- 
dred years old*? We saw many wild mules. 

" We arrived at court. I could bo longer go barefoot, the cold was 
extreme : and in May> it froze in the morning tmd thawed in the day. 
There is no wind in the coldest weather, or nothing could live. 

** At the end of April, the streets of Caracorum were so fiill of snow, 
that it was removed in carte. 

" Mangu Khan has at Caracorum a large court, near the walls of the 
city, inclosed with a brick wall; where is a great palace, in which a 
grand feast is held at Easter, when he passes that way, and in sum- 
mer when he retumeth; all the nobles meet here, and be displays his 

" Within the walls of the court there are also many dwellings, about 
the size of our farm-houses. William Bouchier, the goldsmith, had 
made, because it was indecent to have flaggons going about as in 
taverns, a silver tree and four silver lions, and four pipes to convey 
to the top of the tree and spread downward, through four serpents* 
taUs, from which were conveyed wine, «aracosmos, hydromel, and tera- 
cina (made from rice), into silver vessels, at the foot of the tree. At 
the top was an angel holding a trumpet; the boughs, leaves, and fruit, 
on the tree, are all silver. When the angel sounds the trumpet, the 
liquors are poured out and served to the company. 

The palace is like a church, having two rows of pillars, and three 
gates to the south. Before the middle gate, is the tree; and the 
khan site on the north front, on a high place, ascending by two flighto 

* The Delai Lama, who is the pope of those vast regions, never dies: his soul 
being discovered inthe.body of some child, by tokens known only to the priests: 
and always in one of that order. 

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CHAP, of steps: by one, the cup bearer mounts, aad descends bj the 
K^^-'^i'-i^ other. 

" The Grand Khan sits above, like a god. On tiie r^t are his 
sons and brethren; on the left, his wives and daughters; one of thp 
Empresses sits beside him, hut not so high. 

" We arrived near Caracorum on Palm Sunday; we lAessed the 
willow boughs, which had yet no bud. We entered the eity about 
nine, carrying the cross t^oft; passing through the street of the Sara- 
cens, where the market and fair are, to the church ; and the Nesto* 
riaiu met us in procession. Mass was said, and they communi- 

" Master William, the goldsmith, brought us, with joy, to his ian, 
to sup with him; he had a Mahomedan wife, who was bom in Hun- , 
gary, and could speak the French and Comanian languages. We 
found there one Basilicus, the son of an Englishman, bom in Hunga- 
ry, and who was skilfiil in the same languages. 

" Next morning the khan entered his palace. I much d^berated 
whether I should go to him with the monk and the priest, seeing 
their actions were full of idolatry and sorcery; but, fearing offence, 
I went, and prayed for the whole church with a loud voice; and also 
for the khan himself, that God would direct him in the way of sal- 

" The palace was full of men and women; the court of which was 
very neat; the rivers, in summer, being conveyed to every place, 
whereby it is watered. 

'* The city of Caracorum is not so good as the Castle of Saint De- 
nis ; and the monastery of Saint Denis is worth ten times the palace. 
There are but two streets ; one for the Mahomedans, where the fairs 
are kept; and many merchants resort thither by reason of the court. 



and the number of ambasBadora. There is also a street for the C*- 
thayans. liVithout those streets, there are great palaces, which are ' 
tiie courts of the secretaries*. 

" On our arrival, we, and all strangers, severally, xv&k called he- 
fore Bulgai, the chief secretary, and diligently questioned ; for Man- 
gu Khan had been told, that four hundred assassins bad gone fcHrth, 
in divers habits, to kill himf . His mother is a Christian, and Mas- 
ter William is her servant. 

" Having had permission to stay two months, and five being gone 
by, I was sent for, and the khan asked me — ' If I would have gfAd, 
silver, or costly garments?' — which I declined; but said, we have not 
wherewith to bear our expenses; on which, he provided for us all ne- 
cessaries to pass through his country. ' You came from tiatoa 
Khan, and must return that way,' said he. I then said — ' I would 
request your Magnificence, when I have carried your letters, that it 
may be lanful for me to return.' He held his peace, as it were in a 
muse. My interpreter desired me not to speak ; and Mangu Khan 
said — ' Make yourself strong with food;' and he caused than to give 
me drink, and I departed. If I had been endowed with pow«r to do 
wonders; as Moses did, peradventure he had humbled himself. 

" I saw, at Caracorum, the ambassador of the Khan of Bagdat, and 
one from a Soldan of India, who brought eight leopards, and ten hare 

* Some account of the ruiiu of Caiocorum aod Olougyourt ia^ven ia tbe fifth 

t In 1262, Hukcou, King of Persia, sent an army, and besieged the old m^n 
of the mountain for three years. The old man w&s put to death, his castle dis- 
mantled, and hjs paradise destroyed. Marco Polo, p. IIU; where there b a full 
description and notes. This inhuman being, and bis subjects, pretended that 
they were descended from Arsaces, founder of the Parthi&o empire. They were 
for that reason called j4r»acians; which has been corrupted into the word Assa$- 
tins. See Ahul Ghazi Bahadur, Vol. I. p. 185, note. 



CHAP. hoandB, taught to sit on the horses' buttocks, as leopards do, for hunt- 
'^«»-v'*w^ ing. There were ambassadors from the Soldan of Turkey, who 
brought rich presents; they told the Grand Khan he wanted not 
gold or silver, but men ; and that he required of him an army. 

" We would not w«t for company to travel by the towns or vil- 
lages, but we went hi|^ in the north, it being sunmier, and found no 
towns, but many tombs. We descended Irom the north to Serai, 
where Batou's palace stands, just one year after we had departed. 
When I left Serai, we met with one of Batou's sons, with many &1- 
coners and falcons. We proceeded through Derbend, by the river 
Araxes, and Turkey, to Cyprus*. 

*' The substance of the long letter of Mftngu to St. Louis, is — ' There 
is but one eternal God in heaven; and on earth, but one lord, Geng- 
his Khan. The man, called David, who said he was our ambassador 
to you, was a liar. You sent ambassadors to Sartacfa, Sartach sent 
them to Batou, and he to me, as the greatest. If you will obey us, 
send ambassadors, and we shall know if you will have war or peace. 
If you lead an army against us, to know what we can do, the eternal 
God himself alone knows thatf' " 

* St. Louis was then at Cyprus. It was in ttte year of Rubraquis' return, that 
this king rec|uested.Pope Alexander IV. to appoint Inquisitors in France ; where 
the butchery of heretics was horrible. See Rees's Cyc. " Inqubition." 

t ^iDiam de Rubruquis, in Harris's Voyages, Vol. I. p. 556. The letter was 
in the Mongol language, but in the Yugurian characters. The lines were from 
the top to the bottom, and multiplied from the left to the right. The Monguls 
adopt the Yugurian character in preference to their own. P. de la Croix, p. 96. 

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Digitized by njOOQIC 


(jomiaaiKliii^ uiaiame iougiit 
1 etwccn Te'kiii&. Sitcnamxiict were fuiLiked^rUM I<f^ 

660,000 (^omlialanta . 


Of the Grand Khan Kuhlai, whose domination exceeded that of 

Augustus. Conquest of Manji, or South China; Bangat- 

la; Burmah; ^c.^^^— Numerous Elephants received in tri- 
bute. BsbelUon in Siberia. Invasion of Java. Inva- 

^on of Japan.-^—Pomp and Splendour of his Court. Mag' 

n^cent Hunting Expeditions. Failure of Attempts to con- 
quer Hindostan. 

L HE Roman Empire, in its utmost grandeur, under Augustus Ce- 
sar, comprised not near the extent of territory, number of subjects, or , 
riches of this Mongnl Emperor; the fruits of less than eighty years*. 
Rnblai was the third son of Tuli, (who was the fourth son of Genghis 
Khan,) a distinguished general, and treasurer of the army and the royal 
camp. Kublai was bom in the year 1214. ^ 

* The Roman empire was two thousand miles in breadth from the wall of Anto- 
ninus in Britain and the northern limit of Dacia, to mount Atlas, and the Tropic 
of Cancer. It extendedin length mwe than three thousand miles, from the West- 
ern Ocean to the Euphrates. Gibbon, Chapter I. 

The Mongul onpire was two thousand four hundred mites in breadth from Yq- 
nan to latitude rixty .- and in laigth, from the sea of Jiq>an to the Don, upwards 
of four thousand miles. The comparison is therefore enormotufy in fiiTOur ot 
Genghis's fomily. 

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CHAP. The first pleasure the Emperor enjoyed, on his retarn to Caraco- 

•..^-v-w' mm, was the sight of some of his grandsons, whom he had not seen 

for seven years. Among these were two, of whom he had conceived 

A.D. 1224. great hopes: their names were Kublai and Hulacou; the first, about 

ten, the other nine years old. They continually employed themselves 

in hunting, a disposition much admired by the Mongols. 

The Grand Khan was so extremely pleased at their courage and in- 
clination fbr this sport, that he gave them employments near him ; and 
took the trouble to instruct them himself. On the march to Tangut, 
the emperor ordered a flying camp for the instruction of these two fa- 
vourite grandsons, who became so famous in history. In 1226, Geng- 
his Khan died. 

The Grand Khan Mangu, some years before his death, appointed 
Kublai viceroy of the conquered part or northern half of China. 

When Mangu was killed in China, his brother Kublai was pro- 
A.D. 1257. claimed Grand Khan. He is described as of " the middle stature, his 
limbs well formed, and his whole figure of a just proportion. His 
complexion is fair and occasionally suffused with red, like the bright 
tint of the rose, which adds much grace to his countenance. His 
eyes are black and handsome, his nose is well shaped and promi- 

The youngest brother, Articbouga, opposed Kublai's advancement 
to the throne of the empire, and set up his standard, at the head of a 
large army, at Caracorum : he had also a great party in the Chinese 
provinces, who favoured him. 

After several battles, in the last Kublai gained a bloody victory. 
His brother was taken prisoner, closely inunured, and died at the end 

• Marco Polo, p. 281. 



of A year*. After this war, Kublai resided entirely in China: first, at n, 
the capital of Shan-si, and afterwards at Pekin+. v-^-v-^-* 

From 1268, during the whole re^n of Kublai, to 1294, he carried A.D. 1368. 
on a war with his nephew, Kaidu, who was very powerful. The bat- 
tles were generally fought on the banks of the Irtish |. 

In a great battle with the king of Mien and Bangalla, the Grand 
Khan's general captured more than two hundred elephants. From ^-I^- 1^^- 
this period the Crrand Khan has tUwat/t chosen to entploy elephants in 
his armies, which before that time he had not done. By this victory 
his majesty annexed to his dominions the whole of the territories of 
the king of Bangalla and Mien §. Mien is a magnificent city ||, the ca- 
pital of a kingdom, a former monarch of which, when he was near hia 
end, gave orders for erecting, on the place o( his interment, two pyra- 
midal towers, ten paces in height, entirely of marble, each terminat- 
ing with a ball; one of these pyramids was adorned with a plate of 
gold an inch in thickness. The tomb was covered with a plate part- 
ly of gold, partly of silver. Around the balls were suspended small bells 
of gold and silver, which sounded when put in motion by the wind. 

* Petis de la Croix, p. 399. Levesque Bays, Kublai was the youo^st brother; 
but be gives no authority for that assertion. 

t Pekin is the Chinese name, meaning the northern Court. Khanbalig or 
Cambalu is the Tartar name, signifying the city of the Khan or sovereign. See 
Notes to Marco Polo, B. 11. Cb. VIl. Du. Halde, Vol. I. p. Sid. Mr. Bell, chap. 
XI. says "On the Idth of February, 1721, 1 Cook a ride round the walls of the ci^ 
which I performed at an easy trot in four hours; whereby the compass of Pekin 
may be nearly computed. The suburbB, especially to the east and south, are ve- 
ry extensive, and, in many places of them, the buildings are equal to those witbia 
the walls. 

t See Chapter V. on Siberia. 

§ Marco Polo, p. 441. For some account of the battle, and for the description 
of this Bangalla, see chapter VII. 

II Could this city be Ava? see Marco Pob, note 864. 

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This Bepulchre was respected by the Grand Khan's commands, the 
Tartars never Tiolating the tombs of the dead. In this country were 
found many elephants, handsome wild oxen, stf^^, rhinoceroses, and 
other animals, in abundance*, 

Thibet belongs to the Grand Khan, having been conquered and de- 
vastated by Mangu Khan. Tigers have multiplied to an astonishing 
degree. Here are found the musk animals, and wild oxen, extremely 
large and fierce, both of which are hunted with their immense dogs. 
There are also laner lalcons and sakers, with which the natives have 
good sport t. 

Tholoman (Burmah) is subject to the Grand Khan. The people 
are tall and good looking, their complexions rather brown than fur. 
They are just in their dealings and brave in war. Many of their 
towns and castles are upon lofty mountains. They bum their dead. 
Abundance of gold is found here. They use porcelain shells for the 
small currency J. 

Ziamba, (by Cochin China,) is tributary to the Grand Khan. The 
king presents to his imperial majesty annually a very large quantity of 
lignum aloes, (highly esteemed as a perfume for baths and for incense 
at funerals), together with twenty of the largest and handgomest ele- 
phants to be found in his districts, which abound with those ani- 
mals §. 

The countries between China ahd Bengal, (Pegu, Siam, Tonquin, 
&c.), where there are abundance of elephants, rhinoceroses, and other 
beasts, were reduced to the power of the Grand Khan, and paid him 
tribute 11^ 

• M. Polo, pp. 447, 449. i M. Polo, p. 457. 

t M. Polo, p. 412. i § M. Polo, p. 583. 

n See Marco Polo, B. 11. Chapters XLVl. XL VII. XLIX. and note 378. 



In the leduction of Cochin Chins, the Grand Khan lost rast num- CHAP, 
bers of troops, by the effects of the climate*. v.^-v-«i-' 

The Grand Khan lays cLiim to the whole island ofSumatra; Marco 
Polo visited six of the eight kingdoms in that island ; some of which 
acknowledge the khan's authority. They have many wild elephants; 
rhinoceroses much inferior in size to the elephants, but their feet are 
similar, the hide resembles that of a buffido, and they have a single horn ; 
and goshawks black as ravens. They have certain small apes, in 
tiieir faces like men, which they put in boxes and preserve with spices. 
They sell thepi to merchants.who carry them through the world, show- 
ing them for pigmies or little men. When sbips pass by, the opportu- 
nity is taken to send to the Grand Khan hawks and other curious ar- 


While Li-Tsong had only the south provinces of China under his A.D. 1£80. 
dominion; the western Tartars possessed the empire of the north, 
llieir king, Kublai, was skilled in the sciences, and beloved by his sub- 
jects for the respect he showed to learned men, and ^tbe honour he did 
to the memory of Confucius. Li-Tsong dying without issue, (1264), 
was succeeded by Tu-Tsong, a profligate and in&mous prince. His 
ministers seeing no remedy for the misfortunes which were ready to 
iall on the imperial family, retired to the western Tartars; whose ar- 
my having overrun the provinces of Tunnan, Se-chuen and Sben-si, 
entered that of Hu-quang, and most of the cities opened thetr gates; 
while the wretched Tn-Tsong, drowned in pleasures) was stripped of 

* See Grosier's Description of China, Vol I. p. 300. 
t M. Polo. p. 603. And in Hartia's Voyages, p. 620. 



his domhiioiis by degrees, without knowing any thing of ihe matter. 
^ He died in the year 1274, aged twenty-five, leaving three young child- 
ren, who were bom to be the sport of fortune. Kong-Tsong, his se- 
cond son, was placed upon the tottering throne. 

The empress, who governed the empire for her son, sent ambai8»- 
dors to the Tartar sovereign, to demand peace; offering to submit to 
the most hard and abject terms. But that inexorable monarch replied : 
" Your &mily owes its rise to the monstrous infamy of the last prince 
«f the preceding dynasty: it is therefore but just that the remaining 
princes of the family of Song, who are infants also, should gjve place, 
to another family." 

Meantime, Pe-Yen advanced with a numerous army of Tartars, 
subduing all before him. This general is highly praised, both for his 
prudence in conducting two hundred thousand men with so much fa- 
cility; and for his modesty, which was so extraordinary, that, in the 
midst of all his victories, he never dropped the least word in his own 
praise. He took the emperor prisoner, who died in the desert of Kobi, 
or Shamo, and was succeeded in his empire and misfortunes by his 
brother, Twantsong, in the year 1276. The victorious march of the 
Tartar obliged this emperor to go on board of his fleet, with the lords 
of his court, and a body of one hundred and thirty thousand soldiers 
which remained with him, designing to retire to the province of Fo- 
Kyen; but, being closely pursued by the Tartars, both by sea and land, 
he was obliged to fly to the coast of Quan-Tong, the most southern 
province, where he died of a disease, aged eleven years, in 1278 ; and 
was succeeded by his brother Ti-ping. 

The Chinese fleet, being overtaken by that of the Tartars, could 
not avoid an engagement, which was very bloody and decisive in faror 
of the Tartars. The prime minister, Lo-syew-se, to whose care the 
Emperor had been entrusted, seeing his ship surrounded by the Tar- 
tarian vessels, took the young prince, who was but eight years of age. 



in his Ktms, and threw himself into the sea. The rest of the lords and CHAP, 
ministers followed his example. The Empress, quite distracted, with \^-v^^«^ 
dreadful shrieks, also flang herself into th^ocean*. This terrible e9r 
tastrophe happened near an island dependant on Quang-chu-fu 

Another general, who commanded a part of the Chinese fleet, hav- 
ing forired his way through the enemy, and escaped their fury with 
some of his ressels, endeavoured to make to shore, but was driven off 
by a violent storm which just then arose: and he and all his followers 
were sunk at once. It is affirmed, that above a hmidred thousand 
Chinese perished in this fight, either by the sword or the wat^, into 
which vast numbers threw themselves, in despair. Thus ended the 
dynasty of the Song, and with it the dominion of the Chinese. Kub- 
lai took possession of his conquest, and was the first emperor of the 
dynasty called Ywen, under the name of Shi-tsuf . 

The Grand Khan was excited, by the reports he heard of the wealth A.D. liiSS. 
and greatness of Japan, to make the conquest of that country. An 
army of one hundred thousand men embarked at the ports of Kinsu 
and Zaitun; and reached the island. A storm arising, and the two 
commanders falling into dissention, the whole of the troops were lost 
in the waves, or made prisoners; only three or font returning}. 

Nayan, a near relation of the Crrand Khan, proprietor of a consi- A.D. 1286. 
derable district in Leaotong, becoming very powerful, formed the de- 
dgn, in concert with Kaidu, a relation of both parties, of usurping Hut 
sovereignty. RuUai, on hearing this, collected the whole of the 

* It b said, that the reigning empress of the Song dynasty was treated at Pelin 
with the greatest humanity, where she died, in the year 1381. See Marco FqIo, 
B. U. Ch. Ly. 

t ]>u Halde, Vol 1. p. 318. 

I M. Polo, p. 569, and Du Halde, VoL I. p. HIS. 



CHAP, troops Stationed within ten dajrs' march of Pekin: the^r consisted of 
K^f-'^^-'im^ three hundred and sixty thousand horse : and one hundred ^thousand 
foot, being principally his falconers and domestic servants. In twen- 
ty days they were all in readiness. Kaidu had promised to join N»- 
yan, with one hundred thousand horse. Nayan's force consisted of 
four hundred thousand horse. 

The Grand Khan proceeded with such celerity^ that in twenty-five 
days, by forced marches day and night, he arrived near a range of 
hills, on the other side of which Nayan lay encamped, having no in- 
telligence of the Khan's approach, the passes having been secured. 
The Emperor allowed his troops two days' rest When, early in the 
morning they ascended the hills, they found Nayan negligently posted. 
He was asleep in his tent, accompanied by one of his wives. He now 
lamented that his junction with Kaidu had not been effected. 

The Grand Khan took his station In a large wooden castle, borne up- 
on the backs of four elephants*, whose bodies were protected with 
coverings of thick leather hardened by fire, over which were housings 
of cloth of gold. The castle contained many cross-bow men and 
archers; and on the top of it was hoisted the imperial standard, 
adorned with representations of the sun and moon. 

A fierce and bloody conflict was for a long time undecided. At 
length Nayan, being nearly surrounded, attempted to escape, but was 
made prisoner and conducted to the Grtuid Khan, who gave orders for 
his being put to death. He was smothered between two carpets and 
shaken till ^e spirit had departed Arom his body, in order that the 
sun and air should not witness the shedding of imperial blood. Those 

* It appears that it is an old custom in Persia, to use four elephants a-breast. 
" The senate decreed Gbrdian III. to represent him triumphing after the Vet- 
■ian mode, with chariots drawn with four elephants." Augustan Hist. Vol. II. ' 
page 65. 



of tbe troops which sUrrived, awore alkigiance to Kublat. Nayan had CHAP, 
ubdergone the ceremony of baptism, and a vast number of Christiana ■•^>^-mt^ 
were among the shun*. This battle was fought about half way be- 
tween Pekin and Siberia. The Emperor, aft^ the battle, retired to 

Timur Kaan, grandaon of Kublai, viceroy of Yunan, Bangalla, and A.D. 1289. 
the countries called India beyond the Ganges, was occupied with the 
great war against Kaidu, on the river Irtlshf. 

TheGrand Khan failedinhia attempts on Java. "Java," says Maun- 
devile, " is nearly two thousand miles in circuit; the king is rich and 
mighty. He hath under htm seven other isles about him. Spices are 
more plentiful here than in any other country; ginger, cloves, canelle, 
zedewalle, nutmegs, and mace; and know well, that the nutmegs bear 
the mace : for. as the nut of the hazel hath a husk, so it is with the nut- 
meg and mace. All things are in plenty, save wine. The palace is mar- 
vellous and rich ; the chambers and halls are square, and ibe walls are 
covered with plates of gold and silver, with stories of battles of 
knights enleved, (the glossary says, this means mkUd, but perhaps it 
should be in reH^^ ; the crowns and circles about their heads, are of 
precious stmies and pearls. No one would believe the riches of tiie 
palace who had not seen it. And know well, that the king of this isle 
is so mighty, that he hath many times overcome the Great Khan of Ca- 
thay in battle, who is the greatest Emperor under the firmament ; for 
they have often been at war, because the Great Khan would con- 
strain bim to hold his land of him ; but the king hath at all times de- 
fended himself well against him |. 

* M. Polo, p. 868, wbere there ia a description of the battle, 
t For the iiiTamon of Siberia, see Chap. V. 

t Voyage and Travsile of Sir John Maundevile, Knt. from the year ISSS, to 
1S56. Thia aoconnt seems to decide, that it was Java, and not'JSomeo, as has 

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CHAP. The Emperor Kublai died, aged eighty. He had four wives of the 
i^.a-Y'**^ first rank, by whom he had twenty sons. Genghis, who was the eU- 
* est, and was to inherit the empire, having died, his son, Timor Kaan, 
succeeded to the vast dominions of bis grand&ther. Seven of the le- 
gitimate sons were placed at the head of extensive kingdoms and 
provinces. His Majesty had twenty-five sons by his concubines, all of 
whom were placed in the rank of nobles, and employed in the military 

The Empresses had separate courts. None' of them fewer than 
three hundred female attendants of great beauty, with a multitude of 
ladies of the bed chamber; youths as pt^es, and other eunuchs; so 
that the number of persons attached to their respective courts, 
amounted to ten thousand. 

His Majesty's concubines are from a province named Ungut*, dis- 
tinguished for perfumes and the beauty of the inhabitantsf . Every 
year four or five hundred of the handsomest young women are select- 
ed; and the khan makes choice of thirty or forty of those who are 
most perfect in symmetry of person, the most beautiful in features, 
hair, countenance, eyebrows, &c. The remainder are instructed in 
cookery, dress-making, and other suitable wotks. The Grand Rhan 

been aupposed by PurcI^aB and others, which Kublai and his Buccessors attempt- 
ed to conquer. Mr. Marsden inclines to think Marco Polo was not in error when 
he says, " the Grand Khan failed in his attempt on Java." See M. Polo, B. HI. 
Ch. yn. Is not this strong proof of the correctness of Polo; and of the truth of 
some parts of the Englishman's book ? 

* Supposed to be Igboors, or Yugures. M. Polo, note 5^. See Sir WiUiam 
Jones, Vol. 1. p. 53. 
' f Khoten b in these, parts. " When thy charming letter was brought to me, 

I said, ' Is it the zephyr that breathes frcm the gardens, or is it the sky burning 
wood of aloes on the censer of the sun? oi is it a caravan of musk coming from 
Khoten { * " From a Persian poet. Sir William Jones, VoL V . p. 578. The Asia- 
tics perfiime their letters, and send them in bags of aatin or '^w""'"^ 

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bettowB them in marriage on th^ nobility, witb handiome portions. CHAP. 
The &then of these children feel gratified at the khan's condescend- ■•^^'■^v' 
ing to make choice of Uieir daughters for himself; or matching them 
more nobly than they themflelTes hare the power to do *. 


The empire attained ' its greatest extent at about the period of the 
completion of the conquest of China, in 1 280. There were nnder that 
division of the empire, governed by the Grand Khan and his viceroys, 
the whole of China — All India eastward of the SurhampooUr \ — 
Thibet — ^TangutJ — Mantchu Tartary— Corea — and all the eastern 
division of Siberia, to ttie Straits of Anian, (now Behring*B), and to the 
Arctic Sea. 

Seven stms of Kublai, and other viceroys governed, each, extensive 
regions. The account of the subordinate governments is extremely 
defective. Marco Polo was governor of Yan-^i, a large city, and its 
dependencies, for three years. 

Kaidu, (now in rebellion), nephew of Rublai, possessed, as viceroy, 
the countries around Almaligh and the central regions of Siberia, to 
the Northern Ocean. 

Sheibani. or his descendants, reigned at Sibir, over the western di- 
vision of Siberia. Sheibani was the cousin of Kublai. 

Capschac was governed by a descendant of Batou. This division 

• M. Polo, B. II. Ch. IV. and V. 

t See De Cfuines, Vol. I. p. 173, and Vol IV. p. 19S. 

t Tangut and Thibet are supposed to be the same, by some aathon: the ex- 
act geography of these immense regions is but imperfectly known even now. 

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CEIAF. now contained the Crimea, the countries north of the Caspiui and 
1^-v^^^^ Lake Aral; nori;hward, by the Volga, up to the Arctic Ocean; weBt- 
ward, to the Tanais or Don ; Southward, to Caucasus: all Russia be^ 
iDg tributary. 

Zagatai's descendants reigned over Transoxiana or Marerulnere, 
the country of the Tugures or Igors, Cashgar, Badachafaan, and 

Abaca Khan, son of Hulacou, mounted the throne of Persia by or- 
der of his uncle- the Grand Khan Knblai. Hulacou with three hun- 
dred thousand troops had taken Bagdat, and put an end to the Califs 
of the race of Abbas*. The territories under Abaca comprised Per< 
sia to the Indus, Syria, Mesopotamia, Chaldea, and Anatoliaf. 

The death of Kublai weakened rapidly the allegiance of these mo- 
narchs to his successors. 

Hindostan was then too powerful to be subdued. Formidable at- 
tempts had been made, but had failed. While Hulacou was preparing 
an immense army, (with which he took Bagdat), he sent an ambassa- 
dor to Delhi. The Emperor Balin sent out the rizier to give him a 
distinguished reception, with fifty thousand foreign cavalry, two hun- 
dred thousand infantr}' in arms, two thousand chain elephants of war, 
and three thousand carriages of combustibles, or fireworks {. The 

* When Bagdat fell to the great anny of Hulacou, Mustasim BiUah was calif. 
He had hoarded immense treasures : Hulacou ordered that he should be shut up 
in his treasury in the midst of his riches; and where, by an ironical refinement of 
cruelty, he was starved to death. Abul Ghazi, Vol. I. p. 185. The £ast India 
trade had enriched Bagdat, through Bussorah, which was founded by the Calif 
Omar, and became a place of trade hardly inferior to Alexandria. Robertson on 
India, p. 93. 

t Petifl de la Croix p. 402. See also Mezeray, A. D. 124©. 

X This took place the year after Kublai became Crrand Khan. Hulacou was 
his brother. 

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ambassador was eonducted to the palace. The court was magnificent CHAP. 
and goigeous. All the omrahs, judges, priestsi, and great men, were ^^-v^../ 
present; besides five princes of Persian Irac, Chorassan.and Maverul- 
nere, who had taken refuge from the arms of the Mongols*. 

With the exceptions of Hindostan and Arabia, the continent of Asia 
and part of Europe were under the domination of the Grand Khan. 
" Rublai, says Gaubil, was now master of China, Pegu, Thibet, Great 
and Little Tartary, Turkestan, and the country of the Jgours ; Siam, 
Cochin China, TonquiUj and the Cores, paid him tribute. The princes 
of the blood of Genghis, who reigned in Muscovy, Assyria, Persia, 
Korassan, and Transoxiana, did nothing without his consentf?. 

" Kublai, at his coming to the crown of China, made no change 
in the ministers or in the laws and customs. He won his subjects so 
much by his sincere conduct, his equity, the protection he gave to men 
of letters, and by his tender affection for his people, that, even at pre- 
sent, the administration of this Tartar family is called the teue govern- 

The army and establishment of vessels for the conveyance of sol- 
diers, were limited only by the necessity that required them. Ships 
with four masts were built so large as to employ a crew of two hun- 
dred and fifty men, and to carry stores and provisions for two years ^ 
These were for a voyage to Persia. Five thousand vessels are some- 
times seen in one port, firom two hundred to five hundred tons bur- 
then |). Kublai had an extraordinary passion to make himself known 
to foreign kings, to engage them to send him all kinds of rarities. In 

' • Dow'a Hindostan, Vol. I. p. 190. 
t Note 378 in M&rco Polo. 
t Du Hal4e, Vol. I. p. 215. 
S M. Polo, p. 29. . 
H M. Polo, B. II. Ch. LXIII. and the notet from varioui authoritiet. 

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September, 1286, advice was received froto the MubOafiifs 'bf Fokl^ 
■- that Bhips from nin^-mne/oreigHMngd(mu iters atrweA At Tw^^ 
fti in that provinee. These kingdomg ttre treated as tHinktiUifi bit bnfy 
eight are mentioned in history, and under naines unkflotra'to Eti'rb- 
peoBfi. Those spoken of here -are, Bfalacca, Sumatra, Pen-ko-la or 
Bengalt'end from Cape Comoiin to the Persian Gulf, Ceylon *, Tiugtfr, 

' The current money of the Empercfr is made of the baVkof'ihe'mtS- 
herry tree, reduced to a pulp, made hard, black, and stamped. To 
counterfeit or refuse it is death. Foreigners receive it for tb^ mei^ 
chandise, and pay H for their purchases in the kh&n^ enlpici^. Tt'fs 
exchanged if worn or damaged; and bullion Tor manufai^ures Is given 
for it at the mint. It may therefore be affirmed thiit tfo Monarch h^ 
80 nctensive a command of treasul^ as the Grand Khan X. 

No Emperor or human being is equal to Knblai Khan, for the con- 
venienee and i)M:ility of his posting establishment : it is Scarcely powi- 
ble to describe it. Two hundred thousand horses and ten thousand 
buildings, with stiftable furniture, are kept up. Hiere are foot post^ 
men at every three miles; 8o Uiat fruit gathered at Pekin is received 
St Shangtu flie evening of the tiext day; which by thie <stihii.ry mode 
would require ten days. . The horsemen Hde two hundt^d, and sotee- 
times two fauttdred and 'flify miles in a day, on rtAiellions or otbet tik-- 
gent occasions §. 

* Sender-oas, King of Ceylon, being reported to posaess a ruby, brilliant beyond 
descriptioil, asponinlengfli, ihi. aa tiiick as a man's aim; 'tb'e Oranid KhanKub- 
lai sent ambassadors with a request tbat the king would yield him the ruby, for 
which the khan would pay the valu« of a city. The king's answer was, that, being 
a jewel handed down to him by his predecessors, he would not sell it for all the 
treasures in the universe. M. Polo, B. III. Ch. XIX. in note 1S51, it is conjectur- 
ed that it may have been a lump of coloured crystal. 

t Modem Univ. Hist. Vol. U. p. 387. M. Polo, note 1806. 

t M. Polo, p. S53. 

$ M. Polo, B. II. Ch. XX. where there is a long description of the establishment. 

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Ift HtB DMrnth of January, I290> Kubbi sent mathematiciam^ (at CHAP, 
wbich he had wipbefs from the west as well as those -of China), to kfti- '-.^^v'^ 
tn4e 6^ nqrthi >nd to IS" south, in Goohui China, to observe the- lata* 
tudes of the prmcipal cities in Tartary, China, Corea, and other 
places*. Many astronomical iQBtruments were made on a large scde, 
and at immeufe cost; there was a gnomon of forty feetf. 

Rare books were sought for ia foreign countries; all good boob 
that could be procured were trausUted into the Mmigol language, and 
extensiTe libraries were formed {. 

When ' Kjiblai had overtiirown Nayan, understanding that the 
Christians obsejrved their yearly solemnity of £aster, he caused them 
all to come unto him, and bring the book of the • four goepehiy which - 
he.incensed often with great ceDera(Miies« deTouUjr kisnng it, and can- 
8«d the barons to do the like. And this he obserreth always at Christ-: 
mas . and, Easter. The like he did in the chief feasts of the Saxaoens, . 
Jews, and Idolaters; because, as he said—" Those four prophets were 
rttverenced of all the wwld— Jesus, Mahomet, Afosea, and SagonMm- 
barlan$, the first Idol of the Pagans: and I, (saith he), do honour to 
them 911, and pray him which is the greatest in Hearea and truest, to 

• In 1@78 Co-eheou-kiBgibuiidtlte obliquity of the ecliptic to be IBS S2.lfi 

1290 Choja Nassir-oddin . . . 3330 

1463 Ulug Beg, great grandson of Tamerlane 33 30 17 ' 

1505 Copeniciu 89 08 M 

1627 Kepler 23 8030, 

1800 Mr. Pond, (Vid. Bees's Cyc. "Ecliptic") 83 27 56,5 

t Hist des Huns, Vol III. B. XVI. 

t Modern Vniv. HUt. Vol. II. p 380. Witk respect to the iMeratenen of the ' 
Mongols themselves before their conquests, the curious reader is referred to Sir 
W. Jones's fifth discourse on the Tartars, in bis first volume, page 51 . 

g Polo, p. 274. Mr Marsden, note 512, supposes tbis to be one of the nanjeBof 
Budda, who is called also Fo and Somonacodom. Kublai sacrificed to Fo; and 
was attached to the Lamas of Tibet and the Bonzaa of China ; which drew on him 
the censures of the followers of Confucius. 
K 3 



CHAP, help me." Yel he had the best opinion of the Christian &ith, because 
■_r-,-^_- it contained nothing but goodness : and he would not suffer the Christ- 
ians to carry before them the cross, on which so great a man as Christ 
was crucified •. 

Kublai being informed that the barks which brought to court the 
tribute of the southern provinces, or carried on the trade of the empire 
hy sea, often suffered shipwreck, he caused the great canal to be made; 
it is tluree hundred leagues in length. Above nine thousand imperial 
barks transport, with ease and at a small expense, the tribute of grain, 
stuffs, &c. which is annually paid to the Emperor. Had this been the 
only advantage this prince procured for China, he would have been 
worthy of the high praises which the Chinese give himf. 

On the commencement of the year, which is the first of February, 
the Grand Khan and all his subjects clothe themselves in white. AU 
the landholders send valuable presents of gold, silver, precious stones, 
and white cloth; great numbers of beautiful white horses are present- 
ed on this occasion. If the present be from a province, nine times 
nine of horses, gold, &c. are presented. Thus, at this festival, a hun- 
dred thousand horses are received. AU the Grand Khan's elephants, 
of which he has five thousand, are exhibited in procession, covered with 
housings of cloth, fancifully and richly worked with gold and silk in 
figures of birds and beasts. Each of these supports, upon its should- 
ers».two coffers filled with vessels of plate and other apparatus for the 
use of the court. Then follows a train of camels laden with furniture. 
The whole passes in review before the Emperor. On this occasion a 
tamed lion is conducted into the presence of his Majesty, which is 
taught to lay itself down at his feet. 

At Shangtu, or Cayandu, the khan hath an admirable summer pa- 

* Furchas, Vol I. p. 417. 
t Du Htld.', Vol I. p. 215. 



lace and a noble park, sixteen miles in circuit; where he rides about, 
and enjoys hunting and hawking. Small leopards are carried on > 
horseback behind their keepers ; and the Emperor, when he pleases, 
commands them to be shpped at stags, &llow-deer, or goats; which he 
^ves to his hawks. There is here a beautiful grove of trees and a 
royal pavilion*. 


" The Grand Khan hath many solemn feasts every year ; at each 
of which there are great multitudes of people, well arrayed by thou- 
sands, hundreds, and tens. 

First, there are four thousand barons, mighty and rich, to govern 
the feasts and serve the Emperor. They are held in halls and tents 
made of doth-of-gold, and of tartaries full nobly. All the barons 
wear golden crowns richly adorned with precious stones and orient 
pearls; and are clothed in dresses of gold, so perfectly that no man 
can amend it, all dubbed with pearls and gems. These barons are di- 
vided into four companies; each thousand being dressed in one colour. 
The first thousand in gold and green, die second in gold and red, the 
third in purple, the fourth in yellow. They walk two and two full or- 
derly, without saying a word, only by inclining towards the Emperor; 
each bearing a tablet of jasper, crystal, or ivory; preceded by minstrels, 
soundingtheir instruments of divers melody; tbos passes each thou- 

• Marco Polo, p. 250, and B. II. Ch XIL where theae feaats are described. Sir 
John Maundevile'a deecriptioiiB will be given in this Vol. — perhaps about for^ 
years afterwards. Both Polo's and MaundeTile's accounts are strongly corroborat- 
ted by Grosier, (See his Hist. Vol. II. p. 106), who lived many years in China* 

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7j9„ SQJ^)f ANJO. MApraJflCENT. B^NQJIil??'. 

^^^r> ™?.^ On one side of the EJ^i^ppifor's .t^^lpflit; Ae pJuJoq^^p p(:p((tro7,. 

Every.Qnehath b^Qfe,Ium^lidpi,astro^b^$>. sfdiete^, ekpO^t y^m)%: 
of jgold fijll. of ,gra,Yel, sand^ burning .cpafs,. vi»tfip. oU or,, y^pe; aj^ 
some, noble clftcks, Theif,tbe officer:? oj^l^r silence, ^othef ^swth,. 
' Every man do reverence to the Emperor, who is God's sopf. and s^-, 
vereign lord of the world:' and they all bow down to the earth. When 
they rise, another saith — ' Put your little finger in your ears.* Anothra* 
saith: — 'Put your hands before your mputh,! Another — 'Put your 
hand upon your head.' I asked the meaning of all this, and one of 
the .mfi^ters tpld ,me, they w^)^ ^^, tokens of fidelity to tl^^ ,Em- 
ff^T — that n^ one would betray him for, gjit^ nor keep secret any 
mischief intended him, though it were by his own iather, brother, or 
son- The Emperor doth nothing withput th^ counsel of the philoso- 
phers. Again the minsb%ls do their minstrelsy, with, all, the melody 
they c^ devise. Then all the lords of the imperial blood,, richly ap-, 
parelledf .on white steeds, make their presents to the Emperor of white 
hoi^B, each after the other. Then, the barons prese;pt jewels and 
other things.according to their means. Thep the religious men and 
huyyers;. each priests sQmethlng. Then the most dignified. prelate, 
giveth his blessing an^ saith an or^on.. Then the minstrels do. their 
craft Afterwards they bring before the Eknperor, lions, leopards and 
otffejr.beaats; eagles, vulture^, fowls, fish, and.serpents. The jugglery 
and fnchaptf^. follow. Theymake to appear in the air, to every one's 
sc^pg, the: siw.and the mo^n; they then make it quite dark, and af- 
terwards a bright sunshine. Next appear the fairest damsels in the 
wprld, richly arrayed, who dance. Then .others with milk of divers 
beasts in golden cups, which they hand to the lords and ladies. Thai 
knights in arms joust full lustily and fiercely ; and break their spears 



'ihd truncheobs Into'sptinters, W^ich 9y about ^e ball: they tlien hunt CliAP. 
the hart and the boar with bounds running open mouthed. v.«»-y-^ 

This great KKan hath> altogether, a hundr«ed and thirty thousand 
ndinstreb. "jhiey are iiariured by all tbe kings and lords under him; 
and 'ibis is the'reason he bath so great a multiititie. He batb certain 
men to 'keep the ostriches, ger-falcons, sparrow-bawks, gentil-fiUcons, 
and others; well-speaking popinjays, and singing birds. He bath 
^d beasts, such as tuiie and other elepliiants, baboons, apes, marmo- 
sets, and divers others; all of wbich are maintained by a hundred and 
fifty thouaind keepers *. 

He hath two hundred Christian physicians; and of Christian leech- 
es, two hundred and ten, and twenty Saracen. His common houae- 
^hold is without number. 

'the filban's money is made of all values, of leather or paper, which 
is changed when much worn, and therefore he may expend oiitrage- 
ously. Of his gold and silver he maketb the ceilings, pillars, and 
floors of his pialaces, anid other tbingsf ." 

" ^e Emperor dwells in summer at Saduz, towards the north, and 
coldenougb; in wint», at'Cambalecb; but bis chief residence is in 
Caydou or in Jong, where it is temperate. 

When bis Majesty removeth from one country to 'another, he goeth 
in the midst of four hosts innumerable ; he keeping at a moderate dis- 
tance. I^e wears a pbun dress and has few attendants, that he may not 
easily be known. Or else be rides in a clmriot with 'four wheels, upon 
which is a fair chamber of sweet smelling lignum ^oes; wbich is with- 
in covered with plates of fine gold, dubbed with precious stones and 

* Wliatever the eiact numbers we^e, the; miut hsre been immenBe, by the ac- 
counts of Shah'Robk's ambassadors, Marco Polo and others bo nearly agreeing. 
t Sir John Maundevile, p. 878. 

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CHAP. They hold it a great sin to Bmite a hone with £he handle of a whip 

v.^-v-*^-' or with a bridte> to break one bone with another, or to idsy ehit^ 

dren. * * * Whoerer maketh water in his honse ahall larriy be slafai. 

* * * When they commit tin, they most be shrives of their priests; 
and pay a great sum of silver for their penance, and pass tiirongh fire. 

* * * If any man he taken in adultery or fornication, anon they slay 
him. * * * The men and women are all right good archers, both on 
foot and at speed on horseback. ■ * * The women make dotfaes, 
boots, houses, plonks, chariots, and other things. The men make 
bows, arrows, and armour. The women wear breeches as well as the 
men. • • • They^ ere all obedient to the Khan. • • ♦ They fight not 
nor chide with one another. • • • There are no thefts nor mbberies 
in the country. • • • They all worship each other, but do no tcvet- 
ence to strangers, except they be great princes. * * * 

They eat hounds, lions, lyberdefl, mares, foals, assee, rats, mice, and 
all bewsts, great and small, except swine. * * * They eat little bread 
except at the court of great lords. Th^ have generally neither peas, 
nor beans, nor potages, but m^e broth of flesh. Chity the great 
-lords have towels to mpe their hands. They live full wretdiecBy; 
and eat but oince a day, and that eyen at courts. ** * 

All their hist and imagination, ie U> put all lands under their subjeo> 
tion. When before a w^led town, they promise to the besieged all 
they can ask ; and when ,they yield, they shiy them and souce their ean 
in vinegar, and, thereof, tkei tnaien gret tervysefor fordif*f." " When 
I "WBS diere, the Emperor^ name was Thiaut Khan, and hie ddest 
son's Tossoeti '''^ wbm h» lieooaee Emperor will add Khan; be- 
sides whom, the Empsror bad twelve sobs. He had three Empresees. 

t Sir John Maundevile, p. 278 to 308. . 

X The Chinese History doei not give the Tartar names. Shun-ti reij^ned from 
1S37 to 1369. Kublai's Chinese name was Shi-tsu. Du Halde. 



The TartAH have midr a lAtf odled Ca^n. (Shangtu), H bath CHAP, 
tiwelve gates, and is twenty miles round. Hera fs the Tesidence of tlie x^-v^./ 
OtttA Khan, whose palaee is two aoilea in circvit, with many other 
{Mlacn. In the garden of the roy^ palaee thwe is a great hfll, npoh 
iriiidi tiiere is another pahux, the loost fair and rich that any nun 
may devise; and all about the pdace and hill are many trees and di- 
vers fruits, and great and deep ditches, with wild geese, swans, and he- 
nns without number. The large garden is fuU of wild beasts, so that 
the Emperor cm see them chased from hfa window. 

The haH has twenty-four pillars of gold, and is lined with red sweet- 
smeHing panther skins, of the most brilliant o^ur, and more v^dnable 
than gold. In the midst is a Mountour for the Great Khan, wrought 
of gold, pearls and gems, with serpents of gold at the four comers; all 
encircled by nets of silk and gold. The Emperor's throne is of fine 
foedoas rtones, bordened with pearls, gold, and gems. The steps are 
^ gold inlaid witii prerious stones. On the left is a lower jasper seat 
set wltfa gens, for the Em^«ss ; «noth«- lower, similar, tax the second 
wife; and a still lower for the third wife; for he ^ways has three wives 
with him. Cta the ri^t, on a seat below that of the Ea^eror, aite hia 
eldest son and heir. The lords sit on the right, the eovrt ladies en the 
left. The Emperor sits alone at a table made of crystal, lignum ^oes, 
ivory, gold, amethyata, and otiier gems. The Empresses, the priaee, 
and great lords, have each a separate table; every table worth a huge 
treasure. Under the Emperor's table ave iirar aemetarics to write his 
words, for he must never revcfce litem. At solemn feasts men bring be- 
fore the Emperor great tables of gold, whereon are golden peacocks 
and other birds richly enamdled, which sing and dap thak wiiqga, 
whet3ter by necronumcy I wot not ; but H is a fiur sSgfat to behold. In 
auhtilty they pass all men under heaven. I tried to learn this crafil;, 
but the master told me he had made a row to God,te teaiAkoolyi* 



his SOD. There is a viae which spreads all about the hall, made all tia- . 
' turally in colours, with evsry kind of precious gem. All the drinking 
vessels are set with jewels and are ^ of gold ; ulver they make no 
price of except for pillars and pavements. The hall door is guarded 
b)r many barons all completely armed. My fellows and I, with onr 
yeomen, served this Emperor as soldiers for fifteen montlu against 
the king of Mancy, having desire to see all his governance. We 
found it more rich and marvellous than we had heard of. He who 
will may believe me or not, for no man, nor I myself, till I saw it, 
would believe it*." (Marco Polo, p. 251, mentions that Eublai had 
a stud at Shangtu often thousand horses and mares, as white as snow). 

" The palace of the Cirand Khan Kublai. near Pekin, is the most ex- 
tensive that has ever been known ; (this astonishing palace is described 
atgreatlength): not far Irom the outside wall, which isasquare of eight 
miles on each side, is an artificial mount of earth, full a himdred paces 
high, and a mile in circuit at the base : it is plaiUed with the most beauti- 
ful ever-green trees; which, however large and heavy they may be, are 
dug up with the roots and earth about them, and are brought from the 
most distant countri» upon the backs of elephants f. 

• Sir John Maundevile, Ch. XX. to XXHI. The reader is referred to the 
embasay from Shah Rohk in Ch. IV. and to the accounts given by Bell and 
others, which confirm Maundevile and Marco Polo in moat particulars ; although - 
an Emperor of China is, compared with a Grand Khan, a very mBignificant per- 
sonage. See also Grosier's descriptions, which are very similar. 

t In 1720 the Emperor Kam-hi or Kaog-hi, sixty-eight yearc of age, and in 
the mxtieth of his reign, gave a hunting entertainment in this park to Ismailof, 
the Russian ambassador from the Czar Peter. " We continued the sport till four 
o'clock, when we came to a high artificial mount, on the top of which were ten or 



On the moant there is an ornamented paviliDn ^itirely green. 
Within the park are various wild beasts, swans and other aquatic birds, v 
To this place, which is called the Green Mountain, the Grand Khan 
often retires to treat of the aSaiis of the empire*." 

twelve tentB for the imperial &mil]r. The emperor from this viewed all the tents 
in the plain and a great way into the forest. After dinner the Emperor sent to ' 
compliment the ambassador and inform him, ^at he had kept three tigers, which 
should be baited, for his entertainment. The bill was surrounded by several 
ranks of guards armed with spears; and a guard was placed before the ambassa- 
dor's and other tents, to secure the encampment from the fiiry of these fierce 
beasts. The first tiger was let out of his cage by a man upon a fleet horse, who 
opened the door by means of a rope. He rode off. The tiger came out, and de- 
%hted with his liberty began rolling himself upon the grass : he then rose, growl- 
ed, and walked about. The Emperor fired bullets with his matchlock at him 
twice, with good tarn, but he was too distant. His Majesty sent to the ambassa- 
dor to try his gun : he walked towards the animal, accompanied by ten men armed 
with spears, and, at a convenient distance, shot the tiger dead. The second was 
let out in the same manner, and rolled upon the grass like the first. The man 
shot at turn with a blunt arrow, to rouse him-, when he furiously pursued the 
horseman, who narrowly escaped within the ranks ; and the tiger, endeavouring to 
leap over the men's heads, was killed at the foot of the mount. The third, as 
soon as he was set at Uberty, made towards the Emperor's tent, and was, in like 
manner, killed with the spears. The Emperor was, in his youth, fond of bunting 
these creatures in the woods of Tartary, but now confines himself vrithin this 
forest, where there is game enough to gratify any sportsman : it is of great extent, 
and all enclosed within a high wall of brick: after travelling about as much as 
fifteen miles, I saw no endof it. Besides tigers, we saw panthers, leopards, linzes, 
boars, deer, hares, partridges, quuls, pheasants, &c. We aQ formed a semicir- 
cle, in the centre of which was the Emperor, with eight or ten of his sons and 
grandsons on his left, and the ambassador on his right, about fifty paces distant. 
Close by him were the master of die chase with grey hounds, and the grand fid- 
coner with hawks; many of these beautifid birds were as white as doves, having 
one or two black feathers in their wings or tails. They are brought from Siberia, 
or places north of the river Amoor : they generally raked the pheasants while 
flying, but if they took to the reeds or bushes they soon caught them." (Bell, 
Ch. XI.) 

• Marco Polo, B. U. Ch. VI. De Guinea, Vol. HI. p. 14«. 




Whbn Kublai has resided the usual time in the metropolis, in March 
he proceeds, in a north-east direction, to within two days journey of 
the ocean*; attended by full ten thousand falconers, who carry a vast 
namber of ger-falcons, peregrine falcons, and sakers, to pursue the game 
along the banks of the rivers. The &lconers are divided into parties, 
and follow the game in various directions. 

There are about teu thousand men to seek and mark the haunts of 
the game. Every bird belonging to the Emperor or the nobles, has 
a small silver label fastened to ite leg, with the name of the owner en- 
graved upon it. On account of the narrowness of the passes in some 
parts oi the country wha% the Grand Khan pursues the chase, he is 
foome upon two elephants only; sometimes on a single one : but other- 
wise, he makes use of four, upon the backs of which is placed a pavi- 
lion of wood handsomely carved; the inside being lined with cloth t^ 
gold, and the outside covered with the skins of tigers: a mode of 
conveyance rendered necessary, in consequence of his Majesty being 
troubled with the gout. 

In the pavilion there are always twelve of the best ger-falcons, and 
his Majesty has twelve of the officers of the court to bear him com- 

* Kang-hi, in 1683, proceeded to Eastern Titrtary, a thouBand miles to the 
□orth-east, probably to near the same place.' Sixty tigers, .besides bears, stag^ 
and bales, in vast numbers, were killed. He had his court with him, and more 
than seventy thousand persons in his retinue. Du Halde, VoL IL p. S69. 

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When ennes or otfaer birds are per«aTed« his Majestj orders the 
gei^fiileoiiB to be let fly; and, after a struggle, they orerpower the < 
game; which the Gtand Khan, as he lies upon his coodi, views with 
extreme sotisfiiction. 

The tent of his Majesty is so large, that ten thousand soldiers might 
be drawn up under it> wtthoat incommoding the nobles in the halls 
and chambers, attiie audience. Near to the Emperor's tent, are those 
of his ladies, who bare then ger-&lcons, hawks, birds, and beasts.— 
The outsides of the tents are covered with skins of tigers, joined so 
w^ as to keep out the wind and rain : within, they are lined with the 
richest ermines, sables, and other furs; the tent ropes are of silk. 
There are more than ten thousand tents for the Emperor's sons, the 
nobles, life guards, and the falconers. His Majesty takes his whole 
fiunily and household, phyncians, astrtmomers, 8ec So great is the 
assemUage, that it is quite incredible; and a spectator m^ht conceiTe 
himself to be in a populous city. 

By the lakes, storks, swans, herons, and a variety of birds are takoi. 
The exceUence and extent of the sport is so great as not to be ex- 
pressed: and the Emperor enjoys himself to a degree that no pemm, 
who is not an eye witness, can conoeiTe. 

No prince, or other person, is permitted to kill hares, roebucks, &!• 
low deer, stags, or my beasts of that kind, Cor the six months from 
March to October. 

The Emperor returns by the sune road, continuing the sport dnring 
the whole journey •. 

At the city of Changanor, or the white lake, the Khan has a palace 
which he is fond of visiting. There are there great numbers of phea- 
sants and partridges; cranes of five sorts, the first as black as crows, 

• Marco Polo, Book H. Ch. XVL 



with long wings ; the second white, the feathers of the wings fiill of eyes 
J like the peacock's, of a gold colour, very bright, the.head red and black, 
the neck black and white, and longer wiAgs than the first; the third 
are the size of the Italian ; the fourth small, strewed with red and 
azure; the fifth large, grey, with the head red and black. There is 
a valley near the city, which is much frequented by partridges and 
quails. The Grand Khan orders millet, panicum, and other grain, to 
be sown along the sides of the valley, every season, with strict com- 
mands, that no person shall dare to reap the seed. His Majesty al- 
ways finds abundant sport in this country. In winter, when, in con- 
sequence of the severity of the cold, he does not reside there, camel 
4oads of birds are sent to the court, wherever it may be*. At Pekin 
there is a market for^oKen provisions. 

The Grand Khan keeps leopards and Ijrnxesf, for the chasing of 
deer; and also tigers for seizing boars, wild oxen and asses, bears, 
Bt^^, and other beasts. The tigers are conveyed in cages placed up- 
on cars, and a little dog is confined with them, with which they ber 
come familiarized, and their fury is thereby abated. They are led op- 
posite the wind, in order that the game may not scent them. It is an 
admirable sight when the tiger is let loose in pursuit of the animal, to 
observe the savage eagerness and speed with which he overtakes it. 
His Majesty has eagles also, which are trained to stoop at wolves; 
they are of great size and strength: no wolf however large can escape 
their talons J. Wild horses are taken by the Tartars, by the use of 

* Marco Polo, p. 248. Some of the birds described are probably herons or 
storks. Note 461. 

t The Emperor Akbar, on bis hunting expeditions, was accompanied by a tbou> 
sand of these animals. Ayeen Akbari, Vol. I. p. S40. 

X M. Polo, p. 338, and note 638. The eagle the Tartan use, is the kanikush, 
or aqtala numa. Strablenberg, p. 3dd 

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hawkR trained to that pnrpose. They seize on the neck of the horse, CHAP, 
beat him and tire him by Ms chafing, so that he becomes an easy prey '^-in^v-*-' 
to the master of the bird, who rides with his bow, arrow, and sword ^. 
The Emperor has in his service two brothers named Bayan and 
Mingon, who are masters of the chase; having charge of the hounds, 
fleet and slow, and of the mastifib. Each of the brothers has under 
bis OTders ten thousand chasseurs; the ten thousand under one bro- 
ther wearing a red imiform, and the others a sky bine, when on duty. 
The dogs of different descriptions which accompany them to the field 
are not fewer than five thousand. The one brother takes his ground 
to the right, and the other to the left of the Emperor. They advance 
in regular order, till they have enclofied a tract of country to the ext^t 
of a day's march. It is a beautiful and an exhilirating sight to watch 
the exertions of the huntsmen, and the sagacity of the dogs, when the 
Emperor is within the circle engaged in the sport, and they are seen 
pursuing the stags, bears, and other animals in every direction. The 
brothers are under an engagement to furnish the court datl;/ for six 
months, from October to March, with a thousand head of game, quails 
being ezceptedf. 


The princes who had been overthrown by Genghis Khan, his sons 
and grandsons, sought refuge in Hindostan, which was under the Pa- 
tan or Afghan Emperors. In the thirteenth century many attempts 
were made to subdue Hindostan, but they all failed. 

• Purchas, VoL I. p. 480. f M. Polo, B. II. Ch. XV. 



CHAP. An army of Mongol Tartars made an incarslon into Bengal by way 

^^^vj^ of Chitta and Thibet. They were defeated and driven back by a large 
* army* 

A.D. 1243. The Mongols crossed the Indus and invested Outch. Masaood IV. 
headed his troops and marched against tliem. They retreated. 

A.D. 1365. The Emperor of Hindostan, Balin, was so &moas for generosity, 
that all the princes vanquished by the Mongols, sought his protecticm: 
there came upwards of twenty of these unfortunate sovereigns from 
Turquestan, Maver-ul-nere, Chorassan, Persian Irac, Azerfoijan, Per- 
sia Proper, Asia Minor, and Syria. They had a princely allowance^ 
and palaces for their residence allotted them. Balin's court was ex- 
tremely munificent. In the retinue of these princes were the mofit 
&mou8 men for learning, war. arts and sciences, that Asia produced. 
Philosophers, poets and divines formed a society every night in the 
house of the heir apparent to the empire. The horse-guards in the 

* Chitta has not been fouAd on any map. The wrfter'a conjebturt is, 'tiutt tlds 
iavaaion may have been by the passes of Deltamcotta and Coos Beliar ; for we - 
find that, in the year 1773, " the British troops and the Bootaners first met, and 
nothing could exceed their mutual surprize: (a disputed succession of a Rajah 
at Coos Behar, had caused one party to apply for support to the British ; the other 
to the Bootan government). The Bootaners, who had never met any but naked 
and timid Hindoos, saw for the first time a body of men clothed, armed, moving in 
tegular order, and led on by men of complexion, dress, and features, such as they 
had bevet iMheid. Tke aHfOety, atid mcevsant fire of the musketry, astonished 
them beyond any idea which they could have conceived. On the other hand, the 
British troops found themselves on a sudden engaged with a race of men unlike 
,tiB thtAr former opponents ih ladia, uncouth in their appeartuice, and fierce in 
Atkt atsaolt, wrapped up in fiirst«nd armed with bows asd arrows, aad otb» 
weapons peculiar to tfaem. The place was carried, and many arms and other 
things taken; images in clay, in gold, in silver, and in enamel were sent to Calcut- 
ta, eSi which appeared perfectly Tartar. The &me of our exploits in the war 
reached the court of Thibet, and awakened the attention of the Tayshoo Lama." 
Letter from John Stewart, Esq. F. R. S. to Sir John Pringle, Bt. P. R. S. Uni- 
versal Magazine, June, HTS. 

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cavalcade of tfae Enperor coosisted of athousancl noble Tartan, upon CHAP. 
tbe finest Persian ateeds, in splendid anoour. wiUt richly emtooidered v..»-v-^«-^ 
saddles, and bridles of silrw. The state elephants were caparisoned 
in purple and gold; and the train was not leas than a hundred thou- 
sand man. 

The M(^uls inrade Hindostan with twenty thousand horse, hut are -^D- l^SS* * 
repulsed from Lahore. 

Another invanon is frustrated. A..p. 1286. 

The King of Persia, in subordination to his cousin, Kublai, the A.D. 1891. 
Emperor of Tartary, inTaded Hindostan with ten tomans (one hun- 
dred thousand) of Moguls. Feroee II. moved forward to oppose 
him. Both armies encamped for fire days on the sides of a stream 
on the frontiers of Biram, and their advanced posts skirmished. On 
the sixth morning, they fought upon a plain. The Moguls were de- 
feated, many chiefe killed, and a thousand men taken prisoners, be- 
sides two omrahs, and several officers of rank. Tlie Emperor was 
afraid to pursue his victory, and offered them peaee, on condition of 
evacuating his dominions. They gladly accepted the terras, and pre- 
sents were exchanged. "When they were retreating, Allagu, a grand- 
son of Crenghis, joined Ferose with three thousand men. They all be- 
came mussulmans, and their chief was honoured with one of Ferose's 
daughters in marriage. 

Advices came to Delhi, that Dova, Ring of Maver-ul-nere, had sent A.D. 1296. 
an army of a hundred thousand Moguls to conquer Punjab, Moultan, . 
and the provinces near the mouth of the Indus. Alia I. sent his brother 
EHch with a great force to expel them. The Moguls were defeated 
with the loss of twelve thousand men, and many great officers. 
Nnmbers of prisoners of all ranks were taken; and some days afteiu 
wards put to the sword, not sparing the women and children, who had 
been taken in the Mogul camp. 



CHAP. Cnttulich, the son of Dova, king of Maverrul-^iere, with two faun- 
\..-^v'^<-' dred thousand Mongols, proceeded towards Delhi without opp<»ition. 
' The whole country had crowded int6 that city. Alia I. marched out, 
at the Budaoon gate, with three hundred thousand horae, two thousand 
seven hundred elephante, and foot without numher. With the choic- 
est elephants a tremendous line was formed in front of Alla's army. 
Ziffer commanded the right wing, and, by his impetuous and judicious 
conduct, the Moguls were defeated. He was at one time surrounded ; 
the enemy admired his extraordinary bravery, and called out to him to 
submit: he refused, and was cut to pieces with his friends who were 
around him. The Moguls retreated. 

Alia esteemed the death of Ziffer a second victory, and expressed 
his satis&ction thereat: so great was his jealousy and so base his in-' 

Many other invasions were repelled, till TamerUne vanquished 
Mahmoud, in 1398 ; when most of the provinces declared themselves 
independent. In 1525, the Mogul, Baber, mounted the throne at 
Delhi; and thus ended the line of Patau, Afghan, or Ghiznian so- 
vereigns f. 

A.D. 1869, There wfere nine Grand Khans, or Emperors, of the Mongol dynas- 
ty, on the throne of China. Shun-ti, the last, reigned thirty-five years. 
He was effeminate and indolent: his love of pleasure made him wholly 
neglect the a£&irs of state. He sent for the Lamas from Tartary ; who 
introduced their idolatry: and, to indulge his vicious inclinatiotts, 

t See Dow'8 Ipndostan, Vol. I. p. 179, &e. 


placed a coknpany of young female dancers in the palace, who entirely 
enervated the little courage that remained in him. By this conduct 
a rebellion was excited, and headed by a Chinese named Chu, who had 
been a serrant in a monastery of Bonzas. 

He gained many advantages over the Mongols. Shun-ti abandoned 
Pekin, on the 27th of August, 1369, with his family and his army: he 
was pursued and driven towards the north. 

In two years, the last of the Ywen dynasty in China died of grief 
for the loss of his empire*. 

• Du Halde, VoL U. p. 217. De Guines. No particulars of the battles, or of 
the retreats, have been met with. 

Digitized by njOOQIC 


Of the Employment of El^hantsfrom the earUett times m China 

PcTKo Tur<m Sciftkia -Turquestan — — Gazna 

Thibet Assam; from which Countries they may Aooe 

been introduced into Siberia. 

CHAP ^^^ these countries were subject to the Graod Khans, in the thir- 
III. teenth and fourteenth centuries. 


About eleven hundred years before the Christian era, the metropolis 
of the Emperor V u Yang, was Singan, the capital of Shensi, the western 
Chinese province, and contiguous to the territories of Assam*. Both 
the country and the metropolis were called Chin. A king of this terri- 
tory, which was gradually extended to the east and west, (and therefore 
comprised Assam, a region where elephants are exceedingly abundant; 
so much so, that most persons keep one to carry their wives, and one 
is buried in the tombs of the chiefs), makes a figure in the Shahoa- 
mah, among the allies of Afrasiab, mounted on a white elephantf . 
This is, possibly, the first mention, in history, of elephants being used 
in warfare in the neighbourhood of Siberia; it may be the same histo- 
ry as the following: 

* Meer Jumla, in the reiga of Aurungzeb, invaded Assam, to lat. SS^ . Dow, 
VoI.IH. P.S57. 
t Du lUde, Vol. I. p. 168. Sir W. Jones, VII. Disc. Vol. I. p. 101. 

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" The jey of Afraaiab at these soccessea knew no bounds; he re- ^'J^* 
mdred on an attack of the nmin bod;f of the Persians, which was com- v.^ y ^,^ 
uiandod by Kai RhooiTDO* and Roostum; who, on their part, adopted 
every means they coidd to repair their misfortune. Tooe was itdeas- ' 
od from his conftiaaent*. and sent, at the head of a fresh army, to 
meet l^eraih-Wisa, wiUi whom he had m action which lasted seven 
days; but> terminating unfavourably, he was forced to retreat to the 
m^mitaiBS of Hamavi, where his force was surroaaded and in great 
danger, until relieved by Roostum; who, after a number of sii^;le com* 
bats, in all of which he was successful, obtained a great victory and 
Made prnoner the Emperor of China, one of Afrasiab's chief idliee. 
This monarch is represented as riding on a wfdte tl^hant. The Chi- 
nese army dispersed, and Roostimi immediately marched in person af- 
ter Afrasiab, who fled to his capital; the conquest of which was only 
retarded for a short time by the arrival of Pooladwund, the chief of 
Khoten, who fought with great valour, and discomfited several of the 
most renowned of the Persians; but waft at last overthrown by Roos- 
tum. Afrasiab, destitute <tf all resource and support, fled from his ter- 
ritories; wfaidi were divided by Roostum among the leaders of the 
Persian annyf , Before Alexander the Great, Transoxiana was hi- 
habited by a nation known by the generic names of Gretse and Massa- 
IgetK. Afrasiab was probably nooarch (A these tribes %■* 

* " C^lioarau is, without fear of contradiction, the Cyrus of Xenophon, and 
the hero of the oldest political and moral romance." Sir W, Jones, Vol. I. p. 75. 
It is impossible to reconcUe dates and events. Different histories agree in the 
UiCU. Sir Wiffiam Jones, Vol. V. p. 691, supposes that Afrasiab may have been 
a common name for the kings of Astatic Tartary. 

t Cyrus replied — " My paternal kingdom reaches northward to those parts 
which are not habitable, through cold." Xen. Exp. of Cyr. p. 32. 

% Sir John Malcohn's History of Persia, Vol I. pp. 46 and 134. There baring 



CHAP. Among the Armenian nobles, there appeared, as an ally, Mamgo, who 
i-^-v-^ was a Scythian, and the horde which acknowledged his authority had en- 
camped a very few years before on the skirts of the CUnese empire, (at 
the latter part of the third century), which at that time extended at Jar 
as Sogdiana. Mungo, with his followers, having quarrelled with Tip- 
dates, retired to the bank of the Oxus, and implored the protection of Ssr 
por. The Emperor of China claimed the fugitive, and alleged the 
rights of sovereignty. Vou-ti, the first Emperor of the seventh dy- 
. nasty, called Tsin, who then reigned in China, had political transac- 
tions with Fergana, a province of Sogdiana, and is said to have re- 
ceived a Roman embassy. In Uiose ages, the Chinese kept a garrison 
at Cashgar; and one of their, generals, about the time of Trajan, 
marched as &r as the Caspian Seaf. 

' In the seventh century before Christ, Ogus Khan, (whose residence 
in summer was about the mountains of Ulug-tag and Kitzig-tag, in Si- 
beria, and in winter, at the foot of the mountains to the norUi of the 
river Sirr), conquered Kitai, Tangut, and a people between Kitai 
and the Indies, who are as black as Indians; and, drawing to the 
south, towards the sea coast, among the mountains, he was checked 
by a brave and warlike people^. Cabul, Cashmere, and a greAt num- 
ber of other countries, were subdued by Ogus, whose conquests 
were nearly as extensive as those of Genghis;, and whose name is 

been more than one monarch of the name of Afrasiab, and alsoof Rustoom, agreat 
confusion and obscurity in the Persian, Indian, and Greek chronology, has been 
created, as will appear in this chapter. 

t Gibbon, Chap. XIII. note 59. 

i Abul Ghazi, Vol. I. p. 15. The black people correspond precisely with the 

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r in the east, as that of Csesar in the west. IJlug-tag, Uie CHAP. 
icaideDce of Ogus, is between the sources of the rivers Tobol and '^.^■^X^ 
AhUuto, in Siberiaf. 

In the year 231 B. C. that vastest monument of human labour, the 
Chinese wall, was built, to keep out the Tartars. * * * In the year 117 
B. C. Vu-ti guned fonr great victories over the Tartars of the north 
west (of China), and drove them so far into their deserts that they 
dnrst not again appear for more than 1200 years. Yu-ti carried his 
victorious arms into the kingdoms of Pegu^Siam, Cambodia, and Ben- 
gal^ he built several cities there, and divided those countries amongst 
the generals who had conquered them. These Chinese soon contract- 
ed the manners and inclinations of the Tartars, and proved in time the 
greatest enemies of their mother country J. 

•• The first civil country eastward is that of the Seres, (Soli, Cap. 

Assamese. A note says, the others ate, undoubtedly, tiie countries of Tunquin 
and Cochin Chins; But they are more probably Ava, Pegu, Aracan, 8k. The 
brave and warlike people appear to be the Burmans and Peguans. 

t Thereismuchconfusionaboutthe period of Ogus. StraMenberg, p. 46, sup- 
poses him to have flourished eighty years before the prophet Ezekiel, and that 
he might be the Madysa of Herodotus, who, in a great battle, gained the empire 
of Asia from the Medes. See Herodotus, Clio, Ch. CIV. See the Translator's 
Preface to Abul Gbazi ; and Sir W. Jones's Fifth Discourse. I'he Persians are 
eztremdy ignorant of their early history ; the probability is, that Ogus flourished 
in the seventh or eighth century before the Christian era. 

J DuHalde, VoM.pp.^, 172, 177. yol.ll.p.g65. This Bengal is probab- 
ly the eastern or lesser Bangalla, a description of which will be found in the se- 
T«ath Chapter of these Researches. 

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LIII.) the quietest and mildest of men, fleeing the commevoe of 
^, other nations,, bartering yet with such as- resort to them. None 
fcnoweth sacrifices, but every one is judge to himself of that which ii 
right. They tell, that the commonwealth is governed by a councfl 
of five thousand, every one of whom findeth an elephant to the com- 
monwealth. (Jo. Boem, Lib. II. Ch. 9. Strabo, Lib. XV.) The 
chief city, by Ptolemy, is placed in 1 77" 1 5 ' and 38' 86 ' •. This re- 
gion he limiteth on the west with Scythia eastra Ifiuaon; on the eaflt 
with teira irtepgniia, and likewise on the north, (here some place 
the promontory Tabin, there the Eastern Ocean); on the south, with 
part of India extra Gangem: our siHcs have the name of this region. 
The Seres are supposed to inhabit the country now called Cathay, which 
name Niger deriveth ft-om a Scytiiian nation called Chatis'f. 

In the thirteenth and fourteenth centories of the Christian era, the 
Mongol Grand Rhans who resided at Pekin, and the viceroys thdr 
relations in Shensi, Ynnan,&c. possessed many thousands of elephants: 
those animals being a considerable part of the war eitablishment. — 
Since that period, elephants appear to have been kept for parade, htmt- 
ing, and as beasts of burthen. " Ships, on the Kiang-keou, we drawn 
by elephants to Quinsay {." 

* It b veD known, that a true knowledge of the longitadea haa not very kiag 
been oscertuned. Pekin ia only 134^ from FetTo. 
t Purcha«,Vol.l.p.899. 
t Vincent le Blanc, p. 103. 



Emmuel Carvaliui was at Cambiilu» (Pekm). in the year 1598r CHAP, 
wfaen the SUnpckor had four hundred elephants, which were brought v^^^-v^ak^ 
from Bfahcok and Pegu f. 

When Ux. Bdl was at Pekio, he says X — " After dinner we saw the 
kuge dei^ants richly caparisoned in gold and silver stu£b. Each 
had a driver. We rtood about an hour admiring these sagacious ani- 
mali> who, passing before us at equal distances, retunied again behind 
the stables, and so on, round and round, till there seemed to be no 
end of the procession, llie plot, howeim-, was diacorered by the 
features and dress of the riders: the chief keeper told us there were 
only sixty of them. The Enq>eror keeps them only for show, and 
makes no use of them, at least in these northern parts. Some of 
them kndt and made obeisance to us; others sucked up water from 
vessels, and spouted it through their trunks among the mob, or wher* 
ew the rid« directed." 

" The Emperor's life guards were clothed in red calico, printed 
with red figures, and wore small hats with y^ow feathers. Iliey 
were armed yn& acymUars and lances. There were eight white aad- 
dle horses, fof show. In the IJiird court of state, wore four extnor* 
dhiarily lai^ eleplumta, one of which was wkste. TVy wece all oft- 
Tered wiA ridi embratdeied cloths, and their tuappfngs, faridle«> 
cmppeis, &c. were fimsMrnted witii sHver and ffllt: «tt1beir1aackswMa 

t PurcluM, VoL I. p.4e2. { Oaip. IX. 



CHAP, fine carved wooden castle, spacioud enough for eight penoas. 'Being 
\.«.-Y-«,^ got out of the court, I mounted one of the Emperor^s waggnis wift 
two wheeb, and was drawn to my apartment by an ctophant. There 
were ten persons on each aide, with a rope in their hands fiutened to 
the elephant's mopth, to lead him; and, on his neck, sat a man with 
an iron hook to guide him. He weat but his ordinary rate, which 
obliged the men to run, to keep up with him. In the Emperor's sta- 
bles there were fourteen elephants: they made them roar, sing tike a 
Canary bird, neigh, imitate a trumpet, go down on their knees, &c. — 
All these elephants were extraordinarily large, and the teeth of some ;a 
fiiU fitthom long. The Mandarines told me, that the king of Siam 
annually sends several by way of tribute f." 

Thus we find, that firoin the earliest history to the present i 
the Chinese have always possessed numerous elephants; and that 
they have, from the begimiing, had wars with the Tartars in and 
about Siberia. 


Pebsia had wars in very early times with Hindostan. Towards the 
dose of the era of the royal dynasty of the Marajas, the first invasion 
of India by the Persians is placed. A prince of the blood royal of 
Lidia, being disgusted with the reigning prince, fled to Persia, whose 
king was called Feredon: he espoused the cause (rf the prince,inTaded 
Hindostan, and carried on a war with that empire for ten years. The 

t labranfB Ides. HarrU's Voy. VoL II. p. 946. 



Ibr^a ceded part oi his dommions to the fa^tive prince, who was his 
oefdiew. A trthnte toas sent to the king <jf Persia, and the empire of '^ 
Lidia seems ever after to dqwnd in some measure on Persia. During 
this war the governors of Ceylon and of the Camatic rebelled. The 
Persians threatened a second invasion, to prevent which all the pro- 
TincM on the Indus were ceded to the king of Persia. When the 
Morajas fiuuily became extinct, Kesror^a mounted the throne of In- 
dia, as near as can be computed, in the year 1429, before Christ. He 
solicited the aid of his lord paramount, the king of Persia. Kesrorajo, 
assisted by Persian troops, subdued Ceylon and the Decan, he con- 
tinned the tribute to Persia, and his dynasty reigned in the capital of ' 
Oud for two hundred and twenty years. 

In 1209, B. C. Ferosra was on the Indian throne. He neglected 
war, and expended the revenues on devotees and enthusiasts, and in 
building religious temples. Nevertheless, Persia being invaded by the 
Tartars, he took tiiat opportunity to recover the provinces on the In- 
dus. It is said that the Punjab remained in possession of the Indian 
monturchs till the reign of Kei-kobad, king of Persia. In his time, Rns- 
tum I>ista,king of Seistan, (Segistan), the Hercules ofthe Elast, invad- 
ed the northern provinces of India, and drove thelast prince ofthe dy- 
nasty of Ferosra, to the mountains of Turiutt, and from thence to the 
confines of Bengal and Orissa, where he died. Rustum rused to the 
throne, Snraja, a man of abilities, and restored the power of the em- 
pire, B. C. 1072. Kinoge was buOt by one of this family. The tri- 
bute continued to be paid to Persia. 

In the eighth century before the Christian era, Sincol, a native of 
Kinoge, rebelled, defeated the imperial army, and mounted the tiirone. 
He rebuilt the capital of Bengal, Lucnouti or Goura, which became 
an amazingly magnificent city. Sinool refused to pay the tribute to 
Persia. Pieran, a Persiao general, invaded India with fifty thousand 



horse: he was beaten b^ Sincol; and posted himself in a strong fadd. 
From this place he sent letters to his king, Afrasiab^ who reigned also 
orer great part of Tartary ; he was then on the borders of China. He 
came to battle witii Sincol, and, with one hundred thousand horse, 
pursued him to Croura. Sincol retreated to the monntahiB. He 
thought it most prudent to beg peace and fbrgiTen^s: he tberefioare 
went to the camp, in the character of a suppliant, witb a sword and a 
coffin carried before him, to shew that his life was at the king's disposal. 
Sincol was carried to Tartary, as a hostage for the obedience of his 
son Rohata, who was placed upon the throne oi Hindostan. Sincol 
died B. C. 731. Rohata had sent to Persia one-third of his revenues, 
as tribute, and to support his father. Sincol's dynasty held the seep* 
tre eighty-one years. 

Maraja, a Rajaput chief, now succeeded to the empire. He was 
contemporary with Hystaspes, &tber of Darius, who mounted the Per- 
sian throne after the death of Smerdis, by the Hindoo chronology, B. 
C 586; which agrees almost exactly with that established by Sir Isaac 
Newton. Maraja reigped forty years. Kedaraja, his nephew, suc- 
ceeded him. 

The mountaineers of Cabul and Candahar, now called Afghans w 
Patans, recovered all the provinces on the Indus. JTei-chund, ihe 
commander in chief of Kedar^Vs armies, succeeded him. He reign- 
ed sixty years. Jei-chund pnnctnally paid the Persian tribute. Deln, 
brother of Jei'Chund, seized the throne from his nephew, Jei-ohuud's 
eldest SOD. He built the city which bears his name, Delhi. In the 
reign of Delu, Pfaoor, a prince of his own family, rebelled against the 
Emperor, marched to Kinoge, defeated his sovereign, and confined him 
in the fort of Rhotas. Pfaoor extended his power irom sea to sea, and 
restored the empire to its pristine dignity. He died after a long reign, 
and hA the empire to his son, Phoor II. who, in consequence of the 



tnraUesln Persia, n^^eoted to pay the tribute; fafr was the Poms van- OIAF. 
quished hj Alexander the Greatf . . i.^y^i 

The hero Aoostam, m the battle in which he slew the king of Ma- 
xenderan, is sud to have killed a number of elephants. We must oonr 
dude, firom both the andent history and the sculptures of Persia* that 
this animal once abounded in that kingdran. The province of Maaen- 
deran is, from cUmate and abunduice of vegetation, more fitrourable to 
their support than any other in the empire J. 

The Bides ot the arch (at Tackt-i-Bostan) are covered with repre- 
eentations, in baa relieC of the boar hunt. Some are mounted on 
horses, and othen on elephants. The ponderous elephuits, with their 
riders, phmge tiirough the marshy bushes in every direction. An up- 
right compartment, on one side of the chase, is dedicated to the canx> 
ing of the spool ; and the division opposite, to a range of elephuits in 
pursuit of the deer §. 

The army of Artaxeraes conasted of a hundred and twenty thou- 
sand horse, seven hundred elephants with towers fiUed with archers. 

t 3ee Dow's Hmdostan, IntrodncUoiL The reader Is requested to enntse 
Mme iinr lepetttxaiB, od the oonrideratioa of Tuious hisbmes coofinaing eMh 
other as to events ; but to elucidate the periodB of most of them appears hopeless, 
till Alexander's invasion of India. 

t Sir John Malcolm's History, VoL hf. 86, 

S Sir R. K. Porter's Traveta m Persia, VoL 11. p. 79, and plate LXIII. 



^rn^^' °^° *'^^" backs; and one thousand eight hundred chariota aimed 
v-i*-v--«-' with ficythesf. 

Elephuits are used all over the east, in the amusements of the 
chase; and hmiting was always a royal sport in Persia. Alexandor 
the Great, when he was there, killed a fierce lion, and was compli- 
mented hy the Lacedemonian ambassadors. Philotas, son of Parme- 
nio, had hunting nets that would enclose the space of a hundred fur- 
longs J. 

As to ettgles, hawks, &1cons, and other birds of prey, there is no 
country where they have more, or where they are better instructed, 
than in Persia. The Shah has eight hundred or a thousand of them; 
and there is no man of any figure, without his hawks and &Icoheni. 
The hawks are taught not only to fly at birds, but at hares, deer, and 
dl manner of wild beasts. By fixing themselves on the head of the 
animal, and beating him with their wings, he is so terrified and dis- 
tracted, that the dogs and huntsmen, which follow, have very little dif- 
ficulty in taking him§. 

We had a sight of prince Polagi's elephant, and were astonished 
at his monstrous bulk; he exceeded the height of any two men, and 
was much larger than any we saw at Ispahan, where there was a great 
number of them; he was governed by a little boy. 

f Gibbon supposes this force much exaggerated by Alexander Severus. 
t Plutarch. § Harris's Voy. Vol. II. p. 887. 




ThCTe were driven into the enclosure thirty-two wild asses, at 
whidi the king discharged some halls, and shot some arrows. He 
then permitted the amhassadors and lords to shoot at them. The 

■ beasts having sometimes ten, or more, arrows shot into their bodies, 
would &11 a biting and running at one another in a strange manner.. 
Having killed all that were wounded, thirty more wild asses were 
let in; which were killed and laid in a row before the king, to be sent 
to the court kitchen at Ispahan. The Persians highly esteem the 

, flesh. On the 26th Not. (16S7), the king (Shah Sefi) returned from 
the hunting so drunk, as also were most of the lords, that they could 
hardly sit their horses f. 

At the great himts of lions, leopards, tigers, panthers, ounces, boars, 
stags, hyaenas, &c. they make use of the yourze, (hunting leopard). 
When they are too large to be carried behind the rider upon a horse, 
they are placed in an iron cage, and carried upon an elephant; and 
thence leap upon their prey^. The ordinary number of animals 
slaughtered is seven or eight hundred, but they relate that as many as 
fourteen thousand have been killed sometimes §. 

t Ambassador's TroTek, pp. 191. 212, SIS. 

X Such importance have the Persians always attached to these sports, that they 
record in their history, that — " Hushing, probably contemporary with Minos, and 
king of Persia, B. C. 865, was the first who bred dogs and leopards for hunting, 
and introduced the &shion of wearing the furs of wild beaats in winter." Sir Wil- 
liam Jones, Vol. V. p. 688. 

S Voyage de Chardin, en Perse, Vol II. p. 83. 



Tb« mjoy from BaAavia nude bis public «ntry into Ispohiw, pre- 
eeded by bU eleph«ato* wbicfa the governor bad iieat to the laqg^ 
A. D. 1717 1- 

The Kbaa (of Shaioadiie). desiroiu to let the smbassadoni see how 
expert he was in shooting, bid them obseire one of -the Iwnpa that 
8to6d near thew, to see. whether he «truqk it out with the first inuakeb< 
shot, which he did twioe following. On the 27th) he* being engaged 
in business, sent us his huntsmen, his bounds, and bis bawka; aa aim 
a leopard, which, being excellently taught, started with as much swift- 
ness as a greyhound, and gave us all the satisfaction which bunting 
could afford. He discovered no bare which he took no^ and dUQO on 
at the least call with more command than any setting dog. leaping vp 
b^ind the person who had the ordering of him. Olearius, pp. IW, 

Every day, at Delhi, were given combaUtof elephants, bulb, lions, 
and other wild beasts. 

On the 26tb of March, and following days, the commissaries secured 
treasures in precious jewels beyond conception : fifteen crores (a hun- 
dred and fifty millions) of rupees, horses, and elephants innumerable. 
Nadir apprised iht king of Bohors, that, as that empire belonged te 

t B^ of Antermoi^. 



the descendants of Crenghis Khan, he was resolved to secure its tran- 
quillity, for which purpose he should visit it. He sent at this time 
fourteen chain elephants and other presents to the Emperor of Rus- 
sia. Tbe saptured artillery and elephants were sent from Cakni to 

At Hesdnhd, (A. D. 1740), an ambassador fircnn India, presented t« 
Kadir Shtdt, letten anignii^ oertain rerenues, and muij cham el»- 

His Majesty sent to the Grrand Seignior a throne of solid gold, or- 
namented with large pea^, and two ehain elephants that had been 
taught, at the sound of instruments, to dance*. Nadir %ah brought 
three hundred elephants from Delhi to Persia "f. 

The king of P«rsiaVi elephants are much iaxg&t than those exhibited 
m Eurc^: they were richly caparisoned, and mounted by Tndiaiis. 
Their bodies weve painted with various oohmrs, while their tounkii^ 
tails, and tusks, were guilded. A diild makes them obey his ovdMBi, 
and they are trained to kneel in the maimer of camels; to salute the 
king with their proboscis; to cry out; to ^ake their ears when they 
«re ordered; in short, to raise themselves on their hiod l^s. A 
group of tumblers dexterously mounted the largest of the king's de- 
j^uints, and the young rope dancer gave us aew darms, by making an 
extremdy dsngepous leap bKkwards from the crupper of the sad- 

• Sir W. Joobb'b Work«, life of Nadir Sbah, Vol V. 
t Universal Magazine, January, 1754. 

% Tancoign's Journey into Persia, with the embassy of General Gardaue, 1807. 



BcTBZBNA, the first leader of the Tarks, A. D. 545, (whose reai- 
dence was by the Altai, or Golden Mountains, near the river Irtish, 
in latitude 49 by the learned Chinese accounts,) married a Chinese 
princess. In the course of fifty years, the Turks made war upon the 
Persians, Chinese, and Romans; and their conque»t» extended to tie 
/roxen ocean. The Chinese bought off these conquerors by tribute. 
The Turks subdued the Ogars on the banks of the Til (Volga) and 
dew immense numbers. They made a treaty with Justinian, the 
Roman Emperor, who sent ambassadors to the Altai mountains. 
They were feasted in tents with embroidered silk hangings, the royal 
seat was of gold, and also the cups and vessels out of which they drank. 
A bed of massy gold was raised upon four golden peacocks. Silver 
statues, diahea taid basons, of admirable workmanship, were ostent^ 
tiously piled up upon waggons. When Disabal had celebrated the 
obsequies of his father, he was saluted by the ambassadors, from Con- 
stantinople, of the Emperor Tiberius, who proposed an invasion of 
Persia. The Grand Khan answered them by putting his ten fingers 
to his mouth, " You Romans," said he, ** speak with as many tongues 
of deceit and perjury. A Turk disdains a falsehood. You precipi- 
tate your allies into danger; you favour my fugitives, the Ogars. I 
know their route and am acquainted with the course of the Neister, 
the Danube, and the Hebrus. The most warlike nations, from the 
rising to the setting sun, have yielded to the Turks." Disabal sent 
ambassadors to the Emperor Maurice, styling himself lord of the seven 
climates, master of the seven races. The south boundary of the 
Turks was the Oxus *. 

* See CHbbon's Roman Empire, Ch. XLII. 



*' CHA.OANDB, the ScTthian king, sent ambassadors to tbe Emperor 
MsuritiuB, (who died A. D. 602). He styled himself governor of 
seven nations. He conquered the Abdele, the Avarea, and the Ogar 
nation, which dwell by the river Til or Volga. He conquered also 
the king (^ Ct^h, in which war he slew three hundred thousand 
people. He subdued also the Turks at the hill Icar, four hundred 
miles distant from the Golden Mountain, which is in the east, rich in 
fertility and store of cattle, aai which the greatest Chagan among the 
Turks always possesseth. They call their priests Taisau, that is, the 
son oi God. lliis city is divided by a stream ; they say it was built 
by Alexander when he had overcome the Sogdians and Bactrians. 
The king's wives, shining with jewels, are carried in golden chariots, 
each drawn with, one bull; the bridles embossed with gold. Fame 
attributeth another city, not far from hence, to Alexander, called Chub- 
dan; the prince whereof being dead, his wives in black, with shaven 
heads, continually mourn, and may never forsake the sepulchre. 
They have many elephants; and traffic with the northern Indians, 
who make silk. Thus much I thought worth adding out of Simocat- 
ta, for better knowledge of the Turkish, I'artarian, and Scythian 
history f." 

" As I have pointed out the course of the Irtish till it reaches Tobolsk^ 
sa^ Mr. Bell, I will mention what I have heard from an ingenious 
gentleman, who fills a public place in Siberia, about the Kontaisha, or 

t Purchas, Vol. I. p. 397, Chaganue is, no doubt, the Latmiam for khan of 


prince of the Ka]mucs. His territories are bounded on the North 
i by the Russian power, (sae map, flag 23X hy China on the east, and by 
the Great Mogul on the south. He is able to bring into the field, at 
a ehoTt fraTQing> a hundred thovund fattf se-mm, all able-bodi«4 nien, 
well mounted, and armed with bows and arfows, lanoes and sabres. 
They live in teats all the year, r Anoving at their oanvenieBOe. Thii 
is the most ancient and pleAsant manner of life. It is enteitainiDg to 
hear tb6m commisermte those who are confined to one place of abode, 
and obliged to support thenraelres by labour. There are always some 
thousands enoamped near the Kontftisha, who treat him with great 
reneration and respect. He is attentive to the interests of his peo- 
ple, and as assiduous in the administration of justice, as if they were 
his own children. A person may travel in bis dominions with greaier 
safety to his person and effects than in many otlKr countries. The 
deputy fn>m the governor of Siberia, with his servants, were admitted 
into the tent, wheK the Rontaisha sat with his queen and several 
children about him. He desired all of them to sit down, on carpets or 
mats. They Were entert»iued with tea before dinner: and after It 
the Kontaisha dismissed the deputy in a friendly manner, telling him 
be wonld giv« him the answer to the goveraor's letter the next day, 
whidi he punctually performed. They write with brevity attd per- 
spicuity. I have seen some of th^r letters translated, whidi pleased 
me extremely : they use no tedious preambles or disgusting repetitions. 
The Kontaisha some time ago claimed and took possession of some 
.towns on the Chinese frontier. The Emperor sent an army of three 
hundred thousand men, under tlie command of his fourteenth son, the 
best genenJ of all his children. The Kontaisha defeated th«a in 
several acticma, and peace was concluded. The Chinese had martdied 
from the west of China through a desert and barren country, encum- 
bered with artillery, and heavy carriages with provisions for die whole 



ani^ I I9 wbieh %h^ tbrw ww vwfih diminished. On Iheir tpproftc^ 
iritku A fvv- cUyif mardt 9I th« Kontavbfl, he sent out dotadtmentt v 
of light horse to set fire to the gfera* laj w«3t« .the oountrf , nod dU< 
tract them day and night with alamis. This is their ancieat practice, 
by which they deprive their enemies of provisions, while they have 
always spare horses to kill and eat. lliia must be the same prince 
vin9i ifl oallffd thQ Grwt Chaw of Tfutery- M no Gtir«p9ana tnvel 
thxoogh tkift ^ovmtxy, our mvpfi muit be yery «m»Q«4w." Jwnwy to 
Pekin, 1720, Ch. II. 

Tke feffwjistg m pariumioriy trnparttnU, m 9cmmtt of pnmng fkat 
^it^kant* viU hw in the tevtrest cold. We o^m find tkat Tivmr 
^ not iwe tmif tikj^imita, althongi " M» troopt were ahHged to dig 
for water, tuio or three ettbite through the iee; at, from the ew^s atier- 
mg Sagittarim to hi* ewmtg (hM (fPiseet, utaggoH*, men, and heastt 
imM pem ff«y ptwt eiiier ^ the Gihon or the Sihon. fforpn and 
men perished, aome toeing their kandt, feet, eera, or noaee *." 

The king of Gwihgar met Mamood'a army fiv« fenongs irom BaUch, 
w B«lc. Mamood iM;rengthened bit fine wiUi five husdred ohida «fo- 
pbmits. Some chosen aquadronew uvl«r the oommaml of Elich, h»r* 
ing thrown his ocvrtre into diswder, Mamood mounts an elephant 
and violently aseaolted EUch, The ctWixbaaf: afiaed the itandard 
b««T«ff with )m truDk. snd tossed him aloft ii^ the air. Mamood 
tlwu prewtd £wwivd, and totally deleated tiie king. It was winter, 
and he pursued the «i«ny two dayai thoi^h, on aooount of the incle- 
mency of the season, the troops were hardly capable of mbtion. On 
the third night, a great storm of wind and snow overtook the Ghiz- 

? Sherefeddm. Vol. 11. p, 87$. 



CHAP, nian amy in the desert. The troops were obliged to lie in the snow; 
\.«i-v^«^ and in the morning, some hundreds of men and horses were found tb 
have perished with cold. A.D. 1007f. 

Mamood had a white elephant, and, when mounted upon that ani- 
mal during an engagement, he esteemed it as a certain pledge of vic- 
tory J. 

Mamood, returning to BaHch, gave the government of Herat to his 
son. Masaood. Hethen marched with a hundred and thirty thousand 
horse and foot, through the mountains behind Cashmere, by way of 
Thibet, to Kinoge. 

The Indian prince submitted, and paid the plunder of the city, and 
fifty elephants. The Sultan proceeded to Mavin, on the Jumna, which 
surrendered. He found much spoil, and seventy elephants of war. 

At Mutra, he captured five great idols of pure gold, and above one 
hundred of silver; and loaded a hundred camels with bullion. From 
the Raja Jundroy he took three hundred and fifty elephants, fifty- 
Uu-ee thousand captives, jewels, pearls, and precious effects, which 
could not be properly estimated: nor was the private spoil less. 
Jundroy had an elephant of a most uncommon size, such as had never 
before been seen In Hindostan; nor was he more remarkable for his 
enormous bulk, than for his docility and courage. Mamood, having 

t Dow, Vol. I. p.4€. No instance has been met with of an elephant being kill- 
ed by the cold. 
t D'Herbelot, Vol-II. p.4l. 



^leard much of this elepfasnt. Bent to ihe lUja, o£feriiig him advanta- ^Yit^' 
geous terms of peace, and a great sum of money for this animal. But •^•.^■y^^mJ 
the obstinacy of Jundroy would never listen to any terms with the 
musaulmans; so that Mamood, with regret, was obliged to desist 
The elephant, however, happened one night to break loose from his 
keepers, and went into the Ghiznian camp ; where he permitted him- 
sdf to be mounted and brought before the king; who received him 
with great joy, and named him " The Gift of God," because he came 
by accident into his hands. • * • The king, on his return to Ghisni, 
ordered a magmficent mosqiie of marble, of such beauty, as struck 
every beholder with astonishment and {Measure. It was adorned with 
such el^^t carpets, chandeliers, and otlKr ornaments, of silver and 
gold, that it became known by the name of " The Celestial Bride." 
Near this mosque, he founded an univeTsity^ which he furnished with a 
vast collection of curious bof^, in various languages ; and with nar- 
tund and artificial curiosities. He appropriated a sufficient iund for 
the maintenance of the students, and learned men, who were appointed 
to instruct the youth in the sciencesf . 

In the year 1024, Mamood marched to Balicfa with fifty-five thou- 
sand chosen horse, and thirteen hundred elephants, to expel Tigg^ 
from the government of Uaverulaere, for oppressing the people, who 
had complained to the king of his tyranny. Kudir, king of Tiu^ues- 
tan, paid Mamood a visit, and was received with joy and friendship, 
with whom Mamood entered into a treaty; and the monarchs, on 

t Dow'g HmdMtui, Vol, I, p. 59. 




but was oTcrtaken, and confined for Ufis];. 

OF BOCTAN, A. D. 1669. 

From Crorackpour to the foot of the idgk moontauu, is eight or 
nine dajrs jouroey; during which, the oaravan luffera great hardships, 
the country being nothing but wide forests, fyi of wild elephants. Six 
leagues bejond Gcnruokptnir, you enter Napaul : which territories ex- 
tend to the fr<HitieTs of Boutao. The Raja resides at the city of Na- , 
paul, and he pays the Mogul every year an elephant for homage, It 
took the caravan eight days to cross the mountains of Naugrocot. 
Women came down, to carry the traveHen upon a cushion fixed on 
their backs; three women to cany one man. The luggage and provi- 
sions M<e laden up<m goats, which carry one hundred and fifty pounds 
weight each. After you have passed the mountains, you may travd 
to Boutan upon oxen, camels, horses, or palanquins. The men and 
women are clad, in summer, with fustian or hempen cloth, in winter 
with a thick cloth almost like felt. Had the natives of Boutan as 
much art as the Muscovites in killing the martin, they might vend 
great siores of those rich furs, conndering what a number there is in 
tiat country. There are always fifty de^ihants kept about the king 
of Boidw'a house; and twenty-five cameb, each with a piece of artil- 
lery upon its back, which carries a half-pound baU. No king in the 
world is more feared, lespeoted, and adored- They assured me, as a 
truth, that iriien hia majesty has done the deeds oi nature, they care- 
fully collect the ordure, dry it, powder it, and carry it in a box like 

t We may reasonably pieamne diat ri^hants foimed a part of these presenta. 
t Dow, Vol.Lp.65. 



taaff, to present to tlwir friend^ in imall qnantitias u a gnat nntj, ^^^' 
to stiew upon iheir meat Tbej have no one to fear but the <..«-v-^^ 
Mogul t and from turn they are fenced with high, steep, cra;^ and 
snowy mountains. Northward, nothing but vast forests and snow; 
East and West, nothing but bitter wat«; and as for the lUjaa near 
them, they are princes of little force. In the year 1659, the Duke of 
Muscovy's ambassador passed through this country to the king of 


In ih.e year 1638, the Tatars of Assam JnTaded Bengal. They 
rushed down the Burhampooter in armed boats, to where it falls into 
the Ganges below Dacca. They pkmdered the northern districts, 
and took several small forts. Islam, governor of Bengal, defeated 
them, and killed four thousand; and eaptured five hundred of their 
wmed vessels. Fifteen forts, and the king of Assam's son in law, fell 
into his hands. He reduced the province of Cochagi, and invaded 
that of Buldive. The latter was very obstinately defended. Few pass* 
es led into it, being environed with mountains. The Subadar at last 
forced the passes, and the enemy fled to tix mountains. The sove> 
reign of Buldive, harassed with fetigue and vexation, died. The 
unfortunate Assamites beheld, from their hilla and woods, the smok* 
of their burning towns. But Islam having burnt the grain, inadvert- 
ently, the scarcity ob%ed him to retreat. He suffered incredible 
hardahipa by the badness of the roads and the torrents from the hills; 

• TaTemier, P. II. B. III. Ch XV. At Chunnuiiog in Thibet, Lat. 30» 44f,iSx. 
Bogle, in 1774, found Fahrenheit's thermometer in his rown S9 degrees belowtbe 
freezing point While Mr. B. was at that place, aeveral Mongols and Calmucs ar- 
med from Siberia, with whom the Tayshbo Lama conversed* 

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CHAP, besides which, the rainy season produced a distemper in the imperial 
v^^'v'o^^ army. Thibet was at the same t^e reduced by Ziffer. The news of 
this doable conquest greatly pleased the Emperor, no Mahomedan 
prince in India having before erer penetrated into those countries f. 

Aurchozebb's general, Meer Jumla, invaded Assam, and brought 
from thence several iron cannons, and store of excellent powder, both 
made in that country. He landed his array in the 29*'' or SO"* degree 
of latitude, having sailed up the mouth of the Ganges, that comes from 
Lake Chiamay, and burnt and sacked all wherever he came, to the 35th 
degree X : there he understood that the king of Assam was in the field, 
with a more powerful army than he expected; he therefore retreated 
to the south-west, and besieged and plundered the city of Aroo, where 
are the tombs of their sovereigns. He found great wealth. They bury 
with their kings idols of gold and silver, one dephani^, twelve camels, 
six horses, many hounds. All his beloved wives, and the principal offi- 
cers, poison themselves, to be buried with him. At Kenneroof. the 
king keeps his court. It is a rich and abundant country. All 
the natives live at their ease; every one has a house by himself; and 
in the middle of his ground a fountain, encompassed with trees; and, 
most commonly, every one an elephant to carry his wife ||. 

t Dow's HindoBtan, Vol. III. p. 16^. 

X A long account of this invasion is in Dow's Hist. Vol. HI. p. 357. A. D. 1G65. 

§ Aldiough there is no direct evidence that Assam was conquered by the 
Grand Khans, as the surrounding states were all reduced, it ia not probable that 
Assam escaped the general &te. See M. Polo, note 887. 

I Taremier, Part U. B. III. Ch. XVII. See also Sir W. Jones's Supplement, 
VoL I. p. 231. 


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, initizedbyGoOQle 

OB. T A M[ K 18, I, A 3S 3E " 


Sketch of the life of Timur Bee, or Tamerlane. His Battles 

in Siberia Russia Hindostan Syria Georgia 

Asia Minor, Elephants. Extraordinary Splendour 

, of his Court. His Death. Ruin.of his Empwe. Em- 

hasiy from his son. Shah Rohk^ to the Emperor of China. 
Origin of the Gypsies. 

J. IMUR Bee, or Tamerlane, was descendedj m tlte female line, from 

Gei^his Khan. He was bom at Sebzar in the territory of Kesh, near rv. 

Samarcand, in the year 1336. ^-^ 9 

Tbe empire of Turquestan and Transoxiana was given by Genghis ^'^' ^^^ 
Khan to his son Zagatai : his descendant, Saltan Cazan, succeeded to 
the throne in 1332. He proved a cruel tyrant, and fell in the field of 
battle in 1346. Confederate chiefe placed other princes, successively, 
upon the throne; but, through dissentions among the chiefs, the whole 
country became a scene of anarchy and despair. During these trou- 
bles, Togluc Timur Khan,kingoftheGetes*,whowasdescendedfrom . _ ,^„ 
Zagatai, resolved to make himself master of the country, to which, as 
hereditary Grand Khan, his birth gave him a just title ; and he levied 
an army for that purpose. 
Hadgi Berlat, (the name of a noble tribe) to whom and his ancestors 

* Gete or Qeta sppesrs, throughout, to include Central and Western Siberia, 
M well as Casbgar. See Chap. Y. 

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the town of Kesh and its dependencies had always belonged, was the 
' uncle of Timur. He was one of the confederate princes, and levied as 
many troops in the cities of Kesh and Carshi as he could, in order to 
assist in repelling the invasion; but, changing his resolution, he 
marched to Chorassan. 

Timur's father, Tragai, had just paid the debt of nature; and his 
uncle, Hadgi Berlas, having fled, Timur conceived himself to be the 
only person who could put a stop to the insult, with which a foreign 
army threatened his unhappy country. He repaired to his uncle, re- 
presented the dangers that awaited them, and proposed going to the 
king of the Getes to ofl'er his'services, by which he hoped to avert the 
impending ruin. ETadgi Berlas embraced him, and, feeling persuaded 
that his nephew was inspired by Heaven, approved of his project. 

Timur set out, and at Cuzar he met the conductor of the scouts of 
the king; to whom be behaved so handsomely that Hadgi Yesouri, 
which was the conductor's name, promised not to commit any hostili- 
ties before a conference was had with the three Mongol princes who 
had gone forward. Timur returned to Kesh, where the princes had 
arrived. They expressed great pleasure at his having submitted to 
the Grand Khan, and gave him the command of a toman (ten thou- 
sand) which was formerly under his ancestor Caratchar**. They also 
gave him the principality of Resh, with all its dependencies* Peace 
was thus restored ; and it was said of Timur, that at the sight of him 
alone sorrow was changed into joy. 

Dissentions arising among the princes, they returned with all their 
troops to the king, who was at Tashkund. 

Tmur's person is described as tall and well formed, and that nar 
ture had set in his eyes such majesty, that men could scarcely endure 

• On this subject see page 33 of Timur's IiutitutM. 



to look on them. He wore his hsir long, contrary to tbe Tartarian ^^^'- 
custom, pretending that his mother was of the race of Sampson *. He '^^^v'^m' 
was grave and modest in hia deportment, a strict obserrer of his word, 
and rigidly attached to the religion and law of Mahometf . 

Timur^ conntry had begun to enjoy the benefits of ids clemency 
and justice, when he heard that his uncle was on his retnm to Keah, 
with hostile intentions. On which Timur, joined by prince Keser, 
marched, and at Akiar a bloody battle took place in &vor of Timur; 
but, for some reason, not related, 'Hmut's troops deserted him, and 
went over to his uncle; leaving with Timor only the prince Yakou. 
Keser, on ^aa, also deserted Timur, entertdning jealoosy and a bad 
opinion of him. 

The Mongol Khan, king of Gete, again invaded Transoziana with A.D. 1360. 
a great army; on his arrival at Ck^^de, Bayarad the prince of that 
pUce went to pay his respects. Hadgi Berlas followed his example. 
Bayazid being seized and put to death, Hadgi Berlas took the alarm, 
and fled to Keah; whence he again advanced with some troops. The 
Khan sent the regiment of Cashmir in pursuit of Berlas, who was do* 
feated; and, on his retreat to Chorassan, he was assassinated by rob- 
bers. Timur pnnished the assassins. 

A prince of distinction, fine genius, and prudence, named Mir Ha- 
med, who was in favour with the Khan, and the friend of Timur, pro. 
cured his invitation to the court at Samarcand. Timur was received 

• The portrait in this yolume is from «n Indian dntwing in the posMSsim of 
the writer. Timur was sixty-tliree years of age when at Dellii. 

t Sea Purchas, VoL I. p. 4«4, and the French Editor's Prefcce to Sherefeddb. 
The reader will bear in mind, throughout this life, that the lion'* portrait is pamt- 
ed principally by his own artist. Slierefeddin, however, is not more partial than 
Timur's enemies, the Turks and Arabs, are ial&e and abusive. His history is the 
most authentic of any. See Cribbon, Ch. LXV. 



graciously, and confirmed in the command of his tnx^, and in the 
^ aorereignty of Kesh. 

The empire having sulnnitted to the aathority of To^ac Timur, 
the Grand Khan, he gave the government of the country to his son, 
EKas Coga Aglen ; and appointed Bikidgek and other lords to attend 
the person of the prince. Timur Bee, on account of his wisdom, had 
in charge the principal administration of the affiurs of state. Bikid- 
gek, by his insolent conduct, and opposition to the commands of the 
Khan himself, caused Timur Bee to quit Samarcand. He went to seek 
the emir Hussein, and at last met him in the desert of Kirac. The two 
princes discovered that the governor of that district designed to seize 
them ; on which they departed with only sixty men. Tekil, the go- 
vernor, pursued them with a thousand horse, and overtook them. Ti- 
mor and his friends defended themsdves with such desperate vigour 
and heroism, that they killed or wounded all their assailants except 
fifty; by which their own party was reduced to seven. Hussein 
rushed full speed upon Tekil, and was surrounded, when Timur cut 
in amongst them, and Hussein disengaged himself. Tekil's party re- 
turned to the charge, and Hussein's horse, pierced with an arrow, fell 
tmder him. The princess, his wife, instantly dismounted and brought 
him her horse. Timur, with his sword in one hand and his bow in 
the other, was in a moment present, and shot Tekil in the face : he 
fell from his horse, and Timur transfixed him to the earth with a half- 
pike, which he had snatched from the ground. Thus ended the perfi- 
.dy and ambition of Tekil. 

Timur made Hussein remount his hOrse, and they re-entered the de- 
sert. Three of the seven soldiers left them. In this extremity, they 
agreed, for safety, to separate, that they might not be known. Timur 
went forward with his wife, Turcan Aga, sister of Hussein; and only 
one faithful servant. After they had passed the desert, they were sur- 



nnnded by a horde of Turcomans*. Timur, having had time to CHAP, 
hide his wife in a pit, rushed on them ; when one of them knew him, •^^^-v^^^-' 
and instantly apologized. They feasted Timur, who next day pre> 
sented them with a large ruby, and some embroidered armour of great 
value. The chief presented Timur with three horses, and gave him 
Sarag Coulangi to serve him as a gnide. In this condition Tunnr 
went to join Emir Hussein, who had taken another road. After they 
met, they got OiflT their horses, and passed twelve days at a place called 
Mahmoudi, in a desert. Here they were discovered, surprised, and. 
led to Macan, where Ali Bei imprisoned them sixty-two days in a 
filthy dark chamber, ftill of vermin. Mehemed, the brother of Air Bei, 
warned him of the imprudence of treating these lords with so much 
indignity; when he, reluctantly, gave them their liberty, a poor lean 
horse, and an old camel. The prince of Sandger, hearing of his iriend 
Timor's distress, testified his sorrow, and sent him acceptable succours. 
Emir Hussein now departed towarib Hirmen, and Timur to Kesh. 

Timur and Hussein went to the assistance of the prince of Seistan: 
and having rendered him much service, on their return they met a 
great company of Seghzians, with whom they had a hot encounter ; 
when Timur was dangerously wounded in the hand, wkieh wot there- 
by lamed for l^e f , 

Timur had many other reverses and instances of success: when the A.D. 1S62. 

* TurcomanB are iaid to be descended &om the ancient infaabitanta of Turkes-i 
tan. See Abul Ghazi, Vol. II. p. ASS. 

f "And vheit I lav that the ruler of Seistan fulfilled not his engagements, I 
was without remedy ; and I advanced towards them and gave them battle. And 
an UTOW came and pierced my arm ; and another arrow came upon my foot, but 
in the end I obtained the victory over them. And when I saw that the air and the 
water of that country suited not with me, I departed from thence, and I came 
back to Kumunsur ; and I sojourned in that land for two months, untB my 
wounds were heated." Timur's Institutes, p. 46. 

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CHAP. Grand Khan died, and was saccewled b^ Ui son diaa Goja. Timur: 

^^■v^ and Htuaein, being joined by their friendB, attacked the army of E3iaa 
and defeated it, taking the king and many princes prisoners. Th« 
king, assisted by some Turkish soldiersj who knew hi»,. escaped to 
Gete. , 

A. D. 1864. Tameriane takes Samarcand witlumt resistance. Cabuldiah A^ea; 
descended from Genghis, was elected Grand Khan. Atthehattleof th« 
Slonghs, Tamerlane is defeated bj the king of the Getes, who be- 
sieges Samarcand, but is repulsed. 

The Emir Hussein and Tamorlane quarrel — the troops of Um 
Emir are defeated — the king of the Cretes marches to Tashkund. 

A.D. 1367. The Emir and Tamerlane are reconciled and join their forces — Dia* 
sentiona arise among the lords in the army of the Getes, and the amy 

A.D. 1369. Tinur and the Emir Hussein were again at enmit^t; and in a great 
battle,the latter was killed; two (^ his sons were burnt and their ashes 
oast into the air *. Othws fled into India, where they perished. 
. Four of the princesses of his sera^o were taken into that of Timur. 
Hussein's treasures were seized, and his country of Badackshan sub* 
jected to Tamerlane; who was, now, aged thirty-four, crowned Env- 
peror of Zagatai. According to custom, handfuls of gold and jewels 
were showered upon his head. 

* " AdcI there was relationship between me and Ameer Hossein; and although 
I treated him with lundneaa, he was not my friend; and he even took from me 
the country of Bullukh and the castle of Shaudumaon. And I also, tor the sake 
of his sister, who was in my house, regarded it not. And I shewed sacb kind- 
ness unto him, that the Ameers, who were in a state of ennuty with me, submitted, 
to my authority. But Ameer Hossein stiD acted towards roe wiA treachery and 
fraud, and sought to overthrow me : even until I resolved that I would force him 
to sabmiseion by the edge of the sword." " And by experience it was known t« 
ne that a wise enemy is preferable to a fbofish fiiend.* Timor's Institutefl, p* 
87 and SS7. 



TknuT retaros ftom B»lc to Samftn^ad, buUds a eutie mA fotixeas, CHAP, 
lad makes it the, o^ttal of hit empire ; whtn vast numbers seitivA s^^y-^ 
under his moderate and just goremment. 

After maay jean passed in campaigns, at length, the kingdom of A. D. 1387. 
Carisme was reduced, and llmur returned to SimuTcaikd. ElxcHedby 
a fiatherty lore t» his chiMren, he gave orders far preparations for a 
Mptial fent This great city was adorned with tiie most magnifiwiit 
stuf&, and bnukdked candlestkte, in the public streets. Spacious 
tanis were prepared In the Baghi Behidrt, or Grarden of Paradise, and 
the ground was covered with the richest carpets, adorned with peisris 
and preciooB stones. The Mireas, Mehemet Saltan, Pir MehemcA, 
and Shah Rohk, were married to princemes as beautiful as Houris. Me- 
hnnet Saltan was imtaUed Grand Khan of Zagatai : and thus the 
evown of this vast empire was settled in Timor's fiuaUy. The Eat- 
pexw passed tlie winter with M possible fdidty and contMtment. 

Tocetoiidi Khan*, whom Timur had placed upon the throne «(A.D. 1S88. 
Cepduic, showed marira of ic^ratitade, insomudi ikat he levied a 
great army, composed of the troops of Russia, Orcaseia, Bulgaria, 
Capdiac, Crim, Ca£b, £!Uan, Azac, Bachgorod, and Museovy. Poets 
liftve compared this army to the leaves f of the thickest trees, or drop* 
of tain in an impetueiv storm. The Emperor no sooner heard «f 
Tocatmidi having tal»n the 6(M, than he marched at the head of the 
troope of Samarcand and Kesh {. The winter was so coM Aat the 
•Ofn were almost frosoi to death. 

* Often Bpelt Toctamisb, Touctummiflli. 
t Ifia legions • • • 
Thkk as autBmittl Ibbtcs that stro? lite iMooka 
OfValflmbrosa. • * • Paraihaelmt. (See note, p. liS.) 
X " For tfie private soldiers I ordained that on an expedition, every eighteenmea 
should take one tent; and that each man should be supplied with two horses, 
a bow and quiver of arrows, wkh a swoBd, a saw, an axe, an awl; with thread, 
ten needles, and a leathern knapsack." Institutes, p. S95. 
Q 3 



CHAP. Bichmich Aglen, king of Carisme, who had fled to Tocataiich.cotn- 

v«^-v'<«b-' manded his army; and nOw arrired, and i^camped at Ajouc Zemouc, 
near Cogende, on the Sihon. 

Timur resolved to give him batUe. The lords of his council fell on 
their knees, and besought him to wait till the troops of the provinces 
arrived: but, as he was not ignorant of the proverb, that delays 
are dangerous, and that we ought never to put off till to-morrow what 
we are able to do to-day, their remonstrance was useless. 

Timur marched with the household troops. The snow was so deep 
that it touched the horses' bellies. Mirza Omar Ch«k, with the 
troops of Andecan, joined him. A detachment was sent to fell on the 
enemy's rear, and prevent their flight. The next sun-risiog discover- 
ed to them the army of the enemy. Nothing now was heard but the 
great cry, Sirount tbenoiseof kettle drums, the clashing of scimitars, 
the neighing of horses, and the shouts of the soldiers. The conflict 
was terrible and bloody. Timur was victorious. The enemy fled; 
and being intercepted by the detachment at the rear, and pursued by 
the army, they. were surrounded; and no quarter being given* the 
slaughter was very great. The celebrated Airde Birdi, secretary of 
state, was taken prisoner, and instantly made himself known, to save 
his head. He was conducted to Timur; and, informing the Emperor 
of the state of Tocatmich, was pardoned and received into fevour*. 

A.D. 1389. In February, Timur decamped and marched to Samarcand. In the 
spring, Capchac was again invaded; but at the approach of Timur's 
Army, the enemy fled, and. were pursued to the deserts. The army 
^ebcamped at Alcouchoun, a village in Capchac. The Emperor de- 
siring to pursue the war against Tocatmish, the lords of bis council 
humbly represented the better policy of first reducing the king of tiie 

* The secretariea wrote in the Igurion character. 

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GM«s. The ISmpetm, coninnced hy their reaioning, consented; and CHAP. 
the army oaicfaed £rom Alcoochoun to invade Uie countries of Kezec >^^-y-^ 
Coja Aglen«. king of the .Getes andMoguitstan, and of prince Anca- 

■ Timor, in. the autumn, resolved to make war on Capchac ; and set 
Ont to visit the tomb of Cheik Maslahet, both from a religious and po- 
litical motive; in order to accomplish hia designs. At Tashkund he 
lay dangerously sick for forty days. The great lords were seised with 
consternation; and prayers were (^red to the Almighty. People 
feared that his swurd would no loi^^ be able to protect the weak, or 
keep the powerful within bounds: that houses would be plundered, 
and the cloisters, where true chastity is preserved, would be broken 
open. He was restored. He reviewed his army and put it in order. 
He distributed all the silver money that was in the treasury amoi^ the 

The 13th of Sefer, the sun being in the eighth degree of Aquarius, A.D. 1391. 
Ximur departed. He sent away all the ladies except his favorite S\d- 
taness Tchulpan Mule Aga, daughter oi Hadgi Bei, prince of the 
Getes, who in this journey had the h<nior of privately conversing with 
Ihe Emperor. An ambassador arrived from Tocatmich, ' king of Oap- 
chac, with a present of nine horses of surprising sttiftness. Timur 
accuses the king of ingratitude, and threatens vei^eance, unless the 
king be sincere; In which case he must send Ali Bei, to treat with his 
jgreat Emirs; when he will do what is consistent with his dignity and 
the present conjuncture. 

The army marched forward, the horses were fotigued, and water was 
'flcaioe; on the 9th of April, they encamped at Olouc Tacf. Timur 

* For an account of this invasimi of Siberia, see Chap. Y. 
t Or Ulug Tag. This must be th« Steppe of I«him. See Explanation of tlie 
Map, Flag, No. 1. 



tsccnded a xnooBtaiii, and hlw ivith schaiXBtiaB tbaae rtaA pUu, wlik^ 
< fiDrthefar space and verdure, TCHmibled the Ma. He oidBued a atoas 
obelisk to be erected, and iaicribed the day oa which Timur^ Mih W» 
army, arrived there, as a lasting monument to posterity. They otoh* 
.td the nanjouo, which nms into the Tic, and srrired at AaAongoiL — 
Hiey had mard^ four mcmths from Tadikaiid, and had neither met 
a man, nor seen any culdvated land. Yictaab were so dear, that a 
dieep sold for a hundred dinars copeghi*. ProTisions wn« allotted 
with economy, and a general hunt ordered fl»r two days; a Tariety of 
beasts and birds were chased. Timur slew a nnmbev of fitwte, «nt«> 
lopes, uid roebucks, till hie dinner hour, which was two hours and a hid^ 
before noon; and then returned to his tent. The soldknrB then dew 
soch vest nomben that they sheeted the fat, and left the lean aninnda : 
among them thrae was a sort of stags htrger than bnffiidoes, of which 
they killed a great many. They had never seen the like before. 

Hm hunting being finished, Tlmur was desirous to know the-ez- 
ad «tate of the troops. He ordered then to be placed by tomans, or 
ten thousands, and squadrons ; and that every scddier should have his 
lance, war chd), po^nard, leathern bndder, faia sabre on his left «id«, 
and a half sabre oa his right ; and that thur horses should be oovcfed 
with tiger skinsf . 

The Emperor then mounted hb horse, clothed in his royal robes: 
upon his head was a golden crown, enriched with rnbies ; in his hand a 
OMce of gdd, ihe t(^ of it shaped Uke an ox's head. He reviewed 
the left wing, which he found in good order : he passed before Uie first 
rank, wfaic^ was composed of the toman of Birdi Bei. This general 
leaped off his horse, and took notice to Timur of the looks, statupe, 

* A dinar copeghi is above six shillings. 

t The tiger skin being a Di&t^ of difltmctiOn, diis must be understood as allud- 
' tag to the officers only. Tigers' skins are much esteemed. Le Blanc, p. 159, 
Bays, they send from Samarcand to Casubi in Pegu to purchase them. 

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mnMun,mitiAdinmfOtimio\^bnt faethoiMIotthialtiMaiAndkiss- CHAP. 

«l tke earib, *ad 8ud-*~" Xi«t all the wotld be obedieiit fo Timorl -,^-J-- ^_,* 

Onr headi and oar lirea lAall ahra^ be ready to be sacrificed at the 
&et of tbe hone q£ his M^icstyt" Timm anawend, and applauded 
the Bej ; wiahing that, through the ralmir of this brave man, and thoie 
who are like him, the empire mi^t continue always flourishing. The 
AhperiMr ezafaomed each emnpany belonging to Birdi Bei'a touan. — '■ 
He then rode towards the toman of Codadad Hussein!, and found thelf 
stature and equipment to his satisfaction. He testified his frieodship 
for that commando'f for Hat good order in which he saw hia toman. 

Cheik Timour, at the head of the hazares (corps of one thousand) 
of the hord of Sddoa, came next in order of battle: these were armed 
with bows and arrows, scymitars, dubs, and nets to catch men. Then 
followed the large army of Omar Cheik, son of Timur, and prince of 
AndecaD, whose ensigns were all displayed. This corps, being so nn- 
merous, detained the Emperor a long while. The prince congratulat- 
ed his nuyesty on the extent of his conquests. The Emperor was 
lavish in the praise of his son, and aud, " I pray God, that fortune be 
at your disposal, and that it may tdways give yon the advimtage over 
your enemies." Timur was overjoyed, and advanced to the tomans 
and squadrons of Hahmoud Khan, the Emir SoUman Shah, and Me- 
hemed Sultan Behadur his grandson, and surveyed them with satisfac- 
tion. Two days, ttovtx_ morning till evening, were required for this 
review. The guards which made np the main body; were ranged in 
hazares and tomans, commanded by several emiis and great generals. 
Timor ap^dauded their exact order; and all admired the good-conduct 
of the invincible Thnur*. 

* It appears highly probable that Milton has taken Timur in some instances 
as his prototype for Satan. > The allusions to Timur and Cyrus in the Paradise 
Lost, are munerous. 1 findinPurchas,Vol.I. p. 4€I.ddEdit, " Alhacen Arabs 

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The Emperor's son Mdwmet, on his knees, asked ibe hoimtf of 
conunatading the scouts. Timur approved his zeal at so tender an 
age, reminded him that he had need of great presence of mind, a strong 
constitution and perfect activity, in an employ, on which the security 
of the army entirely dependedf . 

hath written a historie of Timur, now extant in English." This is, howevtr, a book 
of very doubtful authority, aa the author describes an iuvasion of China by Timur. 
In the king of France's Library, No. 1499, there was a general history of Asia, 
written by Bin Abdallatif of Casbin, in the Persian language, up to the year 1514, 
which had been translated by Monsieur Oomin, into Latin; and Theroioti hit oh- 
cle, had it printed ; (this must mean N. M. Thevenot, keeper of the king's hbrary. 
See life of Genghis, p. 413). Sherefeddin, whose work the writer has principally 
made use of, finished his life of Timur in 14^, and Bin Abdallatif, his country- 
man, no doubt, would copy from it; therefore Milton, at any rate, had the means 
of knowing &oni these sources the particulars of Timur's life. The translation 
by Petis de la Croix was published many years after Milton's death, which was in 
1674. This Petia de la Croix (son of the author of the life of Oenghis Khan,) was 
horn in 1654, and his history of Timur was not finished till after the death of Col- 
bert, in 1683. A better model than the Destroying Prince, as Timur has been 
called, could not be found. 

" Ten thousand banner rise into the air 

With orient colours waving : with them rose . 

A forest huge of spears ; and thronging helms 

Appear'd, and serried shields in thick array 

Of depth immeasurable. • * • • 

Advanc'd in view they stand, a horrid front 

Of dreadful length and dazzling arms, * * 

Awaiting what commands their migbty chi^ 

Had to impose. He through the armed files 

Darts his experienc'd eye, and soon traverse 

The whole battalion views, their order due," 

Their visages and stature. • • • 

* * * " And now his heart 

Distends with pride." Paradtae Lott, Book T. 

■t Here he had need 

All circumspection, and we now no less 

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' The prince, with some great emirs, departed on the 24th of April ; and 
for two days, though they saw mahj fires, they met not with one per- < 
mm. A TiircomaD. who knew those deserts, was sent out in another 
direction, and wandered without finding any one for some days; at 
length, ten men in armour were s^n to enter a wood; they were pur- 
sued, some slain, and some brought to the Emperor. 

Timur decamped, and on the 11th of May reached the rirer Tic, 
which runs into the Caspian; and on the 17th the river Yaik*. There 
were many encounters between some small corps which advanced, and 
superior numbers of the enemy ; in one of which the emir Acoutmer 
distinguished hinlself so heroically in his &11, that his children were 
exempted firom punishment for crimes, except they were committed 
nine times. 

The army' continuing to advance, had now arrived so far towards 
the pole, that the morning rays appeared in the east before the sun 
was entirely set The king of Capchac still retreated, though there 
were daily skirmishes with the scouts, who always avoided fighting 
when they could ; but sought to surprise those of Timur. The emir 
Omar Cheik was sent with twenty thousand horse to seek Tocatmish ; 
on the morrow he came up with the scouts. Timur, being apprised 
of this, after six days bad weather, ranged his army in seven bodies, 
as if by inspiration from Crodj it npt being usual. The princes and 
emirs wore coats of mail, or breast-plates of iron, and all of them 
polished helmets. 

Choice in our sufirage; for, on whom we send, 
The weight of all and our last hope relieB." 

Far. Zott, B. II. 413. 
* " I ordained that in the field, each of the twelve select emirs should, with 
twelve thousand horsemen completely armed, for the space of one day and one 
night, when marching and when haltii^, be ready upon guard." bistitutes of 
Timur, p. £99. 



Tocatmish Khoa's army was drawn up in a main body with two wings, 

I and completely umed. All his chief commanders were of the impeiiil 

blood of Tonsohi, or of other Ulustrioas Mt^uls. They ranged them* 

selves in a half moon ; and iken came in view. The Capchac army 

Otttnnmbered that of the Emperor. 

Timnr addre^ed himself to God by prayer. Haring remounted 
his horse, all the army displayed their ensigns and standards, crying 
out. Alia Akbar! Souroon! At the sound of kettle drums and of the 
terrible trumpet, (Kerrenai) *, the battle commenced. Never before 
was tiiere so great a confusion between heaven and earthf . Both 
sides began with half-pikes, swords, and iron clubs. Tocatmish's 
left wing withstood the attack bravely, but was entirely defeated. 
The right wing was overpowered. Timur had routed the main bod^ 
but Tocatmish traversed Timui's army with many squadrons, and re- 
solved on maintaining his ground. 

Timur, being informed of this, went after him; and at sight of the 
imperial standard, Tocatmish, in despair, fled. His generals followed 
his example; and in the pursuit, there was a terrible slaughter: for 
SoTtj leagues, the plains were covered with the slain. Iltus was the 
ingratitude of the king of Capchac punished. Timur dismounting, 
fell upon his fhce, and returned thanks to the Ring of kings X. Seven 

* The kerreiui, or great trumpet, waa fifteen feet in length. P. delaCn^, 
p. 160. 

t " All in a moment through the gloom were seen 
Ten thousand banners rise into the air 
With orient colours waving : • • • 
Sonorous metal blowing martial sounds: 
At which the untrersal host up sent 
A shont Aat tore HelTs coneave, and beyond 
ftighted the reign of Chaos and tAd. Night" Pttradise Lott, B, I. 

t l^ur, in his Institutes, says, page ISl, " The design which I formed in de- 
feating Toctumish Khan, was this : when my armies were weakened by a pur- 

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out of evoy ten caTaby, were dispatched to destroy the conquered; 
they pursued them to the Volga, and upon its islands, where thej cut < 
tiiem to pieces, not being able to cross*. The women,. children, and 
spoil captured, it would be difficult to ennmerate. Three princes of 
the blood of TooBchi sought refuge with Timur, who gave them let- 
ten patent to gorem their herds, free of tlw tax called " Gan." Two 
of them afterwards revolted f. 

Timur returned southward, and encamped on the plain Otirtoupa, 
<m the bank of the Volga, remarkable for its verdure and pure air. 
His camp was three leagues on every side, and the imperial throne 
was fixed in his tent. All the camp and the pavilions were ornament- 
ed, uid hung with curtuns of brocade covered with gold flowers. 
Among tiie slaves were many beantifhl girls; some were retained for 
the Emperor's ser^lio: and five thousand of the finest youths, for 

suit of fire months in the Dusht of Kipcfaauk, famine and scarcity were very 
gnat in my amy, even bo that, for many days,-my people Ihred on &e flesh of the 
beasts of the forests, and on the eggs of the birds of the desert. And Toctumish 
Khan with an army more numerous than the ants and the locusts, came upon me, 
and opposed me face to &ce. And my people were an hungered, and the army of 
Toctiunish Khan were fiiU. And my chiefs and my ameers set not their hearts 
upon battle imttl my sons and grandsons came, and kneeled down and devoted their 
lives unto me : and at this time the standard bearer of Toctumish plotted secredy 
with me. And I found that it was good Aat I should assault the foe; and that 
when the two armies w»e engaged, the standard-bearer of Toctumish Khan 
should invert his standard. And when the flames of war and slaughter ascended 
high, I commanded that the tents should be pitched, and that Aey should prepare 
victuals. And at this time the stuuUrd of ToctomiBh Khan was inverted; and 
Toctumish, dismayed and confounded, gave the tribe of Touschi to the wind of 
desolation, and turned his back on the field of slaughter, and fled." 

* The Russians perhaps know where &is dreadful battle was fought. 

t ** And I ttttcced execnrtions npon then, because, unmkidful of that wkich 
they owed to their lord, they had thrown aside their honour and their duty, and 
come in unto me; I said to myself, what fidehty have they observed to their liege 
lord? what fidelity will they shew unto mef Timur's Institutes," p. 175. 



CIIAP. posts in the household. The plain of Oartoupa was . the seat of the. 

Vm^-y'^,^ empire of Touschi*, son of the great Genghis. 

A solemn and magnificent feast ^ras prepared. Meats and li- 
quors were served np in Tessels of gold and jewels, hj the hands of. 
the most beautiful of the women. Timur's handsomest ladies attended, 
him; and each lord had his own, with the cup in her hand, to.accompanjr 
the voices and airs of the musicians. Songs of love and war were 
sung, and to the tune Rihara was performed Fatehnama Capchae, 
or the Triumph of Capchae. Twenty-six days were thus parsed in 
pleasure foy the whole army. 

Timur returned to Samarcand, where he was received with great 
feastings and joy. He then crossed the Sihon, and encamped at 

A.D. 139Z. Tashkund, in the plain of Barsin ; where the army from Capchae ar- 
rived after a campaign of eleven months. This vast plain was cover- 
ed with the flocks and other prodigious booty. A share of the beautiful 
young prisoners of both sexes was given to the imperial f^Uy and 
the chief nobility. Mirza Pir Mehemet, son of Gehanghir, was ap- 
pointed governor of the country, from Gazna, and Cabul, and Candahu-, 
to the Indies. 

A.D. 1893. The Emperor departed for a long campugn. When he was at Joui- 
^y ^- dez, near Bocara, he was much afflicted, having a disorder which he 
had concealed a long time. The Empresses, and his sons, and the 
best Turkish and Arabian physicians, arrived in the camp. The Al- 
coran was read. The finest horses in the Imperial stables were sa- 
crificed, and presents sent to the tombs of the great Chieks. God, the 
only true physician, restored the Emperor to health; and he took 
horse and shewed himself to his people on the 20th June. 
Timur, with a vast army, took Bagdat from the Mogul sovereign. 

• Serai. 


Tfae.Emperor renuinedthere'twomonthB. In this expedition .Timur 
rode tweniy-seVen leagues of three miles each, on the 10th October, 
without getting off his horse. The army suffered excessively from 
heat and thirst; all the wines in the city were seized, and cast into tiie 

Timnr proceeded to Geor^a, where he was joined by the Imperial Sept. 9. 
fiimily. On the a6th of Cfaawal the army arrived at Cars,, in Georgia^ 
where the Emperor encunped in a very agreeable plain with green 
meadows, . springs, and rivulets of water as clear as ciystal, shady 
groves, delicious Iruit trees, variety of balsams and flowers, and 
zephyrs, so charming that they seemed to meet together to receive 
tiie gpreatest Emperor in the universe. Timur'a troops had plundered 
all those of a di^rent religicm, who would not submit; his sole inten- 
tion -in this war being God's glory, and every day some considerable 
blessing was showered on him. At this happy place was bom a son 
to Shah Rohk, at which the court and army were transported with 
joy. The physiognomy of the in&nt prognosticated the height of 
grandeur to which he should in time arrive, as his horoscope signified 
that he should ascend the throne, and be the heir of his father's crown. 
Timur testified his joy by presents of gold, silver, and curious stuffi. 
All the IcH-ds of the court spread gold and precious stones upon the - 
child. Many great lords were elevated to considerable posts, and de- 
livered the poor from their miseries; and the people were exempted 
firom taxes for a whole year. The skilful astrologer, Monlla Abdallah 
Lessan predicted that the crbwn would for ever remain in the family 
of this infant, who would be endowed with many virtues: and, that he 
might have for his patron that prophet who was God's chief favorite, 
the Emperor ordered him to be called Ibrahim *. Sultan. 

* Abraham. 



Next Aaj at gun-rise Timur decamped, and the tents were pildbed 
in the i^ain of Minecgheni, where he received news of the great suc- 
cess of the emirs, who had taken many strong places tram the Chris* 
tians, and were on thdr return. The Emperor gaveorden for solenm 
rejoicings for the birth of his grandchild. They provided tents and 
canopies, which they adorned with the moat magnificent fiuniture of 
all Asia. These tents took ap two leagues of ground: that for the 
Emperor was under a canopy supported by forty pillars, and was as 
spacious as a palace; in the middle of it was a throne so ornamented 
with precious stones, tiiat it resembled the sun. A great number of 
the most beautiful ladies of Asia were placed on each side of the 
throne, with veils of cloth of gold adorned with jewels. At length 
the Emperor ascended and seated himself, with the sceptre in his 
hand, and the crown upon his head *. The music was placed in two 
rows; the vocal on the right, the instrumental on the left. Nine 
chaoux, of handsome mien, well equipped, and mounted on Arabian 
horses, came there in quality of stewards of the feast; having dis- 
mounted, th^ took golden wands in their hands, and marched 
in procession before the dishes which were served up. They were 
followed by cup-bearers, who were provided with crystal bottles and 
golden cups with red wine of Shiraz, white of Mazanderan, and water 
as clear as that of Kiosser's f fountain. The conversaUon of churning 
women, whrae hair hong in tresses down to the ground, added to tbe 

* " High on a throne of ro;al state, vhich far 
Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind, 
Or vheie the gorgeous East with richest hand 
Sbow'rs on her kings barbaric pearl and gold, 
Satan exalted sat, by merit rais'd 

To that bad eminence." Paradite Lott, B. IF. 

t A fountun in Mahomet's poradiae. 

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tostoe of this illuftrious assembly. The mircas, emirs, nerians and fo- 
niga lords of Iran and Touran, from India mito GreeiJe, partook of the >. 
dtTemions, and joined with the Z^atuans, in vows for the prosperity 
of the Emperor and the new bom prince. Then Timur chose the 
Iffincess Touman Aga, who was as wise as Balkis*, and as illustrious 
as Cadafaf, to be governess to the yonng Mirza, for which honour 
she made a magnificent banquet, which lasted eight days. For his 
governor, Timur appointed the Emir Osman Abbas^ whose wifie, Sade- 
kin Aga, a relation of the Emperor, was selected to be his nurse. 

These entertainments, which had lasted three weeks, being -over, 
Timur went and encamped upon the top of a mountain. The em- 
inresses, princesaes, and all the conrt ladies, departed for Sultania, where 
they were to stay. 

Shah Rohk being appointed governor of Samarcand, Timur affec- 
tionately embraced him at his departure. On his reaching the Ox- 
us, the inhabitants in great numbers met their illustrious viceroy; and 
oa his entry into Samarcand, from the gate Aferine to the royal palace, 
the streets were hung with carpets, and tiie ground was covered with 
satin, and scarlet cloth. The happy people thanked QoA for giving 
Aem a prince under whom the weak mig^t live as securely as the 

Timur's zeal for religion made him undertake the war in Georgia 
himBelt By the assistance of heaven, (says Sherefeddin), he vanquish- 
ed all the Christians who resisted, whether in the phuns or in the 
strong castles upon the mountains, pillaging the country and putting 
to the sword aU who resisted. Timur marched before Teflta and en* 
camped in the i^ain of Cheki. 

• Solomon's wife. 

t Queen of the Amazons: the Thalestris of Quintua Curtiua. 



CHAP. News was brought to the Emperor of Toctanusli having re-esta^ 
v«..-v~*-' blished himself in Capchac, and made irruptions into Timor's domin- 
A.D. 1395. ^^°^' ^ recover the losses of his great defeat. Timur invades 
Russia f. 

Mahmoudij Timur's governor of Hadgi Tercan (Astrachan), proved 
&ithless to his trust. Notwiihstanding the severity of the winter this 
year, Timur marched to that place. Hadgi Tercan is defended in win- 
ter by a wall built of ice, upon which they pour water, which freezes, 
and the solid rampart is then as good as one of brick : there are gates 
constructed to enter the town. The governor was obliged to go out 
to meet the Emperor. Timur sent the governor to Serai, under the 
conduct of Mirza Pir Mehemet; where, according to orders received, 
he was thrust under the ice of the Volga. His Majesty ordered the 
inhabitants, the cattle, and all within Astrachan, to be expelled: when 
the town was razed. 

The troops of Capchac had ruined the palace of Sultui Cazan Khan, 
near Carchi, in Transoxiana; to revenge which, Timur proceeded to 
Serai, the capital of Capchac ; ordered out the inhabitants, and re- 
duced it to ashes. The severity of the winter produced &nune in the 
camp, and most of the horses perished. All the countries to the west 
A.D. 1396. ^^^ north of the Caspian Sea, were brought under the dominion of 

The towns and provinces of Ookec, Madgiar, Little Russia, Cir- 
cassia, Bachgorod, Azac, Couban, and Alan (between Georgia and the 
Black Sea) had been sacked ; And the princes had given assurance of 
future obedience. 

The Emperor now marched towards Uchendge, north-east of Te(* 

* See note on Rubbie, Ch V. with a. full description of a bmous battle in which 
Timur was in the greatest danger of being lulled or taken. 

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Ub, to atU^ the ChristianB there, and besi^ed it. Ucfaendge fell^ — ^^^f^' 
The gairifion was pnt to the sword, their bodies piled np, and the v.^i^y-«^ 
conutry ravaged. Timur pardoned those great men who had joined' 
the Cbristiaiis and now acknowle^ed their &alt; exhorting them to 
make war, and procure all the advantages which can be expected to 
the muEsiilman religion. 

Timur returned to Samarcand. The empresses showered upon his July 30. 
head gold and jewels, and presented him with a thousand burses, ca- 
parisoned with bridles luid harness of gdd and precioas stones; and 
also a thousand mules, all of one colour. The. Emperor was received 
in triumph; the city was adorned magnificently; and the streets were 
covered with velvet, satin, silks, and carpets ; which the horses tram- 
pled upon as a road. The Emperor then visited the tombs of the 
saints, and of learned and illustrious persons; he gave great largesses 
to the santons, who took care of them ; and alms to the poor. He 
distributed his booty. He sat in justice, and ordered some tyrants to 
be put in chains, and the forked branch to be hung round their necks. 
Some were put to death. All the people were pleased with tiieir 
Emperor^ equity; and stiled his reign — " The Golden Age." 

The magnificent palace of Baghi Chemal, or Garden of the North, A.D. 1397. 
was now built. Mirza Shah Rohk, Timur*s eldest son, was appointed 
king of Khorassan. Ambassadors from China arrived with abun- 
dance of curious presents, and were introduced by the great emirs. — 
After delivering their credentials, and explaining the subject of their 
embassy, they returned home. 

Timur received information of the commotions in India; and that, 
since the death of Firoze III. the nobles had seized the power of tiiat 
state; and that, in the name of the young Mamood, two'generals divid- 
ed the government, one at Delhi, and the other at Moultan. The Em- 



OHAP. penir resolved on tlje ecuique«t »f Hiaioitw*, bavtog already, in gas 

\,^Z^r-^ der to root out the infldelff of China* eolleoted tke troofw of tjb« em- 

A.D. 1S9S. pire. Tbo Emperor had* ia his army> (^cers and soldiers ctf aU Bfri 

tioQs; but the oosiinaiHU of the grvatest oonaeqnenoe were held I9 


The army marched forward, and crossed the Oxus, to destroy the 
Guebres of India. The Alcoran sayg^-" The higheit dignity man 
can attain, is that of making war, in person, againit the enemies of his 
religion." Though the true faith was written upon the ooins of India, 
the greatest part of the inhabitants were idolaten. 

* " My design for reducing the empire of Hbdoataa was tbia i Ftnt, to disea- . 
ver the thoughts of my sona and my ameera, I demanded counsel of them. The 
prince, Peer Mahutnmud Jehangheer said — ' Behold, with the gold of Hind, we ' 
shall become the conqiierora of the world.' And prince Mahummud Sooltaun 
spoke and said — ' We may subdue Hind ; yet it hath many ran^»irts, riyers, wil- 
dernesses, and forests ; soldiers clad in annour; and the elephants, destroyers of 
men.' The prince Shah Rofak said — ' I have read in the Toorki annals that there 
aie fire mighty kings, whom, because of their greatness, they mention not by theor 
names. For behold they call the King of Hind, Daurau } and the King of Room, 
they call Keesur; and the King of Khuttun, and Cheen, and Maucheen, they 
stile Fughfoor ; and tbey call the King of Toorkistaun, Khaukaun; and they call 
the Lord of Braunand TooTaun,Kingof Kings. Andlol the power ofthe King of 
Kings hath in all times been over the empire of Hindostan, and it behove th us, also, to 
conquer Hindostan. ' The ameers said — ' We may subdue Hind, but if we tarry 
I in that land, our posterity will degenerate from the Tigour of their foreftthers.* 

And I had Nsolvedj iad was loth to desistt and I answered dieaa, saying, — * I ^1 
turn to Almighty God, and I will seek the s^ of war in the Koraun, that wbaU 
erer be the will of God, that I may do.' And they all consented thereto. And 
when I sought an omen in the holy book, this sacred verse came forth,— 'OJ¥o- 
p&et ! figltt «>ith the iajiiieh and Mttbekaperq. ' And when the doc^an of the law 
explained the verse to the ameers, they hung down their heads and were sUent. 
And my heart was grieved at their silence. And I deliberated with myself if I 
should t^row them down from their oonunanda. But, since I my«elf had exalted 
tbenv ( treated thent vith kindness ; and altium^h they had ftf^«!ed oWi y«ti W 
they were unanimous at last, I regarded it not." Timur'a Institutes, p. 131.' 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

' Thnui and his troopc Mfibrcd, in the monntaiiu of BtdMhahan, from 
Mid, roeky passet, and ikdependsnt Mbes, with whom there VM \. 
draofa fig^tbg. The EMpnor Was lit down the side of a steep moun* 
t^ on a platform, by ropes a hundred aad fifty cubits lon^^ Timur 
enoMQped near Cabul, and otdMed » canal to be dug, five kt^cs in 

Two princes ftom CapchaCt and one from Crete, arrlred in the 
eaakp. to assure Timur that, tot the future, he might depend on their 

Taizi Agien, who had dlfiSerencea with the Khan of Olugyourt, fled 
from the kingdom of Cabnac, to lay himself at the Emperor's feet.— ^ 
Timur embraced him, and presented him with a rest woren with gold, 
a bdt with predona atonea, camels, pavilions, &e. 

Cheik NooTvddin also anrived, who had been left by Timur in Pei^ 
sia, to receive the revenues. He brought an immense treasure in 
jewels, gold coin, gtdd stuffs, belts of precious stones, Arabian horses 
with golden saddles, camels, mules, pavilions, curtains of scarlet^ leo- 
pards, birds of prey, and other animals for the chace. So great a 
quantity was tiiere, that the comptrollers of tiie divan were three days 
and nights employ in registering the whole of it. Sevend princes 
of the race of Genghis were astonished at the sight of such wealth. 

The ambasaadon were now cBsmissed with rich preeente. The 
left wing was sent forward to India. The Emperor marched md en* 
camped at Irjab*. 

Timux being on horseback, accompanied by his generals on loot, 
while he was viewing the place, was shot at with an arrow from a win- 

* " And behold the whole of my army was nine^-two thousand hoMenfen, ac- 
cording to the MBabcr of the names of Mahtamnud, tfae ptophet of God ; aad I 
took this number as a fortunate and happy omen." Thhut's hut. p. ISfi. 

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dow, which missed him: but the whizzing of the arrow startled his 
' horse. 'Hie assaE»ins were taken and pnt to death. The prince of 
the town, who had been a great tjrrant, was beheaded, and his goodbi 
and moveables were given to the poor. 

Oct. 7. ' ' His Majesty arrived at the Indos, at~ the spot whence Creh^eddin 
had fled &om the wrath of Genghis Khan*. A bridge of boats and 
reeds was finished in two days. Timur dismissed the ambassadors' of 
Mecca, Medina, and the cheriffs of Arabia. Eskender Shah, prince 
of Cashmere, sent to beseech his majesty to receive him on his obedi- 
ence. Timur desired that he would come to his camp, when at Di- 

Oct. 11. The Emperor crossed the Indus and encamped at the entrance of 
the desert Gerou, called Tchol Gdali (from Gelaleddin). The rajas 
and others offered their submission with pnmuses of money. As they 
had been very serviceable to the detachment at Moultan, they were 
treated with kindness. An isle in the river Jamad was attacked ; a 
toman conquered it, after hard fighting. 

The army marched to where the Jamad and G«nave join in one 
stream, aH the troops were employed in making a bridge over it, which 
was never, done before. The army crossed and' encamped thirty-five 

Oct. S9. miles firom Moultanf . Camp at Toulonba: The inhabitants (the che- 
ril& excepted) taxed at two millions of crowns. Part is paid; the na- 
tives revolt; two thousand are slain. 

Not. S. Camp at Chanavaz, near a lake. 

The Mirza at Moultan had lost neaily all his horse by the innnda- 
tions and a lamine. Succours are sent to him by Timur. Bend and 
Batnir taken, and the inhabituits shun. 

• Attock. 

t Major Rennel has accurately traced Timiir's inarch (Memoir, p. 84). The 
above is, Sherefeddiu's deBcriptiwi, 

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The ancy aniTed at Paniput. The inhabitants fled. There was 
found here one hundred and »xty thousand maunds, common weight, 
of wheat. The army arrived near to Delhi. IVhile Timur was sur- 
veying the. magniflcent palace of Gehanniunai> he discovered nine 
thousand ofthe enemy and twenty-seven elephants. .They were at- 
taci:ed, and fled; one elephant fell. 

The army encamped, and was harangued by the Emperor. Some 
gesierals represented, , that a hundred thousand prisoners, idolaters, 
were in. the camp; who. in case of a battle, might join the enemy; 
they having been greatly pleased when they saw the troops with the 
twenty-seven elephants approach. Timur reflected seriously on this ; 
and ordered that all those who had made slaves, should put them to 
death; or, who disobeyed, should himself suffbr death, and his family - 
be given to the informer. In one terrible hour, according to the 
smallest computation, a hundred thousand Indians were massacred. — 
Even the venerable and humane Mouhtva Nassereddin Ambr, was 
constrained to order fifteen slaves to be slain. 

A tenth part of the army, guarded the women, children, and camels. 

Timur crossed the river, encamped the army, and surrounded it with 

a rampart of bucklers and a ditch. Great bufifoloes were tied together 

by the neck and feet, with brambles upon their heads, to be set fire to 

on occasion should the elephants approach ; but this was not needed. 

A.D. 1399. 
Timur drew up his army in order of battle. He commanded the main Jan. 3, 

body : they marched. The enemy advanced in order, the centre was 
commanded by Mahmoud, grandson of the late Emperor Ferose, and 
hu lieutenant-genn^, Mellou Khan. His force consisted of ten 
thousand horse, forty thousand foot, and elephants armed with cuiras- 
ses and poisoned daggers upon their tusks. They had wooden tow- 
ers upon their backs, in the form of bastions, in which were cross-bow- 
men and archers, who could fight under cover. On the side of the 



depfaflBts were ffingerg of fire and melted pitch; and roefceta shod 
i with iron, which give repeated blows where they lilL The soldiers 
fieared the elephants mi^t fling them into the ur. The learbed doe- 
tors -wished to be placed near where the ladies were, if his Majesty 

Timur fell upon the earth and besongttk God to give him the Tieto- 
xj. The battle began with the frightfol noise of brass kettle-drams 
upon the elephants' backs, loud cymbals and bells, trumpets, and crietf 
of the soldiers; so that even the most dauntless were smnewhat dis- 
mayed. The enemy's left wing was thrown into disorder by their de- 
phants. Their right wing was repulsed. The <»tttTe attacked Timor, 
and was so warmly received, that many elephants' trunks were cut off 
with sabres, and were strewed over the field with the slun. Mah- 
moud and Mellon Khan fled into Delhi and shut the gates. Calil Sul- 
tan, Timur's grandson, only fifteen years of age, wounded an elephtmt, 
the men on bis back were orerthrown, and the youth drove the aiaimd 
before him into the camp : at sight of which Timor was afl^cted to 
tears, for joy that God had given him s«ch brave children, and such 
valiant subjects. Sultui Mafamoud and Mellou Khan departed frcmi 
the city at midnight and fled; the first to Guzzerat, the other to 

Timnr fdanted his standard upon the walb of Delhi. At the gate, 
he sat on the throne of the Indian Monarch, gave audience, and re^ 
ceived the submission of the princi{al persons. A hundred and 
twenty elephants, and twelve rhinoceroses were brought before T^- 
mur; aud having been trained for such purposes, they pUced them- 
selves in a himible po^ure, and made a cry as if demanding qoarter. 
These were war or chain elephants, and were sent to Samarcand, and 
some to the provinces, as presents; two to Tauris, five to Herat, one 
to Shirez, one to Shirvan, and one to Axzendgian. 



TIm pnyen m the mosquM were ordered to be said in the name of CHAP. 
Timnr, and the rigours of war were for some days forgotten in feast- ^.^~,,^-m,^ 
ings, mnsiCt and rejoidngs, during which Tiqiar's soldiers insuHed the 
inhabitants in the suburbs. 

The sulianessea entered Delhi to inspect the curiosities, and the 
fomous palace of the ancient Indian king Melee Jound ; the court at- 
tending them was nQm«ous, and about fifteen thousand soldiers enter- 
ed unperceiTttd. The disorders nunmitted were great ; aud the natires, 
driven to despair, set fire to their houses and burnt their families in 
the conflagration. The soldiers let in the army, and the emirs lost all 
control over their iiiry ; so that this great and proud city was sacked 
and desolated by a horrid uiassacre. 

The next day, some of the soldiers took each one hundred and fifty ju,, 13, 
davcs, men, women, and childrai : and carried them out of the city. 
Even the soldiers' boys had twenty slaves to their abare. Pearls, 
diamonds, rubies, stulb, belts, gold and silver vessel money and 
curiomtiea were seized by the soldiers in vast quantitiea. 

Old Delhi underwent the same fate. The Indians assembled in a Jan. 15. 
great mosque to defend themselves: but the Emir Shamelik and Ali 
Sultan Tavacbi, forced H open with five hundred soldiers, md sent to 
the abyss of hell the souls of these infidels, erected a pile with their 
heads, aud cast their bodks to the beasts and birds of prey *, sudi . 
teniblc slaughter and dncdation were never heard of. Every emir 
took a number of slaves for his service: and several thousand tittdes* 
men and artists were distributed among the princes. Others were 
sent to the nobdity of the respective provinces. The Emperor re- 

* These massacres are considered by fanatics as a virtue. - Timux's descend- 
ants, howeTer, attempt some explanation, to exculpate him. See Dow*8 ISndoa- 
tan, Vol. II. p. 9. 



CHAP, serred for himself aD the masons, to build a spacioui stone mosque 

<,.^-Y^oi-> at Samarcand. 

Jan. 18. Timnr having been fifteen days at D^hi, at ten in the meaning 

marched to Firouse-Abad, three miles. He admired that dc^ghtful 

place, and visited the mosque, to return thanks to God for his c<m- 


Two white parrots, which had many years been kept in the anti- 
chambers of the Indian Emperors, were presented to Timnr, which be 
received, and considered as a good augury. 

There was much opposition made to Timur, in several places. He 
became oppressed with illness and want of rest: twenty battles were 

foucrht in thirty days. 
March 13. 

Ambassadors arrived from the king of Cashmere. The divan had 

taxed that king thirty thousand horses, and one hundred thousand 
dirests of gold; but Timur found this demand too much for that little 
kingdom, and did not press it to such extent, being satisfied with the 
conduct of Chah Eskender. Timur sent him a present of ten ele- 

March Id. The king of Tchamou was taken prisoner. He was treated with 
respect, and instructed in the beauties of the Mahomedan religion; 
he therefore quitted his errors, declared his belief in the unity of God, 
and ate the flesh of oxen with the mussulmans. 

March 19. Lahore was taken, and tfuced for the redeeming of the lives of the 

inhabitants. Chicai Cooker was taken prisoner. This prince had 

accompanied Timur, but on his return to Lahore was wanting in the 

performance of his promises uid the respect he had professed ; on 

, which, his country was pillaged and his person seized f . Timur be- 

* Ayeen Akbery, Vol. II. p. 152. 

t Dow, Vol. IT. p. II, says, he was beheaded ; which is exceedingly probable. 

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ing an enemy to deception, had adopted this motto for his seal: CHAP. 
" Sqfety eontitU in fair deaUng." ^^-v-^^^ 

Officers arrived from Tauris, with an account of the affiiirs of Bagdat, March 20. 
Egypt, Syria> Anatolia, and Capchac. The generals arrived in camp 
from Lahore, and laid at TinHir*s feet many rich presents ; of each kind 
by the number of nine, as is customary. Timur now made arrange- 
ments for returning to Samarcand. He distributed presents to Uie 
emirs, and to the lords of Hindostan, whom he sent to their respec- 
tive countries, with his letters patent 'for their principalities. 

The camp being at Gibhan on the frontier of Cashmir, Timur or- March 2i. 
dered a general hunting circle, and enjoyed that sport in this delightful 
place. There were Uons,leopards, rhinoceroses, wHconu, blue stags, wild 
peacocks, parrots, and other animals. The fidoons and hawks destroy- 
ed all the peacocks, pheasants, parrots, and ducks. The soldiers took 
a great deal of game, and slew several rhinoceroses with their sabres 
and lances *. The oranges and citrons do not come to maturity, on 
account of the snow. The air and water are delicious ; the women 
very beautifid. The prince and court reside at Nagaz, in which there 
are seven bridges of boats over the river, which is as large as the 
Tigris. God has given this country natural defences : the roads unto 
it from Chorassan and from India being excessively difficult; and 
that from Thibet having so many poisonous herbs, that the horses 
who eat of them die, the inhabitants have no occasion for arms or 

Timur crossed the Indus, and encamped at Banou. His majesty March 39. 
was struck hy »ome evil eye: upon his feet and hands were pain- 
ful ulcers. The officers of his household carried him, in a litter, April 8. 

* The blue stags were Nyl-gaus : respecting the unicome, see Chap. XI. the 
last note. 

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through a narrow defile, in which they were obliged to cross a rirer 
' forty-eight times. 

The empresses, princes, and great lords met the Emperor at Ter- 
med, and he arrived at Samarcand on the I6th of May. 

May 16. The feastings and mutual presents were immense, and the em- 
presses, princes of the blood, dukes, and for»gn princes, showered so 
many precious stones upon his majesty, that it seemed as if tiie sand» 
had been transformed into them. 

May ss. Timur, to crown, his merits wilh a work of piety, having destroyed 
the temples of false Gods and exterminated the idolaters, resolved to 
build a great mosque. Two hundred masons from Aserbijan, Persia, 
and India, were occupied in the inside, and five hundred men in cut- 
ting atone in the mounlains. Ninety-five elephants were employed 
in drawing the stones upon madiines made according to the laws of 
mechanics. The mosqUe being finished, contained four hundred and 
eighty pillars of hewn stone, seven cubits high; the arched roof was of 
marble, neatly carved and polished. From the architrave of tiie entab- 
lature to the top of the roof was nine cubits; at each comer ontaide' 
was a minaret; the doors were of brass; and the walls without and 
within, and the arches of the roof, were adorned, in relievo, with the 
chapter of the Cavern and other passages of the Alcoran. The pul- 
pit and reading desk, where prayers for the Emperor were read, were 
of the utmost magnificence ; and the nich of the altar was covered 
with plates of iron gilt, and was of perfect beauty. Not one moment 
had been lost in finishing this stupendous^buildingf . 

t " AnOD, out of the earth a ^ric huge 
Rose like an exhalation, » • * 
Built like a temple, where pilaeters.round 
Wereseti • • • • 

• * • nor did there want 

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Some montlu after Timnr rctamed to Samarcand, he received ^HAF. 
accounts of the debaucheries^ extravagance, and lunatic conduct of his ^•^-y-^-' 
son Mirza Bfiram Chah, viceroy of Media: on which he found it neces- 
sary to take the field agtun. He issued orders that all the princes 
profligate favorites, who had instigated him to his evil conduct, should Oct. 11. 
be hanged, without exception, as a warning to others. 

When the encampment was at Caruba^, news arrived of the death 
of the Khan of Capcbac, of the death of the Sultan of Egypt, and of 
a civil war in that country; of the decease of the Emperor of China, 
and of great confusion in that empire; and that the king of Gete had 
also paid tribute to the angel Israel, which had caused dissensi<»i 
amongst his four sons. 

Intelligence was received of Mirza Eskender, ^^ed only fifteen 
years, having marched with his emirs and his army from Andecan; 
and that he had uttwiy defeated the M(^^ in Moguhstui. The 
prince had been joined by the emirs at Cashgar ; they advanced and 
ravaged Yarkand, Tchartac, Keiouc Bagh, and the province of Aoudge; 
they took the citadel of Ascou, consisting of three strong castles, 
which required sapping, battering rams, and many assaults with 
sealing ladders. They released some Chinese merchants, who had 
been shut up there. They suddenly invaded Bei and Cousan, and 
brobght away captive the princess, wife of Emir Kezre Chah, her 
daughter, and. other ladies; and pillaged the town of Tarem. They 

Cornice or frieze, with bosay Kulptures gtsvea ; 

• • • n^ straight Uie doors 

Opening th&r bruen iblds. " Par, Loit, B. J. L 710. 

There are two cubits, one is called targe measure, in the architecture of Baila- 
can (a few pages forwd). In Chap. I. the Sultan of Carisme exduma, that 
of his inunense kingdom, he h«s but two cubita left for his body. The writer has 
not been able (o find out the length of the large cubit. - 

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proceeded to Choten and the mountain Carangoutac; from hence 
i were sent two companies, of nine each, of the most beautiful Mogid 
young women to the Emperor, by Chiek Tasaoul ; when the army 
returned to Cashgar. 

The Emperor advanced towards Georgia, to make a holy war, ui obe- 
dience to the Alcoran, on all who disbelieved the mussulman reli^on *. 
Through the defile of Comcha, which was full of trees, the soldiers, 
with tbeir saws and axes, cleared a road ten days' journey in length, 
and broad enough for five companies to march abreast. It snowed 
for twenty days, but the fields became as red with the blood of the infi- 
dels as if sown with tulips; no quarter being g^ven to any who were 
found. Comcha,the chief of those who disbelieve in future judgmrait, 
abandoned bis effects and fled. 

Wine was absolntely necessary for tMs people; even the little chil- 
dren drank it ; and on their death-beds they entreated that some might 
be buried in their tombs with them, and their coffins be made of the 
vine tree. For this consideration, the troops rooted up and destroyed 
the vines, and razed their temples, which were so disagreeable to God. 
This being what Timur had done last year at Delhi, he had, as the 
poet says, one -foot on the firontiers of India, and the other on the west- 
em limit of Arranf. 

The cold and snow being great, and the horses reduced to feed on 

•■" Audi determined on that measure, wluch was agreeable to my soldiers. 
And I placed a helmet of steel upon my head, and I clothed myself in the 
amtour of Dauood (David), and I hung s scimitar of Misaur (Egypt) by my side, 
and Isat on the throne of war." Timur*fl InsUtutes, p. 143. Ipocratea, the Christ- 
ian Icing of Teflis, Timur's prisoner, had turned mussulman, and had {^ren Timur 
a suit of armour, which he pretended the king of Israel hod forged with bis ovn 
hands in a smith's shop. 

t To the warlike resemblance to Gtenghis Khan, Timur added the horrid 
fimaticism of Sunt Dominic and Philip the Second. 

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the bark of trees,aiid many of them dying, Timurrecrossed the Cyrus, CHAP. 

aud returaed wit^ g^y to Carabagh. ^^0-,^' 

A divan was held, and, after a formal enqniry, Hadgi Abdalla Ab- 
bas, and Mehemed Casgan^were bastinadoed, and sereral officers fined 
fifty, and some three hundred, horses, for their misconduct in the 
field. Prince Bnrhan Aglen was put to death for the same reason. 
Favours were distributed to Mirza Aboubeker. 

Timur, considering that the interests of rdigion and his own poli- A.D. 1400. 
cy would best be served by again attacking Geoi^^ resolved, with 
his council, on that measure. That country was again invaded, ra- 
vaged, and plundered : no mercy being shown. 

His Majesty being irritated by the bad conduct of the Ottoman 
Emperor and the sultan of Egypt, notwithstanding the fotigues of 
the campaign just ended, determined, by the grace of God, to sub- 
due them. 

Bajazet, sumamed Ildurum, or the Thunderer, was Emperor of the 
Ottomans, and had subjected great part of Roum (Anatolia), and ex- 
tended his dominions far into Europe, as well as towards Aleppo. He 
was so magnificent, that in his household he had twelve thousand dog 
keepers. This prince had the boldness to send an ambassador to Ta- 
harten, to summon him to court, and to send the tribute of Erzerom 
and other countries. B^azet was not ignorant that Taharten was un- 
der Timur's protection. Whereupon Timur resolved to endeavour to 
bring him to a sense of his ftnlt by friendship and mildness mixt with 
reproaches. He therefore ordered his secretary to write a letter to 

" God, says the Alcoran, blesses those prince^ who know what use 
they should make of their power, and go not beyond the bounds pre- 
scribed tiiem. We let you know, that the greatest part of Asia is nn- 



CHAP, der onr officeiB, and that our guard consiBts of sovereign kii^k 
^.yi^ Where is the potentate that does not glory in being of the number of 
our courtiersl but for thee, whose true origin tarminates in a Tuico- 
maa sailor* it would be well, since the ship of thj onfiithomable am- 
bition has suffered wreck in the abyss of self-love; if thou wouldest 
lower the sfuls of thy rashness, and cast the anchor of repentance in 
the port of sincerity; lest,by the tempest of dur vengeance, you should 
perish in the sea of punishment. Since you have undertaken a vigo- 
rous war with Europeans, the enemies of the Mussulman law, we con- 
sider you &vourably: leave yoiu: proud extravagances, and know, that 
no one ever dared make war with us, and prospered. The devil cer- 
tainly inspires you to ruin yourself. Believe me, you are but a pis- 
mire, don't seek to fight elephants. The dove which rises against the 
eagle, destroys itself. But yoiu: rodomontades are not extraordinary; 
for a Turcoman never yet spake with judgment. If you don't follow 
our counsels, you will repent it" 

Bajazet, on reading the letter, sent this answer : " It is a long time 
•since we have been desirous of a war with you. If you don't advance, 
we will seek yon; and we shall see in whose favour heaven will de- 
clare." On receiving this reply, Timur caused the imperial standud 
to be displayed, and marched for Anatolia. 
Sept. 1. The Emperor encamped near Sebaste: he saw from an eminence, 
the place full of men singing and playing on musical instruments. 
Bajazet's van-guard appeared, retreated, and was pursued and cut to 
jiieces, near Cnsarea. Sebaste was fortified with high thick stone walls, 

* Biyazet waa deacended from Otbman, the founder of tbe Turkiih Empire, 
A. D. 1399. Otbman was the son of an Oguzian or Turcoman chieftain, who had 
entered into the eervice of Aladin, sultan of Iconium, and had established bim- 
sdf with his tribe at the maritime town of Stregut, on ibe river Sangar (the Iris), 
which runs into the Buxine sea. (See Gibbon, Ch. LXV. note 29.) 

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and a ditch fiiU of water. In eighteen days, by the vigorous applica- CUj 
tion of battering rams, and machines to cast fire and hurl stones, ihe ^-^'^ 
inhabitants, in terror, supplicated for pardon. Timnr's heart was soft- 
ened by the cries of the Tromen and children. He granted quarter to 
the Mussnlmans, on their paying ransom; and made slaves of the Ar- 
menians and other Christians. Many places were reduced, but Bajazet 
avoided a battle. 

Farrudge, son of the late Barcoc, king of Egypt and Syria, having 
added to his father's crimes against Timur, by arresting his ambassa- 
dor, the Emperor resolved forthwith to chastise him. Timur's gene- 
rals represented, on their knees, the peril of such an attempt by troops 
&tigued with campaigns against a difficult country, strong fortresses, 
and a numerous and well-appointed army. Timur promised them suc- 
cess, if they would put their trust in God ; his resolution was not to 
be shakenf; and all obeyed him with zeal. " As for the pride and 
blindness of the Syrians and Egyptians, Mahomet has told ns, (said 
he), that when God resolves to destroy any one, he deprives Mm of com- 
. mart sense.'' 

The army encamped at Behesna, between Malatia and Aleppo. 
Behesna and Antapa, two very strong places, were both taken. The 
governors and people were spared, at the intercession of Timur's son, 
Shah Rohk. They delivered great presents to the Emperor, in whose 
name prayers were read. The camp was pitched near Aleppo. Nov. \ 

The Egyptian sultan's army was collected from Tripoli, Balbec, Ca- 
naan, Rama, Jerusalem, and many other places; it was very numerous 
and well appointed. 

Timourtach, the governor of Aleppo, represented the great power 

f 1 Bboold ill become this throne, * * 

And this imperul eoT'ragnt?, * * 

• • • * ifaught • • 

Of difficulty or danger could deter me. Par. Lott, B. II. L 445. 


and noifonn conquests of Timur; and was for treating*: but the go< 
' Teraor of Danuiscus taxed him with cowardice, and enumerated the 
stone fortresses of Syria, the goodness of their Damascus bows, Egyp- 
tian swords, and Arabian lances. Opposition was resolved on. 

Timur advanced towards Aleppo, half a league a-day, entrenching 
his army every evening, and making a rampart of the bucklers. The 
Syrians, concluding that the Tartars mistrusted their strength, prepared 
to give battle. The main body of Timur's army was commanded by 
himself with a rank of elephante in front, equipped magnificently, to 
serve as a rampart : their towers were fQIed with archers and flingers 
of wild-fire. These animals coiled up their trunks like serpents. 

The right wing was commanded by the mirzas, Miran Chah 
and Shah Rohk ; the left by Sultan Mahmoud, accompanied by the 
great emirs. Every one had on his coat of mail, a cuirass, and a 

Hie Syrian army was'composedof arightand left wing, and a main 

The Tutars advanced with their ensigns displayed: the kettle 
drums and trumpets sounded, and both sides shouted, AUa Ak- 

The two wings of the Syrians were overpowered, and the ground was 
strewed with carcasses, helmets, and sabres. The elephants rushed 
upon the main body of the Syrian army, and, with their trunks, tossed 
many into the air, and trampled others under their feet, no one being 
able to stop them. 

The two governors, seeing such dreadful slaughter in so short a 
time, fled; the soldiers dispersed themselves. The major part took 
the road to Damascus, and were pursued so closely, that only one 

* According to the computatioD of the Emperor's comptroller, hu aimy con- 
sisted of eight hundred thousand men. Sherefeddin, 11. p. 165, note 4. 

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horsemaD of that great number reached ibe city. The others fleeing CHAP, 
to Aleppo, were pnrsned and slaogfatered in such heaps, that they v.^^-v'^ 
were piled up to the plinth of the walls; three or four of the crowd 
being run through at a time l^ a single pike. 

The camp and city were pillaged: the boo^ was prodigious. The Nov. 11. 
women, children, cattle, gtdd, jewels, &c. were seized and kept by the 

The strong citadel was terrified into surrender. The goTemors 
were put in irons, and a message sent to the son of Barcoc, at Cairo, 
to release Timur's ambassador. Immense treasures were lodged in the 
citadel, and eight emirs were left to guard it. 

Some castles were taken, and l^ur adranced to Hama. llie in- 
habitants gave up their treasures, and were protected. Balbec was' 
reduced without trouble, and vast quantities of firuits, pulse, and all 
manner of necessaries were found in it. 

* Balbec, being in the vicinity of a mountain, the weather was now A.D. 1401. 
very cold, and much snow fell. The Emperor therefore departed, ■'"*• ^ 
and, after a few days' march, he went to the tomb of the prophet 
Noah, to beseech his blessing; and then set out for the conquest of 

The nuiin body of the army had been sent to ravage the maritime 
towns of Syria; and now joined the camp, laden with booty. 

Syria now belonging to Egypt, the governors had made urg^t re- 
presentations to Farrudge, their king, to come and oppose Timor. — 
He marched to Damascus, and it was immediately prepared for de- 
fence. His cavalry was the best in the world. Using policy as well 
as strength, he sent, as ambassador to Timor, an eloquent and perfect 



CHAP, villain, in a humble rdig^ous habit; acoompaaied by two ;^tag asaaft- 
*w^y-^' ^ns with poisoned daggers^ to mnrdm the E^pwor during the audi- 

On Timur's approach towards Damascua, these wretches joined faia 
court, and had several oompliinentarjr interviews, at the foot of the 
throne; which presented favourable opportunities: but the Ahnigfaty, 
who was always Timur's protector, would not suffer the execution (^ 
tiieir designs. Coja Masaoud Semnani, one of the great secretaries 
of the council, conceived some suspicions, from the manner of pro- 
ceeding of these persons: and communicated them to some one, who 
related them to the Emperor. 

Timiu: ordered the Egyptians to be searched, and poisoned da^^rs 
were found in their boots. The Emperor returned thanks to his So- 
vereign Protector. It is not, said he, the maxim of kings to murder 
ambassadors; yet it would be a criioe to suffo: this rascal ot bis com- 
rades to live; who, though dothed in a rdigioiu habit, ia a monster of 
perfidy. He thereupon ordered the ambassador to be killed with the 
poisoned daggers ; and the noses and ears of the two assaraiiiB to be 
cut off, meaning to send tJiem back with a letter to the Sultan of 

Timnr oicamped near Damascus, at the foot of a hill> with a trestch 
and palisadoes round his army. He ordwed the prisona's brought 
from Aleppo to be put to death, in revenge for the king's scandalous 
action. Two days after, his Majesty sent Padshah Baouram, as am- 
bassador to the sultan, with this letter: — 

" AH t^ great noise of the world is not so much to heap up riches, 
as to acquire honour ; for half a lo^ a^lay is sufficient for the nourish- 
ment of a man. Whenever I have demanded Alilmlch, my ambassa- 
dor, from you, yon have idways stait«d difficulties. "We therefore 
make war on you. If rocks could speak, they would tdl yon> that this 



mHod of yoni^ parteDtb bo good to yon; yat. If yoa will caiue the CHAP, 
money to be coined, and tite public prayors to be read In our name, s^-v^'«k<' 
this shidl stop oor fury. Our loldieis axe like roaring Sons, wbich 
want their prey. I set before you peace and joy, or war and desola- 
tion. Make yoar choice with prudence. FarewelL" 

Timur's ambassador was received with great honomr. Sereral 
Egyptian lords were sent to the camp, to ask the Emperor's pardon r 
they promised that, in fire days, Atilmich should be sent to his au- 
gust presence. Tbcy returned to Damascus with presents of vests; 
and this iriendly appearance gave joy to the inhabitants. 

After ten days* nwtunpment, Timur wished to remove to Croula, Jan. 19. 
that his horses might feed in those delicious pastures. The Syrians 
mistaking his decampment for weakness, their wh<de army and multi- 
tudes of people caiue out to attack him. Timur faced about, and en- 
trenched his camp behind the baggage and some great stones. An 
acti(m issued, and the vast plain was delvged with the blood of the 
Syrians, who were defeated and slain in immense numbers. 

Mirza Sultan Hussan, the Emperor's grandson, after a debauch, was 
excited by some seditious Persiana. a few evenings before, to revolt and 
join the Syrians in Damascus. He commanded the left wing of the 
Syrians in this action, and fought against the Mirzas, Miran Shah and 
Shah Rohk. He was taken priscmer. Timor ordered him to be 
loaded with chahis*. At the . intercessicm of Shah Bohk, he was li- 
berated, but not till he had been bastimidoed, as ordered by the law 
Of Tasac. He was never afterwards admitted into the Emperor's 

Timur ordered the army to marcK in order of battle, -towards D»- 

* " And with retpect to my tanaly, X rent not anoulei tint boodi of connuwni- 
nily and mercy; and I issued not commands to aUy than, or to bind them with 
diaba." Timur's Inst. p. 173. 


mascus. The front of the anny, from the extremity of one wing to 
' that of Uie other, was between three and four leagues. The elephants 
in a great rank marched in front. The approach to the city was ris- 
ing ground ; and Timur meant to dishearten the Syrians by this mag- 
nificent display ; as they had but an imperfect knowlec^ of the mul' 
titude of his army. 

The king of Egypt, at sight of this immense force, lield a council. 
Some were for defending the city: but it was decided that the king 
and principal persons should escape at night, and flee to Egypt. A 
letter was therefore seat to the Emperor, to beg one day, and they 
would obey his orders: the king disclaimed the battle that had taken 
place, as not ordered by him. On this Timur encamped. 

At night, the sultan and principal lords left Damascus, and took the 
road to Cairo. A Tartar deserter, named Tbacmac, went to Sultan 
Shah Robk, and informed him thereof. Some of the king's party were 
overtaken, and several slain; and the baggage which they had aban-- 
doned, was captured. 

Timur now quartered his army in the suburbs of Damascus. He 
visited the tombs of Oumme Selma and Habiba, wives of Mahomet, 
and that of Belalhabachi, whose intercession he implored. 

The inhabitants of the city were seized with fear, and all the che- 
rife, the cadis, emams, and lawyers, went out, and threw themselves at 
the foot of the throne, with entire submission and large presents — 
They implored the Emperor's pity on the mussulmans. The ransom 
was agreed on, and seven gates of the city were walled up, leaving one 
open for Timur's office, to which payment was brought. The chief of 
the deputation was Cadi Veliddin, whose discourse pleased Timur; and 
the party was invited to dine at his table. The cadi 'conversed with the 
Emperor about Africa, in which country he had travelled; for Ti- 
mur was well versed in the history of states and princes, both of the 
east and the west. 



Pimyers were read in the fiunouB mosque of the Ommiades calife, in 
the name and titles of the august Emperor. v 

Some of the soldieis having used violence after the publication of 
quarter, Timor caused them to be crucified. 

The governor of the castle confiding in its immense strength, held out, 
and was besieged in form by a very great force. Three platforms were 
built, high enough to command it; from which fire-pots, arrows, and 
great stones were thrown in as thick as hail. The walls were shaken 
by battering rams ; the large pieces of rock, in the walls, were heated, 
and shattered by vinegar being cast on them, and then broken by ham- 
mers. The walls were sapped, and one of the vast towers fell The 
soldiers rushed to the breach, and eighty Persians being crushed under 
the fiiUing ruins, the troops halted. The breach was quickly filled ' up 
by the Syrians. The wooden props which supported part of the for- 
tifications being set on fire, the governor, hopeless of a successful de- 
fence, came out, and delivered the keys of the fortress and the treasury 
to Timor, who ordered him to be put to death, for not surrendering 

The treasure was very great. There was a granary of com, being 
the revenues of Mecca and Medina ; the amount for which it was sold 
was considerable, in consequence of a scarcity. Timur ordered the 
whole sum to be distributed among the officers of those renowned ci- 
ties, for he was sincere in his religion: and then, with very civil treat- 
ment, sent them back to Jerusalem. 

The garrison of Damascus was composed of Circassians, mamalucs 
Etiui^ian slaves, and Zanguebars ; the women, children, and old men, 
were all made slaves. 

The Syrian money being of a base alloy, Timur ordered a recoinage 
in his own namej the gold and silver to be refined. There was so 
much money among the soldiers, that the revenue to the divan on this 



CHAP, recoinage was lix himdTed tbovaand dinani copa^ (abaut one luin- 
v^xy-iM,.^ dred and sixtjr-eight thousand pounds steriing). 

Timor ordered the coast df the Meditenranean to be raragedi wUcb 
was done ; and the emirs then returned, with great booty^ to Canaao. 

The Emperor was severely atta^ed with an imposthmna upon his 
back, but soon recoTered. 

The soldiers were now so overloaded with booty, that they actually 
threw away gold and silver stuffk and other valuable things, not being 
able to carry tiiem. " Several creditable persons, eye-witnessesr relat> 
ed this to me*." 

Damascus was accidentally burnt, being boilt of inflammable mate- 
rials. " Timur, whose regard for religion was unparalleled, sent to save 
the mosque of Ommiades; but, by God's wrath against these people, 
the stone minaret was burnt; whereas the wooden minaret Arons, or 
Mounar Beiza, renuuned safe, which was miraculous. Upon this, the 
mussulmans believe that the Lord Messiah Jesus, on whom, as on our 
prophet, may blessings be showered, will descend from heaven, when 
he shall come to judge both the living and the dead f ." 

Timur .having made the Syrians feel his wrath, now gave them 
marks of his clemency; he ordered all Uie slaves taken in Syria and 
Damascus, men, women, and children, to be set at Uberty. 

Tadmor, built by the prophet Solomon, was plunctered, and two 

hundred thousand sheep taken. Some Turcomans near ^e Euphrates 

were defeated, and their horses, sheep, and camels taken. The aol- 

' diers now poisewed eight hundred thousand sheep. 

A.D. 1401. Bagdat was again taken and plundered. Ninety Uiousand inhabit- 

Jul; 33. mj|g y/QjQ slain, and one hundred and twenty pyramids frere made of 

their heads. 

• Sherefeddin. f Sherefeddiii. VoL II. p. 300. 



Timor, on arriving *t the river Jagatou, was joined by the Empress 
Serai Hulo Canamj the ioirzaB and their wires and children, the doc- < 
tors and principal lords of the empire of Iran. His Majesty, who was 
extremely desirous of being enlightened on questions of rdigion, invi- 
ted some of the learned to dispute on some points, in order to clear up 
the truth. 

The Emperor, being at Taaris, received a r^ntant letter i^m 
Bajazet, and granted him his pmlon. A great hunting circle was 
now made and an immehslty of game killed. 

Timor received news of the death of his general. Emir Hadgi Sei- 
feddin; he was sensibly touched, even to tears, at the loss of this faith- 
ful servant. 

Bi^aeet having given protection to a powered robber, who plunder- 
ed the caravans of Mecca, Timur had a correspondence with him to 

The castle of Kemac, <m the Euphrates, was taken. For' nearly 
three days together, Uttle Urds as big as sparrows, and unfledged, foil 
ont of the air at this place; the inhabitants gather them up, salt them, 
and preserve them in pots. If they do not take them in three days, 
their wings grow large enough to fly away *. 

Timur receives a very unsatishctory and evasive embassy from Ba- 
jasKt, and finds himself constrained to invade the Ottoman empire. 
The Emperor reviewed his army, which proved much to his 8atisfiu> 
tion; many of the corps being now so equipped, as to be more per- 
fecUy and easily distingaished In the heat of battle. 

The army advances to Caesarea in Cappadocia; and his Majesty 
sends a letter to Bajatet enjoining him to listen to hfs moderate pro- 

• Sherefeddin, Vol. II. p. S40. 



t^^^P* posals, and. Bend back the officers of his ally Taharten^ who had been 
~ : and to let one of his sons be sent also, who shall be treated 
with courtesy and tenderness, as a pledge of his sincerity. 

The 'Emperor encamped with all his army, at Ancora. Bigazetfs 
army advanced*. When night caiqe, Timur offered up his prayers to 
the great creator of the universe, who had been his particular bene- 
factor. "O Lord! what thou hast hitherto done for me redoonds to 
thy glory, why then should I despair?" 

Timur ranged his immense army, which was conunanded by the 
greatest lords of Asia. Himself commanded the body of reserve. 
Several ranks of elephants, equipped in the completest and most mag- 
nificent manner, were posted at the head of the whole army f . 

Bajazet's right wing was commanded by Pesir Laos, an European, 
his wife's brother; with twenty tiiousand cavalry of Europe, armed in 
steel from head tp foot, so that nothing could be seen but their eyes. 
Their armour was &stened below the foot by a padlock, which, except 
they open, their cuirass and helmet cannot be taken off. The left 
wing was led by Mussulman Chelibi, son of B^jazet, and composed of 
the troops of Anatolia. The nuun body was commanded by Bajazet 
himself, having for his lieutenants-general, his three sops, Moussa, 
Aisa, and Mustafa. The most skilful of his five sons, Mehemed Che- 
libi, had the command of the rear, assisted by m&ny pachas and brave 

The two armies were resolved to conquer or die. The signals for 
battle were given; the large trumpet (Kerr^iai) was sounded. 

"" Four hundred thousand men, horse^nen, and foot-nten, adranced with jpeed 
to oppose and expel me." Timur's Institutes, p. 15S. 

t The number of elephants brought from India by Timur, must bare been 
Tery great. 

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Bajftzet's left wing was attacked with a discharge of arrows, and 
Cara Osman hroke through it. ■ 

The son of Bajazet performed very noble actions, but being unable to 
withstand the attack, he fled with his troops. Bajazefs right suffer- 
ed a cruel daughter, and was put in great disorder. On the other 
hand, the Europeans, &lling on Timnr's troops, gave marks of prodi- 
gious valour and invincible courage. There were alternate repulses; 
but the death of the prince Pesir Laus, and the slaughter of the in- 
fantry of Bajazefs right wing, gave Timur the advantage. Timur 
perceiving this, ordered the commanders to fell on the Ottomans with 
an his army. Quickly, a most terrible carnage ensued, and the rest 
of tiie enemy fled. The weather, the sun being in Leo, was so hot 
that numbers of the enemy perished with thirst. 

A party had surrounded Bajazet,and attempted to capture or kill him ; 
bnt he defended himself very bravely, and made good his escape; he 
was however hoUy pursued, and the Snltan Mahmoud, titular Grand 
Khan of Zagatai, seized him, and he was presented by the great 
emirs, at sun set, with his hands bound, to t^e conqueror. At this 
sight Timur was moved with compassion*. He ordered Bajazefs 
hands to be unbound, and that he might be brought before him with 
respect. When he was admitted, Timur went to receive him at the 
door of his tent, with great ceremony; and causing him to sit down, 
said to him : " The accidents of this world happen through the will 
of God, but it may justly be said, that you are the sole cause of the 
misfortunes that have befallen you. Knowing that you warred against 
die infideb, I used all possible mildness, and would even have given 
you succour to exterminate the enemies of Mahomet. You haughtily 
refused my moderate proposals for peace. Every one knows, if God 

* Bajaset waa then sufiering tjnm an attack of the gout. 

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had giren you the victory, in what manner you designed to treat me and 
my army. But, to return thanks to God for my good fortune, you 
may rest satisfied that I will neither treat you nor your friends ill." 
Bajaaet was confounded. " I have indeed done wrong, said he, in not 
following the counsels of so great an Emperor; and my pouishment is 
merited. If your Majesty is willing to pardon me, I swear the future 
obedience of myself and my children." 

Timnr gave Bajazet a splendid vest, comforted him, and treated 
him as a great Emperor. He was lodged in a royal pavilion, and his 
son Moussa, who was found in the camp, was sent to him. 
' Timur sent Mirza Mehemed Sultan to Brusa, in Bythinia, the seat 
of the Ottoman empire, with several tomans, to take possession of Ba- 
jazet's treasures, and the riches of the city, which they then burnt: 
Mussulman Chelibi had fled to Europe in all haste, and had carried off 
part of the treasure. The other cities of Natolia were in like manner 
ravaged, and the people made slaves. 

Great rewards were distributed among the emirs: and every 
soldier had many horses. Bajazet's treasures were brought upon 
mules and camels, to Kioutahia*, where they were presented to 
Hmur, with Uie fallen monarch's family, and his beautiful slaves; who 
were good dancers, could sing well, and excelled in music. The Em- 
peror sent to Bajazet, his wife, named Destina, (whose brother, Pesir 
LauB, the European, had been killed in the battle), with his daughter 
and all his domestics; but was desirous Hbat that princess, who 
had been tolerated in the Christian religion, even in Bajazet^s seraglio, 
diould embrace the tenets of Mahomedf . 

* " In m}' expedidon agunst Room, I gave unto my soldiers aevea. yean' wagea : 
part thereof due, and (lie remainder in advance. The eubsUtence of a private 
wldier was fixed at tbe value of his horse." TimurV Institutes, p. 309, 23S. 

t The European romances call her Rozana: and make Timur place her m his 



Emir Mehemed, sen of Caiaman, who had been kept in chains for ^^^' 
twdre years by Bajazet, was brought to court and invested by Tinrar 's^-v-^^ 
with the government of Caramanis, Iconimn, and their dependendes; 
and whidi remained in his fiunily, under the protection of Timnr. 

The army, after spending a month in banquets and plays, departed 
from Kioutahia. On the march, there were feasHngs and music, to 
which Bajaxet was invited, and treated with great honour. Timnr 
even granted him the investiture of Natolia, the crown was placed 
npon his head, and a patent ^ven him for his govemmesit, in the usual 

Timnr sent to the Snltan of Egypt to desire that the money should be 
coined in his name and titles, and that he would release Atilmich, the 
ambassador. Two ambassadors were sent to the Greek Emperor at 
Constantinople, to summon him to pay tribute and customs ; which 
was consented to, and confirmed by a solemn treaty. 

The Emperor, in his marches in Natolia. ravaged and laid under 
contribution all the towns he approached. Being informed that there 
was an exceedingly strong place on the sesrshore, built of free stone, 
surrounded on three sides by the ocean, and on the fourth by a deep 
ditch, iidiabited by Europeans, and named Exmir (Smyrna) ; and that 
it had never been taken by any Mahomedon, or paid tribute ; and that 
Bajaaet had besi^^ it in vain for seven years; his seal for religion 
made him resolve to summon them to embrace that of Mahomet, at to 
pay tribute; or, in case of refusal, he would order them all to be pnt 
to the sword. These proposals were made in vun. This place edn- 
tained a great number of the bravest Christian captains, or rather 
a bend of desperate wretches who had laid up mndi ammmni- 

"Hmur arrivedin the midst of rains, and winter. Aflertbe most fit- ^j^P* '^ 

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166 shyIina takek^bajazets death. 

CiU.P. riouB attacks, abd Takvons defence; by means of sapping, batt^ing- 
. \^"-Y^'«^ rams, and fire, the jdace was stormed, the inhabitants put to the sword, 
the buildings razed, and the moveables cast into the sea. Two large 
ships, called caraccas, arrived, and their commanders anchored. Ti< 
mur ordered that some of the Christians' heads should be cast by 
the machinery on board the vessels ; on which they departed. This 
siege was terminated in two wedcs^ and every one acknowledged the 
greatness of the Emperor. 

Timur granted &vors and governments to two sons of Bajazet He 
ordered a strong citadel to be built at Smyrna, and that Grecian 
Christians should not be admitted into Asia that way. 

An Eui'opean, named Soba, prince of the island of Chio,* where mas- 
tich grows, voluntarily submitted to pay tribute to the Emperor, and 
seitt him presents by an ambassador . 

Bajazet, while Timur was on the March, fell sick. The Emperor 
sent the most skilful physicians of the court to attend him, with the 
^same care as if it were'for himself; but, since there is noting of cer- 
tain duration but God, Bajazet died of apoplexy on the 14th of Cha- 
ban, 805. 
A.D. 1403. Timur was so extremely aflfected, that he bewailed the misfortunes 
' of that great prince witii tears. He reflected how Providence baffles 
all human projects; for he intended to raise the dejected spirit of Ba- 
jazet, by re-establishing him with great power; but &tehad otherwise 
ordered it. 

Largesses were bestowed on Bajazet's officers, and the Emperor 

presented his son with a royal vest, a belt, a sword, a quiver enriched 

with precious stones,'^ a load of gold, and thirty horses: he likewise 

gave him his letters patent, sealed with the impression of his red hatid, 

. and then dismissed him; assuring him that Bajazefs coffin should be 



sent with the potap of a great kiBg to Bnua, to be interred in his own CHAP. . 
mansdeum*. >...«»v-^*<^ 

Timar's boh, Mehemed, it is supposed by the imskUfiilness of his A.D. 1408, 
physicians, died, aged nineteen. He had, at this earlj age, obtained 
more victories* and performed greater acts of valour, than many he- 
roes recorded in history. The afflicted &ther, flinging his crown 
adde, rent his clothes, and cast himself upon the ground in the most 
surprising transports of grie£ The princes and lords, and the ladies 
at court, wore nothing but aaii^cloth; covering their heads and bosoms 
with earth, and deeping upon chaff. The princess Canike, Mehe- 
med's wife, was so overwhelmed with sorrow, that she lost her senses. 
Even the soldiers of the army were deeply grieved. The ministers 
of state, falling on their foces, implored the Emperor to arm himself 
with patience, and compose his mind. 

Farrudge, Sultan of Egypt, sent back Timor's ambassador, Atilmich, 
with assurances of entire submission and payment of tribute. Timur 
promised him his protection. The EmpAur pursued his march home- 
ward, uid was joined by his sons and grandchildren. At sight of 
Mehemed's two little sons, Timur conld not refrain from tears. The 
princess Canzade, mother of Mehemed, when made acquainted with 
his death, and seeing all the ladies with black mantles covering their 
heads, swooned, plucked out her hair, and tore her bvely cheeks with 
. her nails. Timnr, in hopes of soothing her, ordered an empty coffin, 
strongly fastened, to be presented to her, whidi she eageriy embraced, 
weeping and groaning. — " My ^es, (said the afflicted princess), were 
continually watching the public road, in expectation of some news of 

* The rtory of the uaa cage is rdsted by Bome hiatoiians, but not by the Per- 
uana. See a dissertation on that subject by Gibbon, Cb. LXV. The truth is, 
perbaps, that tbe bouse upon wheeb, such as Bajazet* as well as others, travelled 
in, was secured, to prevent his escape, by irqQ ban. 

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my dear childl I expected not this cruelty iivm Fortone. O deplor- 
' able condition! O wretched Canzadel O unfortunate prinoe) Herei- 
less Fate hath snatched the sceptre of Iran ttona thy hand ; and it is not 
without cause, that tears of blood gush from my eyes.** 

Timur, judging it proper to do som^hii^ for the spiritiial good of 
his soul, ordered a funereal banquet AD the grandees and nobles of 
Asia sat, according to their rank, at the Emperor's table. The Alco- 
ran was read, and Mehemed's brass drum was beaten; at sound of 
which there was a sudden and loud weeping; and the dram w«s Ih-o- 
ken to pieces, being the custom of the Moguls. The Emperor loaded 
the doctors with ferours and honours, and pmnitted an order to be 
issued for leaving off the sackcloth, and other marks of grief. 

Timur sent Mirza Aboubecre to rebuild and reinstate Bagdat, in its 
former splendour; so that a caravan might depart the next year for 

The Emperor invaded Creoigia, considering it a gasie (holy war), 
and a duty. Death and havock were the consequences to the Geor- 
gians; and they submitted to pay tribute. The Enq>eror arrived 
at Teflis, having ruined all the churches and monasteries in those 

In one mcmth, being the cold season. Timur rebuilt the city of Bai- 
lacan, consisting of a wall, a ditch, four maAet places, a great number 
of houses, bathe, caravanserais, squares, and gardens, all of brick. 
The great Emperors of antiquity could not have achieved this in a 
year. The circumference of the walls was twenty-^our hundred cu- 
bits it^ge measure, the thickness eleven cubits, and the height fifteen; 
with a ditch thirty cubits broad, and twenty wide; at each comer, 
there were a great bastion, a gallery with battlements, and a machine 
to cast stones. The soldiers were imder the direction of the Empe- 
ror's sons and the emirs. 



The goTemment of fiulacan, G«orgta, Armenia^ and Trebieond, 
was given to Hirza CalU Soltaii. As water was mmting at Bailacan, v. 
hn Majesty ordered a caaal to be di^ from the Araxes; six leagues 
long and fifteen cubits in breadth. It was finished in about a month. 

'Hmur sent intendants into all his provinces, to distribute justice 
with r^our, and to examine the state of affiura, with fioll power. 

" My heart," said the Emperor, "hath always been set on the en- 
la]^:ing of the limits of my vast empire ; but now, I take a resolution 
to use all my care in procuring security to my subjects, and to render 
my kingdom flourishing. I ordain tiiat private persons address their 
complaints to myselt I am unwilUng that, at the day of judgment, 
my poor oppressed subjects should cry for vengeanee against me; and 
I desire to lay up a treasure of justice, that my soul may be happy af- 
ter death." 

The assembly lifted up their hands to heaven, and said — *' O God, 
who art the Lord both of this world and the next, hearken to the 
righteous petitions of this just prince ; and, as thou hast subjected the 
earth to him ; after a long reign in this world, let him reign with thee, 
in glory, in the other." 

Justice was now done on some great lords and governors. 

Timur ordered a famous chase in the plains of Actam, beyond the 
Araxes. The dogs had coverings of satin, embroidered with gold> and 
the hunting leopards had chains of gold, set with jewels, about their 
necks. There were Grecian greyhounds, esteemed for their swiftness, 
excellent beagles, and huge European ma8ti£&, as strong and terrible 
as tigers. 

After three days the cirde began to ctoae, and the slaughter of tions 
antelopes, roebucks, and stags, was infinite*. 

* Thii is a fine sporting country. " We came to the Araxet, and, in five 



CHAP. TimuT, having made himself master of NatoUa and Syria, with their 
v-«--v-*^ dependencies; subjected Egypt to pay an annual tribute; and fill- 
April 8. filled the precept in the Alcoran, in making war on the Christians 
of Georgia; reflected that, to crown his happy life, he had no more 
to conquer in Asia than the Emperor of China, the inhabitants of 
which empire were infidels. He therefore resolved on that conquest, 
and departed from Carabagh for Samarcand. 
■'uly- After a long march, during which his Majesty punished some re- 

> ' volters, he reached his capital. 

An ambassador* arrived from one of the greatest sovereigns of Eu- 
rope, ^o brought Timur many curious presents; among which were 
some of tapestry, so curiously worked that they, disgraced tiie punter 
Manis's greatest performances. 

Timur ordered the Damascus architects to build a magnificent 
palace, in the garden south of Baghi Chemal, each of its sides be- 
ing fifteen hundred cubits. There were perpetual fountains in 

(lays' marcb) to a plain iull of wormwood and aromatic shrubs, but no trees ; the 
most numerous wilj'creatures, were ostriches, buatarda, roe-deer, and asses; the 
last exceeded our horses in speed, and when they had gained ground, they stood 
still, tiU the pursuers approached, and agdn they fled ; we were therefore obliged 
to hunt them by relays. Their flesh is like that of the red-deer, but more tender." 
Xenophon, Retreat, p. 27. 

* Ruy Gonzales de Clavijo, from Henry 111. King of Castile. Clavyo pub- 
lished an account of this embassy, which bears authentic testimony to facts related 
by Sherefeddin; and he gives an account of a former embassy of two gentlemen 
of the court, to Timur; who, when they returned, were accompsnied by a great 
lord, as an ambassador irom Timur to Henry, with a letter and abundance of rich 
presents; among which were two ladies taken out of Bajazet'a seraglio, one of 
whom was daughter of Count John, a Hungarian, and niece of the king of Hunga- 
ry, Her name was Donna Angelina de Grecta; the other was a Greek named 
Donna Maria. The first married Diego Gonzales de Contreras, Regidor of Se- 
govia. The latter married Payo Gomes de Sotomayor, one of the ambassadors. 
They were both respected at the court of Castile. See the French Editor's Pre- 
fiice to Sherefeddin. 

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great variety, mosuc work^ marble, porcebun, and every rich ornament. CHAP. 
Here Timur ordered a banquet to be prepared with all the deli^^ts v.-^-v'^ 
frhich mortals can desire for their gratification. The European am- 
bassadors were invited, for even Ihe casses have their place in the. 

Timur, in conformity with the commands of the Alcoran, was wil- Oct. 17. 
Ung that his grand-clnldren should be married. He sent circiilar let- 
ters to all his.BoUes andgovernors of the empire, (with the exoeption 
^ Shah Rohk, who could not be spared from the kingdoms of Irac 
and Azerbijan), to meet at Canighul, for this grand marriage-feast. 

The tents were &stened with ropes of silk, and the floors co- 
vered with carpets wrought with gold ; the curtains were of velvet of 
Chuchter; the ceilings of ebony and iv<H7, exquisitdy engraved. 

The Emperor's division consisted of four great euclosures, regular* 
ly planned. The Imperial residence consisted of two hundred tents, 
gilt and adorned with precious stmies. Each tent had twelve columns 
of silrer inlaid with gold: the outside was scarlet and seven other 
ocdours, and they were lined with saiUn of all colours. 

The mirzas and emirs had their tents also, which were supported 
by columns of massive silver, and spread with the richest carpets. 
The generals, governors, and lords pitched their tents in good and 
regular order. 

The people came &om China* MuscoVy, Greece, India, Zabul, Bag- 
dat, Syria, in short firom all Asia. Mengheli, a principal lord of 
Egypt, and eloquent man, and who could repeat the whole Alcoran, - 
arrived as ambassador from Farrudge, the son of Barcoc, with abund- 
ance of rich presents in gold and jewels, and also a Giraffe and nine 
lai^e ostriches. 

* Animals about the size of a grain of corn, which float upon the sea. 

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The Emperor's sons arrired axtd presented the most precioiu gifts; 
' aivrajB nine of a sort. In flue, Ctmighul was converted from a garden 
of flowers, which its name implies, into a bed of precious stones, pearb, 
and gold *. 

Ad amphitheatre was built and spread with brocade and Fersiaa 
carpets, with seats for vocal and instrumental performers ; and places 
for buffoons and jesters, to excite mirth by their facetious sayings. 
Another was prepared for all sorts of trades. A hundred divisions 
were laid out with pomegranates, pears, apples, and fruits, which per- 
fumed the air. 

Some young women were dressed up as angels, fitiries, satyrs, speaking 
goats with gilt horns; and there were figures of elephants and sheep. 

The fnrriers appeared in the guise of leopards, lions, tigers, &c. to 
represent Crenii, who had thus transformed themselves. 

The upholsterers made an artificial camel, which walked about as 
if alive. The saddlers made two open litters, which were laid upon a 
camel ; two beautiful women were placed in them, and diverted the as- 
sembly with variety of postures c^ the hands and feet. The rope dan- 
cers attracted the admiration of all. 

The grand cadi of Samarcand received the consent of the six 
princes and princesses; the articles were agreed on; the ceremony 
read; and the parties joined in marriage; which he registered. Every 
one sprinkled the brid» and bridegrooms with jewels. 

The Emperor, seated upon his throne, ordered a lAoat magnificent 
banquet to be served up to the brides and court ladies, by the great- 
est beauties of the seragHo, decorated with crowns <rf flowers. 

* " All the riches of Xerx«8 and Darius, of which our historians talk so ex- 
travagantly, were trifling in comparison of the jewels and gold exhibited on this 
occasion, on the delightful plain, called Oanigul, or the treasury of roses." Sir 
W. Jones. Vol. V. p. 607. 



: The princes of the Mood, aaiia, xwTians, dmlfi}, foreign udbasaa- 
dors, the emirB of tomans and hazares, were seated according to their . 
rank^ under a canopy of twelve coUunns, distant frooi the naptial hall 
« horse's course. 

The Yesaoub (or Chaouz) were mounted on the finest horses, witii 
aaddks of gold uid jewels, magnificently dressed in gold broeade, with 
eilTa wands in their hands, to shew their authority. On another side 
were elephants of a prodigious size, with a kind of thrones upon their 
hackfl, abnnibuitly ornamented. 

Cammez, wines, brandy, oxymel, hippocras, sinna, and other li- 
quors, were presented upon salvers otgcUd and sUver, in cups of agate, 
rock crystal, and gold, ornamented with pearls and ^wels. 

Several forests were cut down, to dress the victuals of tbis banquet. 
The whoia plain was covered with tables, flaggons, baskets <^ provi- 
uon, and jars for the court and people. 

It was proclaimed by the crier, by the Emperor's command: — 

" This is the time for feasting and rtsjoieing, let no one encroach on 
another, or ask—' Why have you done this!' " 

After the feast, mules and camels, han&wmety admned in satin em- 
broidery and little golden beUs, were laden with rich habits^ crowns, 
and bdts of jewds, for the newly married. 

The brides and bridegrooms dianged their ridi dresses, crowns, and 
belts, nine times; at each change paying their respects, and being 
sprinkled with jewds, till the ground was covered; and which became 
the profit of the domestics. 

The following night tJiere were illuminatMOs in evei^ place, of lan- 
terns, tordies, and lamps; and ihs new married entered the nuptial 
ehandiers. The next day tim ^npemr. Empresses, great »nirs, and 
dieriA, visited them at their (qportneats. The sound of dnmis 



and tmrapeis was beard in e7ery place, from Canighid to Tous,' in 
' <%oraaBan. 

The ambassadors of India, Egypt, Spain, Gete, Decht-Capchae, 
and others, witnessed this magnificence and pleasure, which lasted two 
months; and Uiey were distinguished by particular fovoors. 

The marriage-feasts being over, Timur recalled the licence, and for- 
bade the drinking of wine, or other unlawful act; and every one was 
Ordered to his proper employ. 

The Emperor returned to his closet, to address himself to God_ 
^ O Almighty Being, whose essence is unknown but to thyself, bow can 
I recite thy praise, who out of nothing hast created me, and from a ^et- 
ty prince hast rendered me the mightiest emperor of the universe ! _ 
Continue, then. O tho\i Crreat Creator! thy goodness to me. I know 
that I am but dust. O Lord ! put me not to shame because of my 
vices, who have been so long accustomed to partake of thy fovours: 
and then I shall rest contented." 

Timur having sammoned his children and the great emirs, addressed 
them thus: " As my vast conquests hare caused the destruction of a 
great number of God's creatures, I hare resolved to atone for the 
crimes, of my past life, by exterminating the infidels of China. It is 
fitting, therefore, my dear Companions, that the instruments whereby 
the faults were committed, should also be the instruments of repent- 
ance, and have the merit of that holy war, to demolish the temples of 
the idols of fire; and erect in their places mosques and chapels: as the 
Alcoran assures us, that good works efface the sins of this world."— 
These sentiments were unanimously applauded — " Let the Emperor, 
(said they) display his standard, and his slaves will follow him." 

Timur returned to Samarcand, and dismissed the princes to their 
governments, and the ambassadors to their countries, with honour and 



The Emir Berendac was ordered to renew the troops. He hrought CHAP, 
word to the Emperor, that they consisted of two hundred thousand *,..— ^-^' 
men complete; capable of the greatest enterprises. Timur was pleas^ 
ed, and ordered them to begin the march. Having consulted the as- 
trologers; who findiog the moon, the sun, and Jupiter, in favour- 
able aspects, the Emperor seized the happy moment, and began his 

The winter was very violent : the Emperor encamped at Ascoulat. A.D. 1405. 
Prom this place, Timur strictly enjoined the viceroys and governors ' 

to do justice, and guard his ' people from harm ; that he may not 
have to blush for their shame before the throne of God, at the day of 

The army was well supplied, and several thousand loads of corn were 
carried in waggons, to sow the fields on the road, and thousands of she- 
camels were taken for their milk. The violence of the cold was such, 
that men and horses perished ; and many lost their hands, feet, ears, 
or noses. Timur crossed the Sihon, upon the ice, which they found, 
on digging for water,'was two or three cubits thick. 

The Emperor arrived at Otrar, seventy-six parasangs from Samar- Feb. 27. 
cand, and lodged in the palace of Birdi Bey, where all the princes and 
lords had also their respective apartments. The day of the Emperor's 
arrival, one comer of the roof of the palace, in which he was lodged, 
took fire from the tunnel of a chinmey running by it ; but the fire was 
soon extinguished. 

On the 10th of Chaban, Timur was attacked by a burning fever, and March «6. 
believed he heard the Houris say to him, " Repent! for you must appear 
b^ore God." On this he became sincerely penitent for his crimes*. 

(saye Locke) is a state of mind founded neither on reason nor 

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His sickness increasiiig, and faaTiog no rest, he was much weakened. 
Then, neither empire, nor armies, nor riches, nor crowns, stood him in 
any stead. One of the most skilful physicians of the age employed 
all his care* ; but &te had ordained. His mind continued sound, and 
he resolved courageously to face death. He called the empresses and 
principal emirs into his presence. " I am satisfied, " said the Emperor, 
" that my soul is about to leave my body. I beseech you, instead of 
uttering cries, rending your garments, and running to and fro, like mad- 
men, to say AUa Akbar! and the Fathia, that my soul may find comfbrt. 
Since Grodhasenabledf me to give laws to the earth, whereby, through 

revelatioD, but rises from the conceits of an overweening brun. Timor would 
now, probably, reflect on the numerous pyramids of ghaetly heads. 

TiMua's Dream. 
Hark ! I hear the Houris say — 
Soul of Timur, wing thy way, 
Leaving earth and mortal things. 
Stand before the King of Kings ! 
Awful truth must here be told — 
If thou fougbt'st for God or gold. 

* It is Bud, that Timur had imprudently drunk a glaas of cold water, which, not 
improbably, saved the empire of China. 

t Once, at the siege of a strong castle, Timur, by too much fatigue, was seized 
with a fever, but not bdng able to rest without sedng how things went on, he 
ordered his attendants to carry him to the door of his tent, which stood upon an 
eminence, and from whence he beheld the attack. He was supported under the 
arms by two persons; but, being very weak, he soon ordered them to lay him gendy 
upon the ground, which they did. Then, sending one of them away, he said to 
the other, named Mahmud of Marasm, " Considermy feebleness, and how destitute 
I am of strength. I have neither a hand to do anything, nor a foot to walk : if I 
should be attacked, I cannot defend myself. Should I be abandoned in die etrndi- 
tion I am in, I should remain as in a trap, without being able in any wise to help 
myself, or avoid the evils that must befal me : yet, see, the Almighty has subjected 
nations to my obedience, gives me entrance into the most inaoceesible places, fills 

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all the kingdoms of Iran and Toona, no one dare encroach on his nogh- CHAP, 
bour, I have hopes that he will pardon my sins, though they are with- s^^y-^.' 
out number. I have the amsolation, throughout my reign> of not 
having permitted the strong to oppress the weak. I declare my son 
Pir Mehemed Gehanghir, my universal heir, and lawful successor to 
the empire. He must possess the throne of Samarcand with absolute 
sovereignty; and I command you all to obey him* that my labours 
for so many years may not be lost." 

Tiiqur then ordered all the generals and great lords to come before 
him, and to promise, on their solemn oaths, that no one should be pei^ 
mitted to oppose the execution of his will. The lords melted into 
tears wi^ grief and despair : and, foiling on their fkces, asked if they 
should send for Calil Sultan 7 " No," said Timur, " I have nd other 
desire than to see Mirza Shah Rohk once more; but God will not 
have it BO." The ladies in the anti-chamber were in the utmost con- 
sternation. Timur, turning to his children, said, " Remember to A. D. 1405. 
keep the public tranquillity; be valiant, that you may long enjoy a *"^ ' 
vast empire; and make equity and justice the rule of your actions. 
If discord should creep in among you, irreparable mischiefs will arise 
both in religion and government." Timur was pleased to have the 
doctor, Moulana Hebetulla, to read the word of God. At night, at 
about eight o'clock, Timur, remembering the promise of Mahomet, that 
he whose last words are, " there is no other god than God," shall 
surely enter Paradise, made profession of that belief. Then he gave 
up his soul to the angel Enrafi^ *, who called him in these words: — 

the eaxth widi the terror of my naaie, and tnakea longs and ]»iiioes fall down be- 
fore me. Can such woils come from any but GoAt What am I but a poor miaer- 
able wretdi, without either power or applicatkm equal to such great exi^its? " 
At theae words the tears fell from his eyes, neitlier could Blahmod refrain fiwa 

* Israel. 

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" O soul that hopest in God, return to tkj I^ord with resignation. We 
> belong to God, and must return to him." 

Timur was seventy-one years of age, and had reigned thirty-six*. 

This dismal night was passed in grief. Horror seized both on his 
friends and enemies. The princes of the blood cast their crowns on 
the earth; the empresses tore their faces and hair; and the emirs rent 
'their robes; tempests, rains, and thunder- did not cease through the 
night, as if heaven shared the affliction f. 

The next morning, the body was embalmed with camphire, mask, 
and rose water; and, being wrapped in linen, was laid in a coffin of 
ebony. An express was sent to Gazna to Pir Mahomed, to beseech 
his presence: and Timor's death was not permitted to be published. 

* Timur was, in many qualitieB, unquestionably a great man: politic, orcum- 
spect, temperate, generous, and just except in warfare. His admirers, like his de- 
scendants, (see Dow, Vol. 1 1, p. 9), must deplore his fanatical murders. Religion, 
that cordial of the human mind, when it deviates into bigotry, never fiiils to confuse 
the understanding; and ingeneral it inbumanizes the heart. But for this " (^anuwrf 
^*," Timur, as a conqueror and a greatmonarch, might bavecommanded a dis- 
tinguished fame on the page of history. He is, for the extent of his conquests, 
second only to Genghis Khan, having exceeded the Great Cyrus and Alexander. 

The horror of all mankind, except those of his own sect, attaches to such a mis- 
chievous being during his existence: and probably, even most of the followers 
of Ah, at the present time, are softened into a more rational character ; and the 
best portion of them look back on faim, in that' respect, with disapprobation. 
Timur has been called the JDextrot/ing Prince: but Genghis Khan, an aml^tiotu 
fanatic, has a prior claim, and a juster right to that infernal pre-eminence. 

t There is much similitude between the character and career of Cromwell and 
those of Timur: — their bigotry, talents, courage, magnanhnou* resolution, success, 
death, and immediate loss of their empires. "At the great stormy Monday, on 
which day he died, Cromwell (upon a revelation they say) told his physicians that 
he should now live to perfect the work. At his death, he had no sin that troub- 
led him, but only his want of faith. I suppose he meant, as the divines of that 
party do/ a full assurance of remission of sins and eternal salvation ; and then it 
was no wonder he wanted it." John Barwick to Charles 11. Lettet LXXIX. 
Select Collection, 1755. 



A general council was held, and it was resolved to continae the ex- CHAP. 
pedition to China, without waiting for the arrivai of the new Emperor ^.,«^<y^ 
hut Mirza Sultan Hussein, who had deserted at Damascus, and fought 
against Timur, disbanded a part of the left wing of the army; and, ~ 
with a thousand horse, took the road to Samarcand, designing to 8ur> 
prise the inhabitants by a stratagem, thdt he might enter the city. 
Couriers were sent in all directions, and the whole army marched for 
Samarcand. The emirs and soldiers of Calil's court, at Tashkuud, 
hearing of the defection of Hussein, swore allegiance to Calil Sultan, 
a grandson of Timur, and sovereign of Tashkund ; and placed him on 
the throne. 

On news of this, Timur's army, with the treasure, advanced towards April 16. 
Bochara. The empresses, with the heavy baggage, were admitted into 
Samarcand. Calil, having marched to Samarcand, was received, and April 27. 
took possession of the imperial palace; which contained all the trea- 
sures received in tribute, and the plunder of thirty-six years. He re- 
ceived the submission of the principal men of the state*. He ordered 
a funereal banquet; and the Alcoran to be read through. Timur's 
drum was beaten mournfully; and then broken to pieces. When 
Calil found himself fixed on the throne, he distributed gold like com 
out of bams; and it was carried away by loads, to the amazement of 
the people. 

At the death of the nephew of Hadgi Berlas, his empire readied 
from the Irtish and Volga to the Persian Gulf; and from the Indus, 
(for he did not keep possession of Hindostan), to Damascus and the 
Grecian Archipelago. Including Zagatai, Timur had placed twenty* 

• About a dozCD emin virtuously remonstrated. Pir Mahomed was the law- 
ful heir, being the eldest son of Timur's eldest son, Gehanghir: he was now 
twenty-nine years of age. 

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wrta crowm upm hie hud. AH hu coaqQwtft ir«re goremod hj his 
' oluldrett, or his princqud noUea. as vieen^. Hiadostaa, Ama Miaot, 
Russia, Iberia, Gcte, Bogdst, GeoiigU, && had been inTaded and 
plundo-ed. E^^ypt, and l&e Greek empire, had fubmitted to pay 

It would require a huge rolume to describe the castles, cities, pa- 
lacesj bridges, TDODasteriee, mosqiMS, hospit^, pkasure houses, uid 
cararanserais which were built; uid the rivem and canals which yre» 
dug by this pious £iaperor. 

Timur left thirtj^x sous and gnndsons*, onedaughtn, wid fifteen 
grand-daughters. He was a rigid observer of bis word; Uboal aod 
onirteous to all. except Aose who refused to obey bim. He passed 
his letsure hours in reading books of scdeQc& and history; in playing 
at chess, in whit^ game he made some sltenUions; aad in the «qb- 
versatien of learned men. At Us first rise to distinction, Asia was a 
prey to anarchy frad bad govemment; at his death* justice and secu- 
tUf were enjoyed throu^wut his dominitHisf . 

The Mirza CtlU, at the age of twenty-<Mie, without striking a blow, 
was now in possession of tlie vastest and ricbest eu^re at that pe- 
riod m the universe. 

Duiing the absence «f Timur in Georgia, the mirna had prirately 
married Shadi Mule, a great beauty, one of the concubines of the 
EoskHadgifietfeddin. He miixa's wife iuforoied Timur; who or^ 
Jtaei tiMt Shadi Mule shoidd make her ^peaj-anoe: but the mim 

• I%eexpfiiHe«f Tionir'etraiiuly muethovebeeiiiinnieaee. His eUest som te* 
ceired the subBistence of twelve thousand horsemen : his second son, of ten ; hU 
third Bon, of nine: his fourth son, Shah Rohk, of seven thousand, &c. and his 
sEandsons' Bubeistence and lands, of from three to seven thousand horsemen each. 
— Jnstitutefl, p. S41. 

t Sherefeddin. Dow's Hindostan. Modem Universal History. Gibbon. Pur- 
chas. De Guines, &c. 

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lumi^ comcetled her, Thnur, enraged, commanded a atriet search. — 
Being ftnmd, she was condemned to die; and would hare been put to <• 
death, but for the intercession of Mirza Pir Mdiemed Gehangbir. 

Calil having again concealed her in his house, and information 
thereof being transmitted to Thnur, the was forthwith ordered to be 

The empress. Serai Mule Canum. was a^cted at the deep anxietjr 
and despair of the unhappy mirza, and trusting to Timur's love of his 
diildren, she prevailed on the emir, Noureddin, to inform Timur that 
the lady was pregnant by the mirza. On this account the order was 
reversed, and she was entrusted to the care of the Eanpress Bon- 
yan Aga; that, after the lying in, she might bring up the child, and 
commit the lady to the care of the black eunuchs. 

On th^ death of Timor, Calil, finding himself an absolute sovereign, 
being crowned on the 27th April, resigned every thing to the wlU of 
the beauty, whose charms were the subject of all his thoughts; and he 
took no pleasure but in her company. Calil became ha slave, and 
breathed only by her permission; while she accounted every thing 
beneath her, and shewed no respect whatever either to the princes or- 

The state, in whatever concerned the sovereign authority, was now 
thrown into great disorder. The mirza squandered fais wealth with 
such profusion, and chiefly among those who were afterwards the cause 
of his ruin ; that, though all the riches of Hatem, and the tribe of Tai, 
did not equal the tenth part of one of the imperial treasuries, it was 
soon entirely gone. Strtuigers and upstarts were suddenly enriched ' 
and promoted to the first offices in the state; while persons of the 
greatest merit were totally disregarded. " Bestow not honour and 
riches," says the poet, "on him thou lovest, unless by degrees; lest he 
become insensible of the obligations he owes to you.* 



Shadi Mule, being inferior in taak to the deceased Emperor's wiv^, 
^ those empresses became jealous of her greatness ; at which Shadi Mule 
was very indignant, and persuaded Calil to force them to marry per- 
sons in every way unworthy of them. Calil behaved to these venera- 
ble ladies, whom he ought to have reverenced as his mother, with 
every disrespect. Even the soldiers were now disgusted with the 
new Elmperor, and the afikirs of the state fell into the utmost con- 

Pir Mahomed had been put to death by the treachery of his own 
minfsters. The Emperor Calil was seized by conspirators, and sent 
to Cashgar, where he passed fais time in writing verses on the charms 
of his beloved empress *; while she herself was led in chains through 
the streets of Samarcand, exposed to the insults of a justly irritated 
populace. In 1409, Shah Rohk succeeded to the throne. Calil was 
sent to Chorassan where he soon died; and Shadi Mule, who was sin- 
cerely attached to him, would not survive him, hut struck a poignard 
into her bosom, and was buried in the same tombf. 

* Thus were the firuita of Timur's conquests puffed into the air like a feather ; 
the amount of them can scarcely be guessedat. The lines of Hafez are more appli- 
cable to the prince than to the poet. 

" Sweet maid, if thou would'st charm my sight , 
- And bid these arms thy neck infold, 
That rosy cheek, that lily hand, 
Would give thy Calil more delight 
Than all Bocara's vaunted gold, 
Than all the gems of Samarcand. 

SirWm. Jones, Vol. IV. p. 449. 

t Shetefeddm, and Histoire dea Hnns, Vol. V. p. 81. 



Is the year of the Hegira 822> A. D. U19, Shah Rohk sent Shadfti 
Khoja as an ambassactor to China. The party set out from Herat, and 
proceeded, by Balk, to Samarcand, where they found Mirza Utug 
Bey, Shah Rohk's son, (the great astronomer)*, who sent other lords, 
and some Chinese, to join the embassy. 

They passed through Taahkund, Jayram, Ash, and Ilduz, (supposed 
to be Yelduz), and found the ice to be two inches thick, thoi^h the 
sun was then in the summer solstice. They proceeded to Tarcan, 
Kamul, and thence to a place within twelve days of Selgu, the first 
city in Katay. The embassy consisted, in all, of eight hundred and 
sixty-seven persons. In the desert, on the borders, the whole em- 
bassy was magnificently feasted, and accommodated with beds, &c. 
even for all the servants. 

On their arrival at Kamju, (Campion), they were entertained in a 
noble manner. At this place they saw a temple, each side of which was 
five hpndred cubits long; and in the middle ofit was an idol fifty feet in 
length, lying as if asleep. The hands and feet were nine feet 
Icmg, and the head was twenty*one feet in circumference. There were 
other idols about him, each a cubit high, in attitudes as if alive. They 
saw ten more temples in the city; one with eight sides, and fifteen 

* Ulug Bey bad a qnadraDt^ at Samarcand, one hundred and eighty feet high. 
His Astronomical Tables are found to differ very little firom those afterwards con- 
structed by Tycho Brahe. Hia principal work is a Catalogue of the Fixed Stars, 
Stom hia own Obeerratioiu, A. D. 1487. Enc. Brit. '* Astroncmy." 



stories in height, the chambers of which were Taraiahed, and em- 
> bellished with paintings. At the foot of this temple were figures of 
giants, which seemed to carry it upon their backs. It was of wood, 
gilt, and so rich that it appeared like nusBjr gold. In a vault under the 
edifice, is an iron axis or pillar, which rests upon a plate of iron, and 
reaches from the bottom to the top. This, being moved with ease, 
sets the whole &bric in motion; and tums it round in such a surpris- 
ing manner, Uiat " all the carpenters, smiths, and painters in the world, 
ought to go thither to learn the secrets of tiieir trades." 

As the embassy approached the capital, the magnificence increased. 
They arrived at Karamuran, (on the banks of the Whang-hp), and 
crossed a firm even bridge of boats, fiutenedwith iron chains attached 
to thick iron pillars. There is a still more superb temple here; and 
three public stews, full t>f very beautiful harlots. The women 
here being the handsomest in Katay, this is called — " The City 
of Beauty." 

At Sad-in-fVi, in a temple, was an image of brass gilt, fifty cabits 
high, called the image of a thousand hands, having a great number, 
and in the palm an eye. 

On the arrival of the embassy at Khanbfdik, (Pekin), they were con- 
ducted to the palace gate, where stood five elephants on each side. 
They then entered a beautiAil court, where near a hundred thousand 
men were awaiting the Emperor; and three hundred thousand out>- 
side. Before the palaoe were two thousand musicians singing hymns, 
and two tjiousand guards armed with swords, haU}erda, &c. It was 
now just day-light, and drums, trumpets, flutes, hantbois, and bells 
began to sound. The throne was massy gold. The commanders of 
ten thousand, one thousand &c. and an infinite number of guartts at- 
tended, in profound silence. The Emperor ascended by nine steps of 
silver. On «ich side of the throne, stood two beautiM maidens, wiA 



tkir ftees and neela bote, tlieir hair tied at the top of their heads, 
and great pearls at their ears. They had a pen and paper; and re- >. 
corded whaterer the Emperor spoke. The seren (tmbassadors ap- 
pnottched, aaid abo seren hundred criminals, none of whom are put to 
deadiwithosiithennnatesteaquiiy; and die Emperor never condemns 
any but diose he cannot sare. The seven ambassadors were ordered 
to fall vpon their knees, and knock the grotmd wiUt their foreheads ; 
but they only bowed the head three times. They delivered the letters, 
of Shah fiohk,and other princes, {the grandeur and oeremonies are 
here described, but need not be repeated, being similar to the accounts 
irtiich appear in this work firon Maico- Polo and 5fr John Maunde- 
ville). In tiie court, wei% several thoosands of different birds, which 
flew about, and fed upon the ground among the people, quite tamed 
and fearless. For five months there were occasional grand banquets. 
On new year's day, people from Thibet and all parts arrived at the 
grand feast, (for which see in this volume Ch. II. Maimdeville's and 
Polo's descriptions). The dephants on that day were admned with a 
magnificence not to be expressed, with silver seats and standards, and 
armed men upon their bat^s. Fifty of them carried the musicians, 
Aeae were preceded or followed by fifty thonsand in profound si- 
lence and order*. Immense illuminations took place for many days. 

* This must be considered na a mere oriental hyperbole, to mean a vast num- 
bts. (Kaundeville rdates that TUaut Khan bad one hundred and thirty tfaou- 
tand registered tnitistrek, and one hundred and fifty thousand keepers <^ Ihe 
elephants, beasts, and birds'. See Cb. II.) We find the same expressionln the 
travels of two IVlaliomedans through India, in the ninth century. 

" These kiBgdomi border om the lands o( a king cdled Rami, vfao is at war 
with the king of Harez Aud with the Balh&ra aJ^o. This king is not much consi- 
dered for bis birth,' or the antiquity of his kingdom, but his forces are more nu- 
merous than those of the Balhara, (or king of kings, sovereign of Kanuge a city 
am the GBngefi_aec nates to Ahid Gfaad, VoL U. pp. 4ffS, 7M), and even Aom 
of Harez and Tafek. They say that when he takes the field, he appears at the 
liead of fifty thousand fAephants." Hairi/s Yoyoes, Vol. I. p. SS5. 



Debtors and all felons, except murderers, were disdiarged from the 
> prisons. 

The Emperor presented shankars, much esteemed birds, to tiiose 
who had brought him horses: he then made rich presents to the am- 
bassadors. Sending for them, he said he was going to hunt; and de- 
ured them to take out the shankars for their amusement ; they would 
fly well, said his majesty; but the horses they had presented were not 

The next morning the ambassadors were told that the horse sent 
by Shah Rohk had thrown, the Emperor; and that his majesty 
had commanded them to be put in chains. They were near the Em- 
peror's quarters, and were ordered to wait. His majesty was per- 
suaded not to put them to death, as it would be violating the law of 
nations ; and they were pardoned. 

The Emperor mounted the large black horse sent him by Ulug Bey, 
and had a parade of guards about him. The ambassadors were or- 
dered to alight near him. He said, addressing them, " the rarities, 
beasts, and other presents sent to me in future, must be better chosen; 
the horse I rode is so vicious, and I am so aged, that I have been 
thrown, and am much hurt in tiie hand; but have assuaged the pain 
by laying gold upon it." 

Shadai Khoja apologized to his majesty, and represented that it 
was the horse which the great Timur had ridden upon; and that 
Shah Bohk had sent it to his majesty, as the horse of the greatest 
value in all his dominions. The Emperor, being satisfied with this 
answer, called for a shankar and let it fly at a crane; but it did not 
seize the prey, and his majesty gave it three strokes upon the head. 
Then sitting upon a chair, and placing his feet upon another, the Em- 
peror gave a shankar* to Sultan Shah, and one to Sultan Ahmed; but 

* It tfl an old custom among the Tartars, to giro a fine falcon tm an extraordi- 

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none to Shadai Khoja: he then remounted his horse, and returned to CHAP, 
the city; where he was received with a thousand acclamations. The v^^-y-^^ 
Emperor being ill, his son dismissed the ambassadors with honour, 
and they reached Herat after an absence of two years*. 


The Gypsies have puzzled the world almost as much as the Mam- 
moths: but the history of Tamerlane's invasion of Hindostan, appears 
to afford the true solution of their origin. "Mr. Grelhnan, in lus dis- 
sertation, supposes the Gypsies to be Hindoos of the lowest class, and 
grounds this hypothesis, chiefly, on the similarity of the gypsy-lan- 
guage to the Hindostanee, shewing mxuiy words to be the same; 
though many are d^erent. He coigectures that they fled from India 
on Timur's invasion; but he acknowledges that it is a mere sur- 

Sir William Jones suggests, that, in some piratical expedition, they 
might have landed in Arabia or Africa, and rambled to Egypt and 
Europe. '^ The motley language of the G3rpsies, of which Mr. Grell- 
man exhibits a copious vocabulary, contains so many Sanscrit words. 

nary present, hawking being one of their iavorite amiuements. In the province 
of Dauria, near the Amoor, there are great numbera of milk white fiilcons, jrom 
.whence China i> supplied. 

The Tartan in Siberia make uae of three »ort« The first is called in their 

tongue, Bkartscbeg Aholphei, or Txtingar, which is the beat and moot beantirnl 
kind; it is pretty lai^, a^ coloured, and some are apeckled white. See Strah- 
lenberg, p. 862. Abul Gbazi, Vol. I. p. 97, says, this bird is white except Uie 
feet, eyes, and bill, which are red. 

• Astley's Collection, Vol. IV. 

t Reee's Encyc.**£gyptiRU*" 

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that their Indian origin can hardiy be doubted. The authenticity of 
> that vocabulary seems established by a multitude of gypsy-words, as 
litu, earth; eashth, wood; and a hundred morej for which the collector 
of them could find no parallel in the Tulgar dialect of Hindostan; 
though we know them to be pure Sanscrit, scarce changed in a single 
letter. Near the mputh of the river Sindhu, is a district named by 
NearchuB, in his journal, Sangada, which M. D'Anville supposes, 
justly, to be the seat of the Sanganians, a piratical nation, well known 
at present in the west of India. Mr. Malet, the resident at Poonah, 
procured for me the Sanganian letters, which are a sort of Naguri, 
and a specimen of their language, which is apparently derived from 
the Sanscrit: nor can I doubt, from the description of their persons 
and manners, that they are the outcast Hindoos. It seems f^eed, 
that the Gypsies passed the Mediterranean immediately from Egypt *." 

The Gypsies are found in most countries of Europe. The writer 
has seen them in Moscow. " Descending the western branch of the 
Ural mountains, I passed a gang of gypsies with their usu^ excen- 
tricities, and a larger gang of convicts ; and reached Kimgour, for- 
merly the capital of a province, and previous to that a favorite place 
of the Tartara+." 

We have seen, in the chapter on Timnr's wars, what immense 
numbers of Hindoos were captured and brought away from India: 
not only artisans and others, for the Emperor's service, but a hun- 
dred and fifty, (men, women, and childrm), for an officer; and even 
as many as twenty for a private soldier. Timnr's numerous ele- 
phants of war, besides those brought away by himself and others as 
beasts of burUien, and for presents to the nobility and chiefii of the 

• Sir W. Joues*! Works, Vol. I. p. 119. 

t Captain Cochrane's Pedestoian Jonniey, p. 640.' 



pforinees, were, no doub^ under the manBgement of Indians *. In 
aU the wariike e^teditioni, TimuTj after he had iilTaded India, was v 
•ttended by his elephants, and also by^ his hnnting estaMifihingit: he 
must therefbse hare had a great number of dogs; and the care ttf those 
fmjprn^la is one of the occnpationa of the pariah Hindoos. Bigairt 
was taunted by Timor, for his vanity in maintaining hedoe tbomtamd 
dog-keepers. Hmnr, yeey yrchMj, in that capacity employed a cou- 
oAetMe number ai IncUans. 

After Timiir's death, A. D. 1445, his comitry was for a long while in 
the afaaost oonfosion, and with an empty treasury. Ral^ Volatdius' 
affirms, that the Gypsies first proceeded from among the Uwii, a pfiD> 
pie of Persia. Mnnster relates, that the Gypsies made their first ap- 
pearance in Gemuny, in 1417, in pitiful arny; though tiiey afieeted 
quality, and travdled with a tcaiB of hunting dogs after than, like uo- 
blea. Pope Pins II. supposes then to have migrated from the coon- 
try of the Zigi, near Circassia, 

Ihe Gypsies are called Chigani, or Ziagani; Egyptians; Bohenu- 
ans; Saracens; and Tartarsf. Tliey are, according to Sir William 
Jones^ remaclES, Sangani^. They first entered Europe from Tarta- 
ty, Syria, and Egypt; both ef the latter kingdoms were at that tone 
under one monarch, Famidge, son of Barkok. Wheutfaey xeatdied it»- 
kemia, the king gave them passports to proceed to other countries];- 

Thus, the various denominations by which the Gypsies have b^en 
known, are satisfoctorilj accounted for; and little, if any, doubt can re- 

* Up«ii«aflh«4«phaiit wevelnro^Dd-thirtyrtra^tneii, beudei tb« Indiu Ibat 
rale4 kiM. I MaocalMM. Oh. Vf . «r. 

t Reen's fiDCTC. « EgyptiaM,*" 

X " Eacesann£es (1417) il commen^a de courir en .Menmi^ oertaiafis baadM 
de TttgabondB. Od les nommoit Tartant st Zigem." MeEeray, 

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main, that they were the Indians brought away as slaves from 
' Hindostan, in such multitudes, by Timur; and who, during the po- 
verty and confusion* caused by the Emperor Calil's folly, migrated to 
Europe : many of them stealing the dogs, in order to procure a lirelj- 
hood by the chace, in wild countries; and by poaching, in those that 
were cultivated. 

Being of the lowest cast in their own country,-aQd ii^idela in Per- 
sia, the Gypsies were probably despised and ill treated, as slaves: they 
would therefore naturally expect a better &te among any other peo- 
ple than those who they felt had so cruelly oppressed them and their 
native land. 

With regard to their having entered Europe from Egypt, as well as 
from other countries, it is very probable, that, when they had resolved 
on deserting, they looked towards Egypt in preferaice; from the cir' 
cumstances of the inhabitaatB somewhat resembling themselves, and 
the climate and religion being in many respects similar to those of In- 
dia; nor is it impossible but that, in their ignorance, (very excusable, 
as the royal pupil of Aristotle mistook the Indus for the Nilef ) — 
they might imagine Egypt to be part of their native country : but, dis- 
covering their mistake, and, probably, being refused protecticm, they 
wandered they knew not whither. 

* " And I ordained that in every kingdom which should be cooqaered, the men- 
dicants of that country should be ^thered together; and that subsistence and daily 
bread should be allowed onto them; and that they should be made pensioners, and 
htg no more. And, if after tbey were made pensioners, they continued the prac- 
tice of asking alms, I commanded that tbey should be sold into foreign, conntries, 
er expelled from the realm; that the race of beggars might become extinct in my 
d<»ninian8," Timur's Inst. p.d6I. 

t Strobo, Oeog. \xv. Arrian, B. VI. Cb. L 



Many of the Gypsies appear to have fled to the mountains of Cur- 
distan, where they are called Kara-Shee, or the Black Race. Their i 
persons, manners, and customs, are described at length by Sir R. K. 
Porter, who passed through a large encampment of these singular 
people*. There are many of the Gypsy-tribe at Voronetz, on the 
river Donf . The Gypsies themselves are perhaps not in the least ac- 
quainted with l^eir own origin. 

• Port«r*« TnTeb in Georg;ia, Babylonia, &c. Vol. II. p. ^8. 
t B«ei*8 Eocyc. " Woronetz." 



Of Siberia. Described in Summer. Fertility. Wild 

animals.' 'Magnifioeni 9cefKry. Mongol sMereigns. 

Coronation of the Grand Khan Keyuc at Olougyourt. ■ 

Invaded from China and India beyond the Ganges. Jm- 

mense armies stationed on the Irtish, and battles in the Thir- 
teenth Century. Invasions of Tamerlane^ Fourteenth Cen- 
tury. Tombs; Elephants' bones, golden Chess-hoards and 

m&i, golden plates ^c. found in them. Note on the Con- 
quest of Russia by Batou, grandson of Genghis. Tarn- 

erlane invades Russia. His terrible battle with the Khan 

of Capschac described. 

CHAP. NiBERIA was Dot knowa to the Russians till the middle of the 
v^ ^^l^ ^j sixteenth century. A ^Flussian merchant named Strogonoff had esta- 
blished salt-works in the goremment of Archangel, and traded with 
the north-western Siberians, for the valuable furs which they brought 
to him ; and by which he acquired a considerable fortune. The Czar 
Ivan Vassilivitch II. sent some troops to endeavour to open a com- 
merce with the natives; and one of the chiefe consented to pay an 
annual tribute of a thousand sables ; but that chief being taken pri- 
soner by Rutchum Khan, a descendant of the great Genghis, and 


^'etaiil m tx, 7hmS ^i^cA 

r A H T A Ift. S T H A V F. ■ , I. I \\ 1 


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sovereign of Sibir, there was no further iatercourse till the year 1677, 
when Timofeyef Yennak^ a Don Cossack, being defeated by the ' 
Czar's troc^, in the proTince of Cazan, retired eastward with a few 
thousands of his adherents. He crossed the Ural mountains. He dis- 
covered and attacked the Mogul monarch of Sibir, whom he defeated; 
and Yermak gained a rich booty, in jeweb, furs &c. He, after a 
while, trav^ed to Moscow, was fovonrably received by the Csar, uid 
supplied with succours, with which he returned to his companions at 
Sibir: and in an action with the Moguls, he was drowned, in the year 
1584. The conquest was shortly afterwards completed by his suc- 

Siberia is so rich in zoology and botany, that, as Mr. Pennant ob- 
serves, the discovery of America has scarcely imparted a greater 
number of objects to the naturalist; the mineralogy is equally fertile 
and interesting. 

In 1 621 , the first archMshop, whose name was Cyprian, was appointed 
to reside at Sibir*. 

About the middle of the seventeenth century, all Siberia was sub- 
jected. No known part of the earth is so cold as that country — 

" Our infhnt Winter sinks. 
Divested of his grandeur, should "uur eye, 
Astonirii'd, shoot into the Frigid Zone. 
Wide roams the Russian exile. Nought around 
Strikes his sad eye, bnt deserts lost in snow. 
And heavy loaded groves; and solid fioods, - 
That stretch athwart the solitary vast. 
Their icy hotrors to the frozen main. 

* Leresque Hiitoire de Rnnie; and Tooke's Hist, ofRoasia, Vol. I. 



Tet cherish'd there, beneath the shining waste. 
The furry nations harbour. 
Rough tenant of these shades, the shapeless bear. 
With dangling ice all horrid, stalks forlorn." Thomson. 

Such is the general, and, perh^s^ sometimes the only impxession on 
the minds of many persons respecting these gigantic regions; and as 
most travellers have passed through them, while the ground was co- 
vered with snow ; every reader is too well acquwnted with the descrip- 
tion of Siberia in winter, for it to be requisite to repeat it here; but a 
space comprising a hundred and thirty degrees of longitude; and from 
the latitude of Normandy, to within fifteen degrees of the north-pole ; 
and more extensive than all Europe, must, of necessity, be very vari- 
ous in climate and productions. The following extracts, from some 
intelligent travellers, show that it is a most magnificent and abundant 
country, in very many places, and much higher in the north than is 
generally imagined. 

" The severe winters are rapidly succeeded by summers of such 
intense heat, that the Tungnsiabs of the province of Yakutsk go al- 
most naked. Towards the frozen ocean the sun is continmdly above 
the horizon in that season, and the v^etables and fruits of the earth 
are extremely quick in their growth. 

The Russians are supplied with com from the southern part of Si- 
beria, where the soil is surprisingly fertile. 

The countries east of Baikal to the river Argun are remarkably 
fruitful and pleasant*," 

At Narym (Lat 59" 5') there is plenty of sterlet and other fine fish, 
too numerous to mentiop. Near the town are a few corn-fields, and gar- 

* See Beea's Cyc. " Siberia." 



den grounds, abounding with greens and roots. Here, says Mr. Bdl, CHAP. 
I met Mr. Borlutt, a native of Flanders, who had been a m^jor in the v.^o-v-*.^ 
Swedkh service, and was sent to this place a prisoner of war. He 
was a veiy ingenious gentleman, and had a particular turn for mechan- 
ics. The commandant treated him'more like a friend than a prisoner; 
which indeied was the case of most of those unfortunate gentlemen, 
whom the fate of war had sent to this country. His Czarish Majesty, 
well considering their circumstances, sent them to a plentiful country, 
where they could live at their ease till peace was restored. 

At Jenesai, the country is pleasant and fertile. On the first of 
August the barley was all reaped, and the people were cutting their 
oats. This is early so far to the north (Lat 68° 16'), and must proceed 
firom the beat of the summer and the snow lying so long*." 

" The Ostiacs, though not a civilized people, are far from being 
barbarous. A single Russian may travel among them to purchase furs 
without fear of violence. They are remarkably honest, and are punc- 
tual in bringing the tribute of furs for the Czar. Many of them are 
fidr, and resemble the x>eople of Finluid. They are stout fellows: 
two of them, with their bows and arrows, a short spear, and a little 
dog, will attack the largest bear. They supplied us with plenty of 
fish, and wild fowl of various sorts, for a little tobacco uid a dram of 
brandy; and tiiey ask no more, not knowing ihe use of money. 

* Joarney to P«kin from St Pe(etabiii|ri A. D, 1719, (nine thotuand five hun- 
dred and sixly'^eveD versts, or about *ix thousand three hundred and wrenty- 
eight British miles, by Mr. B's. route on his return). 



Od the journey to Irkoutsk, says Mr. Bell, I called on Geaersl Kaii<- 
> nifer, at Elimsk, who had been adjutant-general to Chaiies XII. He 
had a musk deer, of which there are many in Siberia, so tame that 
it followed him like a dog, and leaped upon the table to eat the 
crumbs. • • * Along the tall tfait^ woody banks of the Lena, there 
is abundance of game and wild beasts. The natives of Yakutsk differ 
little from the Tungusians in person or way of life. In summer diey 
make hay enou^ to feed their cattle in winter. • • • We arrived on 
the ice, March 14, at Balaganski, on the Angara: on each bank it is 
a fine champaign country, with tall woods, beautiful and extensive 
prospects, well peopled villages, com fields, and fruithil plains, and 
every where great abundance of fish, llie Burats were formerly sub* 
ject to a prince of the Mmiguls; they are honest and sincere people, 
and have plenty of cattle: the wild goats have long thick horns, brown 
shaggy coats, and are twice the size of ours; the sheep have broad tails, 
and the mutton is excellent. For their horses, cattle, goats, and sheep, 
they make no provist(Hi of fodder: but leave them to the open fields, 
the snow being seldom deep in these parts. 'Hiey have a high priest 
called Delai Lama. * • * Mardi 17 — ^The heat of the sun was intense, 
and the snow suddenly disappeared: in four days we passed fivm a 
cold winter to a warm spring, and we quitted our sledges. TTie 
Burats kilted some hares with arrows . 

At the falls of the Angara, and about lake Baikal, there are such 
astonishing scenes of nature as are not, I believe, to be equalled in 
the known world. On the south side of the lake, the ceunlry is very 
pleasant, the winters short, and the snow does not lie above six or 
e^ht weeks. There is plenty of all kinds of game, deer, bears, wolves, 
frc. The Mongols, even the prince and high priest, live constantly 
in tents, and remove as convenience requires ; which I nmst confess 
is a very pleasant life, in such a mild and di^r climate. « • • ■ We 



Jdlled in these parts five large eSu, foiir stags, twenty antelopes, some CHAP, 
large bustards, a dozen roebucks, wolves, bares, &c. Siberia is an ex- ■_^^'-^_' 
cellent country, and abounds with all things necessary for the use «f 
man and beast. The noblest rivers in the world*, and st<H« of such 
fine fish, as are seldom found in other countries. And as to woods 
flinushed with all sorts of game and wild fowl, no country can exceed 
it It contains no high mountains, except towards China, where at« 
pleasant hills and fruitful rallies, and there are few places, where life 
might be passed more agreeably than in some parts of Siberia f. * * * 

In February and March, the Yakutes cut down the young pine trees, 
while the sap is rising, takeoff the inner baric, and dry it for their 
winter provision ; they beat it into fine powder, and bml it in miUc, 
with dried and powdered fish. They ^ft their habitations like tlie 
Tobolskians. They bury their dead various ways: the nuMt eminent 
make choice of a fine tree, as their burial spot: smne of their move- 
ables are buried with them. Their luiguage is like that of the Crimea 
and Tob<dsk Tartars J. • * • 

The quantity of hay collected for the catUe (near Takotsk) is pro- 
digiotu |. • • • 

" The Baikal Sea, or the Holy Sea, is about four hundred miles Engliak 
Jrom north to south; and in breadth, from fifteen to fifty miles; it is 

* The Lena is fire thoannd venti in length, (about three thousand three ban- 
dred and thirty miles Eogliab). 

t Bell of AntenaoD}'. At Telmgia^ a Mongol chief, named Taysha, a subject 
of the Czar, dined with the unbacsadw. He was a tneriy <Ai man, near ibur score, 
but so vigorous that he mounted his horse with agility. His five sons and attend- 
ants treated him with equal respect as a king, and would not sit in bis presence. 
In hia yonlh, he bad oflen fought agamst iba Chinese, whom be bdd in gMil 
contempt. One of the company, who was &t, asked the chief what he sboDld 
do to be as lean as he was? " Eat less and work more," replied the old man. 
t Slrahlenbei^, p. 382. 

§ Captain Cochrane, p. 448> 



surrounded with high and, mostly, bare mountains. Towards the lat- 
' ter end of December, it is usually frozen over, and the ice breaks up 
in the beginning of May. The water is uncommonly clear. The 
lake is subject to violent storms: it abounds in fish, and contains plen- 
ty of seals §. 

'* On the 10th of May 1693, we arrived at Irkutsk on the Angara; 
and found lake Baikal still frozen. On the camels we put boots shod 
for the ice. In the breaks of the ice, there^ are numbers of black 

After crossing a barren mountainous country, we arrived at Nerts- 
chinsk, on the 20th, where there are grass grounds to feed their camels, 
horses, and cattle. The environs produce white and yellow lilies, red 
and white pionies of a charming scent and of several sorts; lavender, 
thyme, rosemary, and many odoriferous plants, unknown in other 
countries. There are black sables of exquisite beauty. 

We left Nertschinsk and proceeded to Mongol Tartary. From the 
riVer Kalar to the Jalischian mountains, the vallies are wholly covered 
with fine grass: the mountains are stocked with all. sorts of herbs and 
flowers. The country abounds with large harts, roebucks, wild sheep, 
in herds of. many hundreds: wild geese, ducks, turkies, (bustards t), 
partridges. On the river Jala axe fine oak and lime trees, and small 
hazel bushes covered with nuts. • • • We now reached the first 
Chinese guard. The charming banks of the river Jala, southward, is 
a perfect paradise; beautiful pastures, silver streams, the pleasantest 
woods in the world, fine towering hills, and, for a mile and a half on 
each side, a perfect warren of wild game, harts, tigers, panthers, wild 
swine, extraordinarily beautiful partridges, the feathers of which are 
of several colours, and their tails about an ell long: they are very like 
pheasants in shape, size, and taste : they harbour in plain fields, in the 

* Tooke,Vol.I.p.341. 



loDg grass, and in low nut bushes: in their flight they clap their 
wings as loud as a stork. ' 

After four days travelling without seeing a house, we came to an 
old ruined city, encompassed with a quadrangular mud wall, a Ger- 
man mile in its whole extent. In six days we reached another old 
desolate city, called Taimingzin, fortified with a square wall. Carved 
upon the stones, there were several images of great personages or 
kings, as hig as life, sitting with their feet under them: and queens 
folding their hands, with crowns upon their heads with rays or lustres, 
which seemed to hint that this tower was built by Christians. Other 
parts represent warriors with pikes, in the Chinese manner, and the 
king, bare-headed, with a sceptre in his hand: the by>standers have 
diabolical visages. The proportions of these images are so exact, that 
they look like the work of Europeans. Several heaps of bricks lay 
about, and atone statues, as big as life, of men, idols, lions, and tor- 
toises. The bulwarks were extraordinarily large and high. This 
great city had but four entrances, into which ran multitudes of hares*. 

*. The number of tigers, and the quantity of game, in these parts of Tarlary, 
between China and Siberia, roust be prodigious. 

Ou the Bizleeuth of June, l(i89, Father Gerbillon mentions that, on the embassy 
to Nertsbinak from Pekin, they saw nuiny thousands of wild yellow goats un the 
banks of the Kerlon. 

The tigers, says Du Halde, are surprisingly large, of a &llow-red and striped 
with black: some are white, with black and grey stripes. The wild camels are 
so swift, that the hunters can seldom reach them with their arrows. The hun-ta- 
han resenibles the elk, they delight in boggy ground, and some we killed were 
bigger than the largest ox. 

On a party with the Emperor, Pere Verbiest saw abore a thousand stags, en- 
closed in one circle. On this journey, bears, wild boars, and above sixty tigers 
were killed: a wild mule, of a yellow colour, was seen; two or three hundred 
bares, and vast numbers of wolves and foxes were taken in one day: partridges 
rose in flights like starlings. 

The Emperor's horses, and those of the grandees, are us large and handsome as 
thoM of Europe. The Emperor tires eight or ten horse* every day. 

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The Chinese relate that many centuries past, Ungkban, a Tartu 
king, governed here, but was conquered by a Chinese king *. 

On the expedition, iu 1691, the Emperor's qnarlen contaiDed four enclomrea: 
in the quarter for the grandees, were the trumpets, drums, music, four elephants 
sumptously harnessed, and all the ensig^ns of imperial dignity, for the ceremony 
of receiving homage of the Kulka princes and the Grand Lama. 

On the 4tb of June, we killed above fifty yellow goats: we roused a tiger; it 
took shelter on a hill in a thicket; the dogs barked around him, he sprang forth, 
the Emperor followed him closely, fired twice, and killed him. 

In September, 1692, the Emperor sent for five hundred Korchin JtongoU, wlio 
are excellent hnnters. We killed eighty^two large stags and roebucks, one stag 
weighed upwards of five hundred pounds. On the 23rd, we killed fifty stags: (he 
Emperor's horse fellas be was pursuing a roebuck, but his Majesty was not 

On the SSlh, we pursued a bear, the Emperor pierced his flank with an arrow, 
the bear gave a dreadful ronr, and endeavouring to pull out the arrow, broke it to 
pieces; bis Majesty dispatched him with a half pike: he was six feet trom the 
bead lo the root of the tail, his hair long, black, shining, and very fine. 

In June, 1696, the Emperor's troops gained a victory over the Eleutbs, on the 
banks of the Kerlon: among the spoil were five thousand camels, seventy thou- 
sand sheep, &c. 

On one day in this year, the hunting party killed one thousand one hundred and 
twenty-five bares, and every day a great number of pheasants, and hares. See 
Du Halde, Vol. II. from page 254 to 360. 

The Emperor, Kanuhi, was stilt living, when Mr. Bell was at Pekin, with the 
ambassador Ismailoff, sent by the Czar Peter. Kam-hi was then sixty years on 
the throne, and sixty eight years of age: beslill retained a sound judgment, and 
his senses were entire : he was good natured, afiTable, and more sprightly than 
many of his sons. The Emperor's general of the artillery assured Mr. B., and it 
was confirmed by Kam-hi himself, that gunpowder had been used by them in 
fire-works, above two thousand years; but that it was a lale introduction in war. 
Mr. B, says, the fire-works outdid common fame, and far surpassed the perform- 
ances exhibited at St Petersburg by the best artists in Europe. 

* Isbrandt's Idea, in Le Bruyn, and jn Harris's Voyages, Vol. 11. 938. There 
can be no doubt but that these cities were Caracomm and Olougyourt. See the 
Chapter on Genghis. The Neslorians had places of worship here, and there were 
artists from Europe. With respect to the rays round the heads of the queens, 
" Genghis's flalteren had (be insolence to make him pass for the Son of God, but 

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<* We reached Kan Katon, encompassed with oak«npalisadoes as a 
defence from tigers and leopards; multitudes of them, and also wild \ 
boars and deer, harbonring in the grass and woods ; so that no one 
dare travel at night. All the camels, asses, and cattle, have bells about 
their necks, to Mghten the beasts. To this place the Emperor comes 
to hunt We obserred here a sort of heron with a neck and breast 
white, and the wings and tail of a bright scarlet ; the flesh firm and 
good: also another bird as big as a parrot, with a crooked bill, a tail 
an ell long, and checkered with all sorts of fine colours. " We arrived 
at the boundaries on the 3d of August. 

On the 19th of Februarjr, 1694, the envoy set out on his return 
from P^n. He had left a number of camels and horses at Numa, of 
which only eight hundred remained; the rest having been kilted by 
bad food: others were accordingly provided. 

The party crossed a desert mar^y country, and lost eighteen 
camels in one day in the bogs. Near the river Gan, they killed fifty 
wild deer. 

From Aigim, where Uwre is a silver mme which the people of 
Dauria and Nieuchen fonq^rly made use of, to Nertschinsk, is ten 
days' journey on camels. This fine country is full of small rivers and 

bis inoAer, more modest, said only, that he was the Child of the Sun. But not 
beiDg bold enough to aver, thtit she was personally beloved by that glorious body, 
she pretended to derive this fabulous honour' iroin Genghia's ninth predecessor, 
Buzengir, the root of the Mogul Emperon; whose mother, when a widow, lived a 
retired life. Being accssed of a crime, (pregnancy), she was carried before the 
judge: she said, that she had not had conversation with any man; bat that when 
open her bed, a light appeared, and penetrated tliree times into her body. De la 
Croix, p, 9. 

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CHAP, the most beautiful flowers: in the hills and vales, the grass is three 
"^-^-Y-^-^ feet high*. " On this journey many hardships were suffered frMu ia- 
tigue. marshes, and hunger ; and in a desert the gra^ was some how 
. set on fire, and burnt about a dozoi of the foremost row of their tents, 
with the most astonishing rapidity. Great quantities of their goods 
were consumed, and fourteen men miserably burnt. 

From the 54th to the 57th degree of latitude, and including the 
south part of Siberia, and all Dauria, the air is pretty temperate, and 
produces ^1 manner of fruits and vegetables, and com in abundance: 
there are few mountains, forests, or morasses; many rivers and lakes; 
all sorts of venison, wild-fowl, fish, cray-fish; and much honey and 
cattle : in short, the inhabitants are in want of nothing but winef. 

The regions of Nertshinsk present numerous forests of the pinus 
sylvestris, larch, birch, firs, and cedars J, which produce boards near 
four feet wide§. The nuts of the cedar u'e in such abundance, as to 
be exported to all parts of northern Siberia. 

llie sublime scenery on the approach to Baikal may be considered 
as one of the noblest sights in the world; and that also upon the 
banks of the Ingoda not less delightful, when contrasted with ihe 
beautiful and fertile pastures every where around ||. 

There is a curious Uisua naiwis on the Shamane promontory of lake 

* Isbrandts Ides, in Hairis, Vol. 11. p. 938. See also his TraretB, in Le Bniyn. 
While the euvoy was at Pekio, the Emperor bad four animals, which he had re- 
ceived from aD island in ihe Eastern Sea. The^ were as big as ordinary horses, 
and each bad two sharp horns promiuent before. The missionaries had never seen 
such before. The envoy had not time to |fo to the Emperor's park to inspect 

t Strahlenberg, pp. 182, 354. Chappe D'Anteroche, p.251. 

X Reea's Encyc. "Nertschiask and Siberia." 

§ Strablenbei^, p. 316. 

II Capt. Cochrane, pp. 466, 474, 477. 



Baikal; namely, three roc^ adjacent to each other, upwards of two 
hundred feet in height above the water's level Their tops resemble v 
human heads with caps on them : of the middlemost, the nose is seven 
feet in length; in the slit of the mouth, two families of sea-gulls are 
commodiously lodged: even the eye-brows are not wanting; butthere 
is no trace of an ear. The Tunguses revere these rocks as the sea- 
god Dianda, with his two subordinate deities: he is able to save 
any Tunguse from being drowned, or to cause a good draught of 

Fifteen hundred or two thousand porpoises (although the water is 
fresh) are annually captured, by being shot or pierced with javdins, 
through the holes in the ice: sturgeon, quab, carp, trout, pike, and 
vast quantities of the omul, are produced in the lake. 

Such numbers of birds of prey, mews, herons, gulls, &c. arrive in 
April, which feed on the omuls, (aalnto migratoritu), that it is dif- 
ficult to pass along the rocks, their nests are so numerous. There 
are rein deer on the north shore; the wild boars are silver-grey, and 
scarce. The woods are overrun with hears, which serve for food; also 
with wolves, elks, stags, roebucks, sables; ermines so numerous, that 
a contract for twenty thousand may be completed in two days; squir- 
rels, and white hares. There are many islands in this great lake; on 
which grow pines, poplars, beech, and willows*. 

In the south part of Siberia there is a steppe, six or seven hundred 
versts long, where there are few rivers, but very fertile. One may 
ride several days through vast fields, full of cherry trees two or (Inree 
fieet high. They are prevented from growing higher by the negli- 
gence of travellerB,who leave their fires burning; and the grass, being 

• Bees'sEn<7c "Baikal." 



long and dry, catches fire, and burns for thirty or forty rersts, with 
' such rapidity as to endanger the traveller. 

The cherries are red and handsome, but sour: transplanted they 
become good. There are in this forest tulips, red roses, others like 
damask roses; asparagus, larger and finer than ours; onions, marjo- 
ram, thyme, succory, sage, endive or white succory ; and other flowers, 
herbs, and roots, which we with great care raise in our gardens: the 
turnip is frequently met with there. In Samoyedia, they have good 
parsnips and carrots*. 

Near the river Wytzera, they generally kill, annually, four hundred 
losses, or elksf. 

At Jenesai, (lat. 58° 30'), corn, butchers' meat, and poultry, abound. 
It is too cold for firuit, except gooseberries and strawberries. The in- 
habitants of Fngunia, farther down the river, send out ships annually 
to catch whales. 

At Shamanskoi, on the river Hay, there is a great fidl or cataract, 
half a league in extent, which is terrible to behold, and is heard at the 
distance of three German leagues. The tops of the rocks that cause 
the &11b are so covered with odoriferous plants and flowers, that the 
circumambient air is filled with their fragrance J. 

llie Tungiues, both men and women, go naked in the summer, except 
a leathern girdle, and carry a vessel full of smoking wood, to keep off 
the insects which swarm on the river Tungusa. In winter they wear 
skins, having no use of linen or woollen. In hunting they wear the 

* Memoirs of a TVench GenttemaD, who had served in the Russian army: ba- 
nished in the nign of Alexis, about 1670. Harris's Voyages, Vol. II. p- ^8.-7 
At Krasnaia Sloboda, there is abundanceofasparagfuaorextraordinaryhei^l, and 
delicious flavour. Encyc. Brit. " Siberia." 

.f Slrahlenberg, p.36I. 

t PereAvril,p.l82. 



8kin of the rein deer with the horns on; when they glide along the 
grags^ and are sure to dispatch the game with their arrows. The me- ^, 
thod of the Burats is to sarround a certain limit and to close in the 
game by d^ees. They go on horseback, and few escape their heavy 
broad arrows. Their country swarms with fellow deer, stags, musk 
deer witii tusks, rein deer, hears, wild sheep by thousands upon the 
mountains, and wolves. 

Those who buy camels of them, pay about fifty-five livres each, 
in silks, red cloth, ingots of gold or silver. Their beeves have very . 
thick hau-. • • •. 

Mako&koi on the Ket, abounds with heath-game, pheasants, and 
partridges: it is a pleasure to see them in flocks in a morning and 
evening, drinking on the banks of the river, where you may kill what 
number yon please. There are here red and black gooseberries 
strawberries, and raspberries. Wehad scarcely left this village, on the 
7th of October, when it began to freeM*. 

The Ket is overshadowed with trees, uid very dismal; the ban^ 
abound with wild beasts, the black currants are the largest and best I 
ever ate or saw. I was told, the bears feed much on themf . 

The last stage in approaching Krasnoyarsk, is richly luxuriant 
on both sides of the Jenesai, which rolls its picturesque course over 
a rich and well cultivated soil. The vicinity may boast situations fbr 
the dwellings of a prince, peasant, or. philosopher. The extremes of 
weather, are from S2° of heat, to 40" of frost, by Reaumur J. 

What can surpass the scene at Malaya Narimka I know not; 

* bb. IdM. t Bell, Ch. XIII. 

i By Fahrenheit 104° and 68° belov 0.—" December 7, 1786, at XJnting Veliki, 

latitode 60° 60, the quicluilver froze to a solid nw», m as to bear beating with a 

bamtner in a warm rown, sereral times, before any pie«ea flew off from it Bean- 

mur*a thermometer fell in one day, from 40° to 61*." Vide Tooke, Vo). I. p. 82. 




CHAP, some of the loftiest granite moimtaiiis, enclosing the most luxuriant 
\_»>Y-«,^ Tallies in the world: all abandoned to wild beasts, to constitute a neu- 
tral territory*." 

The Jenesai thawed on the 8th of April, and in three weeks the 
country resumed its verdure f. These districts are so fertile, that, by 
leaving the ground £dlow the third year, it continues bearing summer 
com, and winter rye fifteen years and upwards. Winter wheats are 
not known X- 

In the woods near Tomsk are oxen with a high shoulder and flow- 
ing tail, like a horse; not so lai^e as theurus: there are wild asses, 
the hair waved white and brown, like a tiger; and chesnut-coloured 
wild horses, which are not tameable. The town of Jeiiesai is pleasant, 
and populous. There is a market for furs of all sorts, one skin of a 
black fox being worth five hundred crowns or more. On the Ist of 
March, we saw five or six hundred hares, as white as snow. The Tun- 
guses are descended firom the ancient inhabitants, and worship the 
sun and moon: they will attack the fiercest bears §. 

" At Tobolsk, we dug four feet deep without finding the earth frozen, 
and I then thrust a sword into it with the utmost ease to the hilt. It 
is certain that the ground at Tojtohk thaws entirely: this made me 
cautious of advancing facts from hearsay. The numerous mistakes 
of travellers arise from credulity, rather than from a want of truth IJ." 

The country about Tobolsk is well peopled. A hundred weight of 
barley flower costs sixteen copecks, (one hundred copecks make a 

• Capt. Cochrane, pp. 1&2, 173. t Chappe d' Aoteroche, p. 247. 

t Tooke. Vo . III. p. 268. § Bell of ADtermony, pp. 212. 220. 

II Chappe d'Auteroche. 

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rnble)j a hog thirty-five copecks, a stuigeon six copecks, an ox six or CHAP, 
seven florins. This country produces a numlier of elks, st^;s, deer, ^^•v-v'-*.^ 
hares, pheasants, partridges, and swans; besides all other sorts of 
game, cheapOT than butchers* meat. 

At Samoiarski-jam, the Irtish, to the south-east, is bordered by 
lofty mountains, crowned with cedars; and the land on the other 
side, to the north-west, is low and fall of pasture-grounds, where are 
great black bears, wolves, and foxes, both red and grey: some of the 
finest grey furs in aU Siberia are found here. In the winter, the snow 
is sometimes a fathom deep *. 

The woods and fields about Tobolsk, are stored with the coq-bruyere, 
coq-limoge, gelinots, ptarmigaas, partridges, woodcocks, snipes; and 
no country in the world can produce such numbers and variety of 
water fowl: they are so numerous that three of four hundred may be 
caught in a night, by placing nets in the openings between two rivu- 
lets, at a hole cut through the coppice, and lighting a small fire. 

There are lynxes, ermines, sables, martins, otters, elks; incredible 
numbers of bares, bears, and deer of all kinds: the greatest abundance 
offish, wheat, rye, bariey, oats, Sec. f. 

" I hired a meadow eight versts from Tobolsk, for six grosses, 
(a gross is two-pence), and, for that sum and the labour, I procui^ 
ed five hay stacks, each containing twenty-two waggon loads for two 
horses J." 

The view of the country in the neighbouriiood of Tobolsk is really 
sublime; and, Jiotwithstanding its surrounding but distant deserts, is 
a very enviable retreat §. 

At Tomsk, there are magarines of rich and valuable commodities, 
brought thiUier by all the various nations inhabiting the heart of i^ia, 

• hb. Ides. t Bell of Antermoay, p. 191; aod leb. Ida. 

t Strahlenberg, p. 900. § Captun Cochrane, p. 118. 



and with whom no othei nations of Europe have intercourse : thither, 
and to Tobolsk, are brought the manu&ctures of China, Corea, and 
all the nations to the north, or north-east of the river Amoor *. 

The Tartars at Tobolsk live mostly on the hill. Alcmg the banks 
of the river are several large Tartar streets occupied by the ancient 
inhabitants. They enjoy the free exercise of their religion, and the 
privileges of trade. Their houses are very cleanly, they are courteous 
and honest. January 9, 1720, we lodged in a Tartar hut. (near Tara): 
we warmed ourselves at a good fire on the hearth: they use no stoves 
as the Kussians do. They dress their victuals in an iron kettle, and 
are very neat and cleanly both in their persons and houses. The 
walls of the houses are built with beams of wood and moss, the roofs 
are raised. A square hole is cut out, and a piece of ice (which is now 
and then renewed) Is fonned to fit the ]^ace exactly, which lets in a 
good light. In one end of the apartment, is a bench eighteen inches 
high and six feet broad, covered with mats or skins of wild beasts, 
upon which the &mily sit by day and sleep by night. 

The Tartars of the Baraba are poor and miserable, and are obliged 
to pay a tribute of furs uid skins of wild beasts both to the Czar and 
to the Kontaysha of the Calmucs, who both consider them as sub- 
jects. " Considering the extent of Siberia, and the many advantages 
it possesses, I am of opinion that it is sufficient to contain all the na- 
tions in Europe, where they might eu^oy a more comfortable life than 
many of them do at present f ." 

* Riusian Discoreries. Harris's Voyages, Vol. II. p. 1033. 

t Bell's Journey to Pekin, Cb. II. aod XIV. with respect to the window, 
StrahleDbei^says, p. 451 — "Windows, througboat all Siberia, are made of isin- 
glass, called in Latin lapis apecularis, of nhicb tbere are two sorts : tbewbitsaad 
tbe brown; and tbey are both found in Russia and Siberia in great plenty." 
(Mica is meant, Isinglass-etone was a name given to tbat substance. The otiier 
Isinglass, ichthyocoUoy is made from the Beluga uid Stui^;eon). 

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Genohib Khan gave the sovereignty of the empire of Capschac to A.D, 1311. 
his eldest son, Touschi Rhan. This division was bounded on the 
south by the Caspian Sea and the Palus Msotis ; on the east by the 
river Irtish; on the west by the Don, including the Crimea; and on 
the north by Kazan np to the Arctic Sea*. 

Batou Khan succeeded his father, Touschi, who died in 1226. He A.D. 1236. 
built the town of Serai on the Volga, and made it his residence. 

Batou invaded Russia, and reduced that country : appointing vice- a. D. 1240. 
roys every where, without expelling the Russian princes. 

Sheibani Khan, brother of Batou, with fifteen thousand families, ^d. 1242. 
was sent to the north, and settled at Tiumin on the river Tura, which 
they named Genghidin, in honour of the great conqueror. They 
afterwards removed abont a hundred and seventy miles north-east, 
' and founded the city of Isker, or Sibir, sixteen miles from Tobolsk, 
on the Irtish; their boundaries being the rivers Isset and Tavda -f. 
Sheibani had possessions also, by inheritance, on the river Yaik 
or Ural, where Batou founded the Golden Horde: and vestiges of 
Saratchick are still visible %■ 

Kazan was built by a son of Batou, who resided there. (The A. D. 1257. 
khans of Kazan became independent in 1441.) Kasimof on the Oka 

• Petis de )a Croix, p. 387. Abnl .Ghazi. Vol. II. 676. 

t The Tartan gave the name of Tura to the city and all Siberia, and call them 
•o to thia day. Sibir (whence Siberia) is probably tbe Ruaaian word north. See 
Strablenbei^, p. 452. 

t StrahleDberg, p. 966. Tooke,Cb.ILp. 61. Gibbon,Cb.iXIV. Leveaque, 
Vol. VII. pp. Wr2, 196, 343. De Gainea, Vol. IV. p. 446. 



was the court residence of a khan: there are remains of a palace, 
' lofty tower, mausoleom, &c. *. 

Old Astrachan, Tsaritzin, and Bolgar, below the mouth of the 
Kama, shew remains of large and magnificent cities f . 


Kaidu, great grand-son of Genghis, and nephew of the Grand Khan 
Ktiblai, governed the countries about Almalegh : he gained the chiefe 
of the hordes that encamp north-north-east of Turfau, and those north 
of the Altai mountains. He rebelled against Kublai; who, being engag- 
in China, gave the command of the army to Chetien-tche: many lords 
from the countries of the Igours, Persia, Arabia, Capschac, and some 
Tartar chiefs, accompanied him, with three hundred thousand men, 
who met at Siang-yang. Omar, an Arab, with a corps of western 
troops, encamped at Tchingtou, to make the attack from all sides ; and 
Ktudu was defeated. 

In 1276, Kaidu was, with his brother, at the head of one hundred 
thousand troops; and, having increased in power, he maintuned his in- 
dependence. This king and his armies, at all times, reanain in the 
open plains, vallies, and woods, with which this region abounds. They 
subsist on flesh and milk, and his subjects pay implicit obedience to 
their king. They possess vast herds of horses, cows, sheep, and other 
domestic animals. In these districts are found bears of a white colour, 
and about twenty spans in length ; foxes entirely black ; wild asses, and 

* Kasimof on the Oka was a populous Tartar town wttb mosquet, in 1686.^ — 
Father AVrJI, p. 128. 

t Tooke. Vol. II. p. 48. Lemqne, Vol. Vll. p. 191. 



Kibelitui; beades martins, and swarms of Pharaoh's mice. They CI^. 
travel in sledges without wheels^ and drawn by dogs •. k-.P^y-**' 

Raidn concerted a rebellion, against the Grand Khan Kubhu, with A.D. 1286. 
Nayan, a near relation of both parties, to' whose ancestor^ Belgatai, 
brother of Cienghis, a considerable district in Leao-tonghad been giv- 
en: but Kayan was defeated, and put to death by Kublai, before Ku- 
du could join him. (See the Chapter on Kublai). 

Kaidu was entirely routed on the banks of the Irtish, by Timur A.D. 1S89. 
Kaan, grandson of Kublai, and viceroy of Yunan, Burmah, Ban- 
galla, &c. but, after that commander's departure, Kaidu gained over the 
hordes to the north and north-west of Caracorum. 

Kublai died in 1294, and his grandson Timur Kaan succeeded him 
as Grand Khan. In 1297, Kaidu was drtven northward; and the next A.D. 1997. 
year, a great victory was gained over him near the river Irtish. 

During the whole reign of Timur Kaan, (he died in 1307), there A.D. 1298. 
was scarcely any other war than this in Tartary. Kaidu disputed the 
««p»re for thirty years; which he pretended Kublai had usurped. Timur 
Kaan wot ahoaya obliged to keep numerous armies in these countries. 

Cfuchan, nephew of the Grand Khan, fought several bloody battles 
with the rebels between Caracorum and the river Tamir. 

Kaidu, after having lost his whole army, died of vexation. Ton-ona, A.D. 1301. 
his brother, was dangerously wounded, and submitted. Thus ended 
this long war+. 

• SeeMandeii'8H8rcoPolo,B.II.Ch.I. B.1I1. Cb.XLIV. AndDeGaineB, 
Voi. IV. p. 151. 

t Marco Polo, and notes, in B. II. Cb. I. and B. III. Ch. XL1V. Since the 
year 1373 the Grand Khan employed elephants in bis wars. In the chapter on 
Kablai, it is shewn, that the kban was in a castle borne by four elephants, in the 
action with Nayan; and that he possessed thousands of those animals. During 
the wars withKaida, as there were no other hostilities, and as Kaidn disputed the 
En^re, there can be bo doubt bat great numbers of elephants were present in 
these wars on the Irtbb, and in driving Kaidn to the north. There are, in the 
ueigbourhood of Tomsk, a vast number of ricli tombs ; and these wars of 'Timnr^ 



[[This position of Kaidu's appears always to hare been an important 
one, as the head quarters cfihe Agiatie Tartars. 

Justin sent an embassy to the Khakan or Emperor, who readed in 
a fine Tale near the sources of the Irtish*. 

The appellative TvrksytaR borne about A.D. 516, (howmadi earli- 
er is not known,) only by that part of the nation which had loi^ had 
its habitation in the Altai mountuns along the Irtish, where that peo- 
ple became so powerfid as to give disturbance to China and Persia. 
In the same century the state split into petty Khanates, and at lengUi 
became a prey to tiie victorious Arabs f . 

Kaan must have been those which caused many of them, for the following rea* 
sons: I.Man; of the tombs, being very rich, and about four hundred years old, 
when discovered, il. Elephuito' bones being found in tbem. IlL The Chinese 
wishing to visit them aa those of tbeir ancestors, (as will be shown). IV. The ar- 
mies having marched from Yunan and Bangalla, Timur Kaan being governor of 
those provinces before he was Emperor of China and Grand Khan of the Moguls. 

The Siberians attr3>ute the tombs to the wars of Geoghb Kbwi, and Timur Bee 
(Tamerlane). The Monarch of China was also named Timur, and was the great 
great grandson of Genghis, This appears to clear up satisfactorily several iuter- 
estisg points in the history of Siberia, probably not now known in that eotintry, 
nnd possibly not ev«n in Ruseia. 

It may also be particularly remarked, that Assam was under Timur Kaan's 
viceroyalty; and that it is the custom of the Assamese to bury an elephant with 
Ae corpse of a great man . 

Mangalu, uncle of Tieanr Kaaa, was at this time viceroy <^SIien-ei, residing at 
Singan, the capital, and the city where army equipments are made. Singan was 
the capital of China when the Emperor was the ally of Airasiab, against the Per- . 
siao Booslum, and was captured. See Chapter IIL 

The description, character, and customs, of these invaders of Siberia, front the 
earliest times, to the thirty years war under KuUni and Timur Kaan, correspond 
•0 truly with the tombs, and their contents, as to leave no doubt of tbeir ttrigin. 

These Indian countj-iea have probably supplied the buffaloes, fossil remains 
of which hare been found in several jilaoes in Siberia, as those auinuilB are used 
by the Chinese to draw carls. See Van Braam's Embassy, Journal, March 24 1795. 

* Sir Wm. Jonei^ Vol. L p. 63^ Discourse V. &« also an embassy from ibe 
Bwoan Emperor at Goostaatinople to this sama pboe, in Ch. IIL of this Vol . 

t Tooke, Vol. IL p. 37. " In the yew 13^, when some Russiao regiments went 



^ Tbe coontr; of Uw Getee, and Turqneatui, was included ia Totuchi's 
soreteignity of Cxpaebac*. \ 

AJga, grandson of Zagatai, had for his share idl tJie country lying 
between the Ahai monntains and the river Aura, (Oxiis)t. 

It is the supposed country of Afrasiabj wbo,withhi8 allytheEm-^ 
peroT of China, who fought upon a white elephant, were beat«i by tJie 
Persian hero, Roostum. The Emperor of China was made prisoner, 
and the territories were divided ly Roostum amm^ the Persian 

It appears certain that this was part of the country of Ogos Klian ; 
a name as bmoua in the east, as that of Alexander or CieBar in the 
west: he conquered Kitai, Cashmere, and nuny other conntrie& He 
Ifared above a hundred years $. 

from tfae city of Tobolsk, np the rirw Irtisb, tbey found there many antiquities, 
and temples of idols. The Tobokkian Tartars and Russians say, that from this 
rirer, fitrther towanb the west, mutk, and aoutk-w«st frftm the «hy of Tobolsk, be^ 
tween the sources of the riven Tobot and Ischkn; parts which few people fre* 
quented, there were to be found great numbers of images, cut in stone, of men and 
beasts: and that the ruins of several cities were discernible in those deserts. 

Themonntakis ofUli^-luiandKita^4na, hUo called AR-(ag and K{a>*i|f|lJe 
between tbe said rivers; on the fitst of which, Tauerlatte, when there with his ar- 
my, erected obelisks: and near which place the great Ogos Khan bad his resi- 
dence." Vide Strablenberg, p. 4. 

• De h Cntx, p. SOT. t Abol Ghan, p. 168. 

t Sir Jobn MslcehnV History of Perm, V«l. I. ppt, 4ft wid 134. 

§ Strablettbeif , pp. 4, and 136 1* 141. " Abont six handred and fi%-«eT«a 
years befw« Cbrirt, (this was tbe vapfwaed epoch of 0^>, says Da Hedde, a 
prince of SheD-«i revolted ; bat the Emperor SyoDg-Vaiig sooa deftateA faMsi, 1^ 
tbe help of an army of Tartars, whom he had brought over to bis iMtyest by nau*- 
tjiMig Ae dsi^:fater of tbeir chief. 

Tsi, the inag af SlHO-8i,die4t mA the EmpsKn-, fioed ft«m hit fsars, imMt* 
ctd bis Tartar spowF, anderprelcatellMcli* itaasstiMget^ nbeMihehaii— r 
lied fior ^litical reason*. The tbief of th« TvIbtb reso(««di ea nrmge^ flbi^ 
tay,the Emperor's stm, was a discontented prince. Tbe Tartar prMkised) ttfidafite 
hira Emperor, if be would join biHi^ wfaivbke'M. tktfmmkaif Ae Apltal, 


The Altai, or golden mountaiiis, are said to be so called &om their 
> containing gold mines, and having, in the neighbouring plains, the 
finest pastures in the world. In the year 1719, the Kontaish of the 
Calmucs could bring into the fidd a hundred thousand excellent ca- 
^ry. The Calmucs live always in tents, as anciently: and had re- 
cently beaten an invading army of three hundred thousand Chinese. 
Bell of Antermony).] 

We now return to the more immediate object <>f thete notes. From 
1359 to 1389, the King of the Getes* had been invading the empire 
of Zagatai: and Tamerlane had invaded his country five or six 
times. In the latter year, Tocatmich, or Toctamich, Khan of Caps- 
chac, descended from Tonschi, eldest son of Genghis-)-, having insulted 
Timur, it was necessary to revenge the indignity ; but Timur dared not 
leave so powerful a prince in the north, during the absence of his army. 
He therefore resolved in person to invade Mogolistan, the country of 
Prince Ancatoura, and of Kezer Coja Agten, descended from Zagatai, 
Emperor of the Moguls and King of Gete %. 

Timur, with his army and the troops of his household, departed from 
Alcoachoun, in Capschac. and passed by Bouri Bachi, thence to To- 
palic Carac, and ascended the mountain Oumac, or Oumac Ijomac§. 

tbe Emperor fled, and Sh(»4ay was proclaimed. The Empnttr having: >>ap)ored, 
and received succoort besieged the Metropolis, which surrendered. His son was 
put to death, and the Tartars were vanquisbed." Du Halde, Vol. I. p. 168. 

* Whet ia now called Siberia, and the Calmuc country, are named Gete, or Ge- 
ts, and Mogolistan, in Timur Bee's wars. 

t See Chapter IV. 

X Sherefeddin, Vol.Lp.325. Kezer wasgrandsontoToglncTimurrseeAbul 
QhazifVoI. II. p.631 ; aodTog^Kic was twenty-fifth successor to Zagatai: seeShe- 
refeddin,Vol.l. p. 18, note4. The capitals of these sovereigns were Sibir, near 
Tobolsk; and Tontoura, near Tomsk. See Stoahlenberg, p. 266. Levesque, 

S A note says, this was the residence of Ogas. 



He reflated his cavalry at the rate of two horses to each man. He 
T^ched Aiker Souri, at the foot of Ouniac. They were obliged to dig ' 
weDs for two or three days: but God provided for so great a multi- 
tude; for, though it was the midst of summer, there was in the desert 
an extensive meadow covered with ice and snow; wherewitii all the 
army, the horses, and cattle, quenched their thirst. Giving thanks to 
God, they departed*, and encamped at Togrul Otlac, traversed the 
whole plain, and caught some wild asses: they kept only the iiittest. 
At length the army arrived at the plain of Oulanyarlic, and encamped. 
Here they . perceived a thousand horse belonging to Ancatoura : they 
were vigorously attacked, and fled. One man was seized. From the 
information gained, Timur marched with all expedition till he arrived 
at Aiokuz, and encamped. In a council with his sons, the generals, 
princes, and lords, it was resolved to divide the army and seek the 
memy by two different routes. Mirza Omar Cheik was sent one way 
and Timiir took the road to Coui Meragh, a famous well, and other 
places, and came to Caragoutchour, a temple of the Moguls. In the 
mean time Mirza Omar Cheik exterminated all he met with, and at 
last came up with Ancatoura at Coubrac. A vigorous battle ensued, 
Ancatoura was defeated, and fled: ail his beautiful daughters fell into 
the hands of the conqueror; also great numbers of cattle, and much 

The illustrious mirza joined his father, Timur, at Actadictor. Omar 
was sent on another expedition, and acquitted himself heroically. — 
The whole army now encamped at Caragoutchour; and the booty was 
divided among the officers and soldiers. Timur staid at this place 
long enough to &tten his horses. He sent two commanders, with 

* Sherefeddin, Vol 1. p.S26. The desert which Timur passed over, was pro- 
bably the Steppe of Issim. 

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thirty thousand horse townrda Artish, or Irtish, in Ut. Gtf 40', in 
' Karch of the enemy. They mardied day and vaghL Arrtring at the 
river Irtish, which runs thnnigh all the countvy of the Get«s and Mo* 
golistan, into the Oby, half the army msrdied along the bonha, othen 
entered the isles. They slew nnmbcxs, and retnmed to the royal canp 
with tiie prisoners and the spoil. 

Timor haring destroyed those who opposed him, sent the captives 
in chains, and the spoil, to Samarcand. He then passed the great de- 
sert*, and arrived at Aimal Goujon; and lodged in the palace of 
S«rai Ourdam, with a p<Hnpoas retinue^ and the greatest magna- 

Tisnur held a council with the princea and Lords of theempirc; and, 
reBolved that the army ftbonld he divided into several bodies; to sur- 
round the Getes in their usual dweUii^ places, and to pursue tluMe 
who had retired to Mogolistan. The officera wrote memoirs of the 
reads and different passages of aD these quarters; and copke w^e 
delivered to the different princes and gcoerals; and a guide for cacik 
army. The coitntry of Tnlduz waa ordered to be the rendezvous of 
aU the eommanderih 

Mirza OmarCheik led the tro<^B of AndecuL He made imroada 
to the right and left, of the mardi marked out iut him; put all hia 
enemies to the sword, and pillaged every thing in his way. He croeaed 
the mountain Donbecfain Andonr, and arrived at Cart Ceja, three 
months' journey, 1^ the caxavsA, fr<»n Sauurcand. 

Another body of thirty thousand cavidry, weU equipped, uad«- the 
EUnir Gehanca, marched to Can Art, and Chouiou^ne, in Mt^oliatan, 
slaying and pfamderittg all t^ Gates th^ met. 

* This was the BarabintziaD desert. 



Osman Abbas, with twenty thousand, passed by St^izgan and Ge- CHAP, 
veyar, treating the inhabitants in the same manner. v.^»>^«^ 

Codadad Hnsaeini, wiA twenty thooBand, arrived at Bioout, where 
they met die faords of Boulgagi and Ilker. The batUe was bloody, 
and hurted twenty-fiMir boars: at length, swoid in hand, Timar^s 
troops were nctoriQus. 

Timur Mms^ b^an his march with his guards and hoosehold 
troops: he took the road of Olac Conl; he met the Boulgagis who 
had escaped from the battle; they were put to tiie sword, at the first 

The Emperor had left many emirs and troops in western Turquestan, 
between Gete and Capsdiae, whom he ordered to invade the country 
of the Mognls, and to destroy the Getes. They obeyed. After many 
marches, they came to M<^zoredon, where they met the King of Mo* 
golistan*, Keser Coja Aglen, at the head of a great army. 

The Emirs judged it improper to attack him <m horseback, but they 
dismounted, and Ued their horses' bridles to their belts. There was 
fighting for forty-eight hours; which ended in a treaty with Keser 
Coja Aglen; and the emirs returned to the rendezvous at Yuldue. 
Cbah Melic Turcan thought it advisable to fiy, and join Timur at Kei- 
tou, near the Irtish. He gave the Emperor an account of the battle, 
and every thing remarkaUe in itf . Upon this news, Timur marched, 
joined the toman of Sultm Mahmoud Khan, and, with expedition, ar- 
rived at YulduK ; where the ranirs who had made the peace, kissed 
the royal eorpet. His Ifojesty chose the bravest of his army; and, 
leaving all his attendants, ibllowed the track of the king, passed the great 
desert, and arriving at Tabertadi, (a village dependant on Caracorum), 

* The fugilire MoogoU from Cbina, in 1369, appear to hare joined the Mon- 
gol khans of Gete. Abul Gfaazi, Vol. II. p. 507. 

t This lame account means, no doubt, that Timur'g troops were well beaten. 



then at Conchon Cai, where he found the enemy's army, he passed the 
uight there. During the darkness, the enemy fled towards the desert and 
distant places ; every regiment taking a different road, and flinging away 
their ensigns, which were black. Many of them fell in the way of Mirza 
Omar Cbeik, Ali Behadur, and the Emir Gehanca; and were slain. 

TimuT having passed the mountain Naizin Keutel, pursued the ene- 
my to Caratach. The king had suffered great fatigues, seen his war- 
riors, his wives, and children, slain or taken prisoners, and his country 
ruined; he therefore abandoned it, to save his life. 

The soldiers made abundance of both sexes slaves; and the booty 
was great in horses, camels, sheep, and other beasts, &c. Timur, on 
his march back, at Jalich, divided the immense spoils; and then con- 
tinued his route to Yulduz. The emirs all returned to the same place, 
laden with booty, and with an infinite number of captives. Yulduz 
is a place of delights and pleasure. The grass in the meadows is so 
nourishing, that the leanest horses, when they have been there a week, 
become &t and strong. Poets have sung its praise; the beauty of its 
fountains is the reason of its name, for Yulduz meims the morning 
star. The Emperor had marched above a thousand leagues; and 
now resolved to return to Samarcand, being contented with his 

The next year Timur was necessitated to send an army into the coun- 
try of the Getes. Four emirs, with twenty tjiousand horse, were joined 
by five thousand more, under Mirza Omar Cheik. They marched by 
Atjatou, and arrived at Caratal, where they learned that a guat;d of four 
hundred men, sent forward to ^in intelligence, had been nearlyall killed 
by^Camereddin. They came to the field of the slain, and found a man of 
the horde Malangou yet alive, though he had eaten nothing but herbs 

» Sberefeddin, Vol. I. pp. 324 to 338. 



for fnrty days. He assured tbem that Camereddin had marched Awards 
Itdtna Boutchna. Tbey puiBued that route and arrived at Keptadgi, t 
where they left their baggi^e, and pushed on. ^Vhen they arriTedat 
Uie Irtish they found that Camereddin had crossed it. and gone tOr 
wards Taouks (in latitude 60°) into the woods where sables and 
ermine are said to be focind. They saw the rafts and boats the 
enemy had -built to cross tiie water. The emirs stayed some time at 
this place, and crossed the river to engrave their arms and red char- 
acters * with fire on the pine trees of these woods, as an assurance 
to future ages of their omiquests beyond the river Irtish. Having 
been six months m these deserts, and living on hunting and wild roots, 
and the air becoming extremely cold, they returned by the banks of 
the great lake Etrach Ghenl, and arrived at Samarcandf. 

The writer will now oideavdnr to show that the Mongok pos- 
sessed equal sovere^ty over EASTERN SIBERIA, which was a 
branch of the Grand Khan's divisiOTi. The north-east parts of Sibe- 
ria are nsmed, in the map to Petis de la Croix's Life of 'Hmur, North- 
em Turqueetan. 

- " Upon leaving Caracorum and the Altu mountains, you proceed, 
in a nothem direction, through the plain of Bargu, (by Baikal Sea.) 
sixty days journey. The people live on the flesh of stags, and m^e 
use of them for the purpose of traveling: this plain borders on the 
ocean at its northren extremity, and the people are subjects of the 
Grand Khan. They have neither com nor wine, the cold is excessive. ' 
Upon traveUu^ forty days it is said you reach the northern ocean. 
Near to this is a mountain where vultures and peregrine falcons breed: 

* These amia aiwl imeriptioM are bamt upon the tarees, or cut in (be rocka, 
and are filled with red colour. See Strableuberg, p. 346. 

t SberefeddiD, Vol. I. pp.8'Uto347. Thia ftuillew expeditton waa, no donbl, 
•gainat tfce prince re^nMg- at Sibfr. The nunea diffar so entirely Jrom the id»- 
deni ^ography, that it is impoaaible to trace Timor's marchea, vith Miy accuracy. 



CHAP, neitiier men nor caMJs a» found there; and of birds only the bju^h^ 
t^«*pv^^ ^"^ ^^ falc<ma to which they srrre for food. WhiNi the Grtod 
Khan u desirous to have per^rine Sticom, he pioeures them at thi« 

There is also an i»Und off the coast, wheee geiv-falcow breed, aed 
are f>Mmd in such numbers that bis faajesty may be supplied with a8 
many of them a« he pleases V (See the Oiapt^ on Kubisi lor the vast 
number of these birds be posaessed), 

" Jouini, or Aladdin Atamulc, who died m 1284, composed hia 
history in IS60. He observes, that Gen^jbis JUion's territories lay 
much to the north and east <^ the desert side of Tartary: and was of 
so great extent, that the true country of the Alogols was eight moidh* 
journey. That the several sorts of people that inhabit it, w^w divid- 
ed into tiihes, called Moguls: and that amoi^ all these tribes there 
was but one that was ctriliflad, which was that oaUed Nirtm Cawt; o£ 
whidi Genghis became mT«areign by the death of his fiitfaer Pjaonoaft" 
A.D. 1S4<5. * * * " In the same country with Bnrin and Cadov, grandsoos of 
Genghis, (says Carpini) Shiebani, the brother of Baton, reomneth (4t 
Sibir). We were tcavellmg through it itom the feast i^ the Ascen- 
sim, till eight days befora the feast of St. John the Baptist, (I e. by 
the Boman c^endar, b«t three months); when we eotored the ooiut- 
toy of the hiaiik. CathayansJ, where i^ie fimperoir had biult A house; 

* Marco Polo, p. 220, and the notes; where it wilt be seen that Polo had re- 
ceived very accurate accounts of the country, for bis text implies that tbe people 
rode upon the reindeer, wbich is prorad to be trqa by Mr. A^insf who foaal 
rnin* pf ancient fbrJ^ near ihe mouth vf tbe i«nB, and Also mvxUated remaiiia, " dt 
figuret gTOteaques." SeetfaeChap.on tbe Lena£)epbant. It is only in summer that 
ymple Tisit thaie «x£eaHFely oold parta. Fm- a^CMriptiMi «f than we Chap. VI. 

t P. delaCroix,p.42J. 

X Th«( is, Cum CaMiay.w Shnk Catfaaf : s» twoted from the iwloHr«f 4be tich 
•oil, t« distMKaisk it froM the dasfirt. C^ra Cathay, oo De J'ble'« nap l» tha Vfy 
of dsngfaii Kban, is ftwa BDvtb LaL f^toW iMrth.«ast of Cuacoruro. 

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gpMWtrous coimr of kIeyuc or crmicR, 

Uft dopaty ordeted some itmk foi ns, And a dance bf his two Ams. 
I>0part;iiig benee, we found a ma&Q bob, very atonny; along its shores < 
we tetfrtllcd many days ; tbevearessanyidQitdfl init; and we passed, 
leavii^ it «■ MR* left Itaad *. 

In this land dwclkth Ordn, the most aneient of the Tartarian dnkes. 
It is the oidti, or conrt of kts Mi^e, which he inhah^teth : amd one of 
Ms wives beareth rule there f; for it Is a caatota not to disstdve 
Mm coorts of princes, but to aprpmnt women, on wh<mi gifts are be- 
stowed as <M their lords. And so we arrived at tite first court of the 
fknpeiwt we eotdd not eater the orda, Mot having seen the Em- 

Departii^. m cnCcved the Imd of the Nunons, full of mountains, 
and reryaM. Then we came into Mongoha^ aad in some weeks, ar- 
lived at the oeurt of Cayne t' ^e sent hte the pope's letter, and the 

After fire days, we were sent t» Ae Empcsor^ mother, nnder whom 
there was nwintaiiied a very scdono and roytl conrt, ha a fine white 
iKA, large enough for tw« tboniand persoosi AH the dakca were as- 
aenAled, riding about the hUk and dales wHh tMr tvaiflSL The first 
dt^* they were dad m whxt«,* the second, in scarlet robes, TUi 
day Coyne entered the tent. The ^d dvf the dresses were blue; and 
the foralb tkk Balderkin doA§b There were many that had pore gold 
oa tbeir tnqipnagB, worth tvren^ maito. The dukes ccnoDuned 
about the election of Cnyne. 

* Lake Baikal. 

t In the chapter oa GeDghn it a shown that he wa« l:H)ni.iiithia neigbbouriiowl; 
and also his empretM Purta Coogine. the loother of the foyr great monardis who 
succeeded to his Tut conqneata. They were tbeiefore complete Siberiana. 

t Cuyne (Keync is the propa natDe» it ia probably a misprint) had removed 
Ijw court fran Canconua to Oloagbjart ia IStAA, Petia de kt Croix, p^SSdi 

S Clodt of gold. 



Without the door stood Duke Yerofllaus of Suzdat in Rugsis; and 
' a great man; dukes of Cathay, and of the Solangi, two sons of the 
king of Greorgis, ten Saracen Soldans^andanenvojftomtheCalif of fiag- 
dat. We were told, there were more than four thousand ambassadors 
and deputies from such as paid tribute and presented gifts. We rode 
four leagues, and arrived at a place called the Golden Orda. There 
was a tent covered with balderkin clo^, and supported by pillara 
plated with gold, fastened on with golden nails. Here Cuyne was 
placed upon the imperial throne. He was sou of Octai, forty-four 
years old, of middle stature, wise, politic, and passing serious. He 
erected the flag of defiance against the Roman Empire, meaning to 
subdue the whole world. On his seal is, " God in Heavrai. Cuyne 
Khan upon earth — the power of God*. The seal of the Emperor of 
all men." The gifts presoited were infinite, robes of purple, horses, 
mules, &c. Five hundred carts full of gold, silver, and sHk gfuments, 
were divided between the Emperor and his dukes. A canopy, set 
full of precious stones, was carried over.the.Emperor's hud. * * * 

The Emptor's concubine, and many of her confederates, were ex- 
ecuted, for having poisoned Octai. At the same time, Uie Russian 
duke Teroslaus deceased. He had been invited by the Emperor's mo- 
ther to a feast, and, after the banquet^ returning to his lodging, fell 
sick, and died in seven days. Afler hi? death, his body was of a strange 
blue colour; and it was commonly reported that the duke was poisrai- 
ed, that the Tartars might wholly possess his dukedomf . 

We had audience o( the Emperor, and received his letter for the 

* At this rery period, the popea were ioduBtrioiis in incolcating the maxim, that 
the bishop of Rome is the supreme l^rd of the unwerte, and that princes have no 
lawfiil power, that is not derired from him. Carpini vna, do doubt, carefal not 
to commuDicate these interesting pretensions to Cuyne. 

t Janslaf II. ** C'est oublier qae le poison est I'arme da tatble; et que lei 
Tartarea n'en avoient pas besoin." Leveaque, Vol. II. p, 106. 



pope, in the Tartar and Latin languages, carefully translated by us. 
We travelled all winter long, tiirough deserts of snow, and arrived at 
Kiev in Russia *. 

The Yakutes of the Angara, and of the Syane mountains, wexe per- 
secuted by the Buriats and Mongols; and moved to their present rude 
and inclement districts, where they are found oa ]}oih sides of the Le- 
na, to the. Frozen Ocean f. 

The present inhabitants of Yakutsk (the city) are supposed to be 
the descendants of Uie invading Mongols. Chie of the chiefe had a 
stud of two thousand horses, in very good cmidition, when M. Les- 
seps was there, though he liad lost a considerable number by Commo-' 
dore Billings's expeditioD. They pretend to ride better than any other 
nation in the world {. 

The Yakutes consist of Mongols, Tartars, and Mantchews : ihey are 
spread to the eastern extoemity'of Siberia upon the cosists of the gulf 
of Pinjinsk and on the shores of the Kovima ; " an coit en ems Vhomti- 
tete que pent domier la-ntUvre." They hunt in most places: on the 
borders of the Lena and Indigerska they are occupied with their fish- 
mes. In the south they have many homed cattle uid horses. Those 
years, when the snow is excessive, are ruinous to the cattle and their 
owners: for horses, reindeer, and homed cattle, all seek their own 
nourishment under t^he snow, receiving no aid from their masters §." 

The Buriat Chief (near Lake Baikal) gave me a passport in the 
Mongolian dialect: his mother had three thousand homed cattle, ten 
thousand horses, and forty thousand sheep ||. 

• Friar John Do PIbdo Corpiui. Hakluyl. Vol. I. pp. 66 to 71. 
t Tooke. Vol. II. p. 80. % Note id MandeD's Marco Polo, p. 747. . 

g LeVesque, Vol. VIL p. 439. It appean that they might always procure bay» 
ifprorident. NearOlekoia there are plenty of grass meadows. 
a Capt Cochrane, p. 476. 



The Rnsnan Mongols inhabit the regioiH about the Selenga, be' 
• tween the 50th and 53rd dejpvea of north kttttude, and the izaad to 
the 125th longitude*. 

Para Hotmi, on the Kerlon, was bniH b^ the Mongols when thej 
took to the Chinese caBtoms, onder Mangu and Knblai; it was of a 
square figure, and two leagues in drcumference. The fonndatiow 
are still to be seen (1710), with some large pieces of the wall, and two 
pTramids in rums, lliere are ruins of their cities in twen^ places. 
We met wiUi but one inscriptsim, near Holostaj, in the hi^wst at 
some marble \AodkB, in the Chinese chazacta: it miported, that th« 
Chinese army, under the Emperor Yong-lo. (who coBomeiKed his reign 
A.D, 1403), arrired there the 14th of May. Hence it (^ipears that 
he did not pursue the Moguls beyond the Kerlon. He was thrice fan 
quest of them, and pushed them to lat. 50° f. 

When Siberia was conquered by the Russiuis, in the beginning of 
the seventeenth cmtnry, the Moguls were still a free and numerous 
people, goTemed by their own khans ; under whose sorereignty were 
sereral Siberian nskionst. 


In Siberia, the southern frontier mountahK, from the Tobd to the 
Jenesai, and the tteppet i* the imddie regioiu of the JLtma, have been 
inhabited by the Mongol Tartarsr and pardonkriy in Oie gorers- 
ments of Ufa, ELazan, and Tobolsk. Frequent memorials are found 

* Tooke, Vol. II. p.25. Mr. Tooke's longitade it fron Ferrol; which Rgreet 
with other histone*- 
t DuHalde. Description orTBrtary,Vol.II, p.2&l. 
t Tooke. Vol. II. p. S8. 


tbere, of their aacieiit grandeur, magniftcence, and eultare; of which 
tome are of oa antiquity ddmoiutrably of above a thouauid years. v. 

It Is no rare thing to come suddenly upon the ruins of some town, 
which, in Hs crumbling remains, plainly erincei the progress which 
the arts had made> among a people whom, we are wont to consider as 
barbarians. Still more freqnenfly are seen sepulchres, which, by their 
inscriptions, throw light on the history of this nation ; and, in the Tea- 
sels and implements preserved in them, supply us with interesting 
proofs of its opulence, its taste, and its industry. 

In the museum at St. Pet^sburg, are preserved a multitude of ves- 
sels, diadems, wei^ns, military trophies, ornaments of dress, coins, fto. 
which have been found in the Tartarian tmnbs, in Siberia, and on the 
Volga. They are of gold, silrer, and copper. The greatest antiquity 
of the tombs is one thousand one hundred years, the latest four 

The surprising quantity of golden ornaments found in the tombs of 
Siberia, were they not evident to the sight, would eiLceed all belief. 

The richest of the tombs, says Muller, were made in the time of 
Genghis Khan and his immediafae successors; the most valuable being 
found on the books of the Volga, Tobol, and Irtish. The next in va- 
lue Are in the deserts of Jenesftt, and the poorest near Lake Baikal. 
He supposes them aJl to be the work of the Mongol hordes f . 

* Tooke, Vol. II. p. 4S. This remark refers to the period of the discovery of 
these tombs in the serentecnth century. Aa the Turks, who had elephants, and 
who io the aiKtfa eentary midod at the Altai mouRtaiiM, and conqHered ap to the 
Arctic Sea, (Gibbon. Cb. XUI. Purcbaa, L 397), aad,a« the rebetlioo against 
Kublai and Timur Raan took place at the end of the thirteenth century, and Ta- 
merlane's principal inrasion was in 1389, the different epochs correspond so ac- 
CWrwUly Bs t« 1mv8 no dvnbt ■ to tke origin of these cari«us sep«lclire«. 

t Cox's Travels, Vol. III. p. 179. The reason of ibe poorest baag at Baikal 
is, that the Grand Khans and their families were buried near the Chinese wall. 
Bee map, flag 7. 

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In the tombs of Siberia, and the deserts which border it southward, 
are found thonsands of cast idob of gold, silrer, copper, tin, and brass. 
I have seen, says Strahlenberg, some, of the finest gold, three inches 
long, in the form of minotaurs, harts, old men, and other figures; all 
sorts of urns, trinkets, scimitars, medals of gold and silver, chess-boards 
and chess-men of gold ; large golden plates, upon which the dead bodies 
have been laid, (not unlike the Bractei aurei), and clothes folded up, 
such as the corpse is dressed in. 

Some of the tombs are of earth, and raised as-hi^ as houses, and in 
such numbers, upon the plain, that, at a distance, they appear like a 
ridge of hills; some arepartlyofroughhewnstonesorof freestone, ob- 
long and triangular; others of them are built entirely of stone. Col- 
onel Kanifer told me that the ambassadors of the Chinese Tartars, when 
passing the city of Jenesai, asked permission to visit the tomhs cf 
their ancestors, but were refused ; not improbably, because they would 
have seen that they were rifled and demolished. 

Golden medals bave been dug out of a tomb not &r firom the Irtish, 
between the salt lake Jamischewa and the city of 0mm, or Omm- 
ostrock. About twenty or thirty years ago, before the Czars of Rus' 
sia were acquainted with these matters, the governors of the cities 
Tara, Tomskoi, Crasnoyar, Batsamki, Isetskoe, and others, used to 
give leave to the inhabitants to go in caravans, to ransack the tombs, 
on condition that, of whatever they should find of gold, -silver, copper, 
jewels, and other things of value, the governor should have the tenth. ' 
These choice antiquities were often broken and shared by weight. — 
They have dug for years, and the treasures are not exhausted. 

The graves of the poorer sort have such things of copper and brass: 
arrows of copper and iron, stirrups, large and small polished plates of 
metal, or mirrors, with characters upon them. Urns are found of dif- 
ferent sizes, some almost two feet high, and some more ; some with, and 



same without handles- Some of these graves are very deep, and pttH 
bably of great antiquity. Hawking and hunting are represented upon ' 
an urn dug out of a tomb at Crasnoyar*- A whole skeleton of an 
. elephant was found in one of the tombs f. Bones of horses, and 
sometimes of elephants, are found in the numerous graves near Tomsk; 
also figures of deer in pure gold, an armed man on horseback, in brass, 
of no mean des^ and execution X ; and figured of the hippopota- 
mus §. 

The idols, minotaurs, and and^nt manuscripts in the Mongolian, 
Tuigut, andCalmuc chaiaoters, stamped on paper made from silk 
or cotton, and vami^ed blue and black, were brought from the deserts 
on each side the nppw Irtish ; found in the temples and tombs. The 
letters are partiy of a goLd, and partly of a silver colour ||. 

After the Irtish hath run many miles through a hilly country co- 
vered with wood, it passes through a fruUfiil plain ; we continued on the 
ri^ht of the river, and found a regular edifice in the middle of a de- 
sert: there are seven rooms under one roof; and it is called Semi- 
palati, or the Seven Pidaces. It is of brick or stone, well finished, 
and still entire. Several rooms are filled with scrolls of glazed paper, 
fairly written, some of them in gilt characters. A few have been trans- 
lated : tixey are supposed to be forms of prayers of tiie Lamas. 

Upon the hills, and in the valleys in these parts, grows the best rhu- 
barb in the world, without the least culture. 

While Mr. Bell was at Tomsk, a grave-digger told him, that once 
they found an arched vault, in which were -the remains of a man, with 
a bow, arrows, lance, and other arms, lying together upon a silver table. 

• Strahlenberg, pp-325to407. B«II, p.909. See the Plate, copied tma that 
in Stmblenberg:. t Cox't TnTcIs, Vol. III. p. 170. 

f Bell of Antermony, p.S09. § Bee*** Cyc " Hippopotamiu." - 

II Strablenbei^, p.82&. 



CJiAP. On toaching the body, it fell to dust. The Talue of the table and am 
v^M'-v^**.^ ««B Teiy coDsideraMe*. 


Gbnohis Khan havnig conquered the whole kiD|[dom of Carisme, 
A.'D. 1211. and the neighbouring countries, gave the sovereignty of Capschac, to 
his eldest son, Touschi Khanf: who dying six nKmths before his fa- 
A.D. 1226. ther, was succeeded by his son Batou Kfaan. Batou Rhan entered 
A.D. 1237. Rassia, with MX hundred thousand troops {. Rczan, Moscow, Sons- 
dal, Torjok, Vlademir§, Roselsk, and other places were taken, plun- 
dered and bumtt most of the mhabitants being massacred, or loaded 
with fetters. Another army having reduced Kief and ot&er pUces 
in tlM south. Baton returned to Senu> his head quarters, on the banks 
of the Senola, a small river whkfa runs into the Volga. Serai became 
ft great city ||. 
A. B. 1340. ^ RuBsia, except Novt^rod, was now tcibotary to the Mongoh, 
who appointed vtoeroys every wh«e, wMumt expelling the Busiiui 

* Bdl of AnMmoBy, Ck lU. Mr. Bell ^n MMie of the Mmmiriftt to % 
Hans Sloaae. 

t Petis de la Croix, Life of Genghis, p. 105. 

t Tbe Tartars or Mongoh were not known to die Rossiana befbre the year 
UBi. Took«,Hi*I.Vai. 1.^2301 

i Hie Graod Prince of Russia, iiamedYury Vsevolodoritch, and one of his sons, 
were slain in this terrible iDrasion: his consort and his other two sons vere con- 
SQtned in the flames ofthe charch, at Vlademir. Tooke, Hist. ofRnssia, Vol. 1. 246. 

J Ler«sqti« Vo). II. Uioborina leWa, Aat, tel6ia.thm«««ce ruinssf three 
hilndred tem^Ua al 6«mJ. DvsnriptioQ of the Caspian in TarerntiSl^ at tbe «nd vf 
hia TolunM. 

•• Tooke,VoI. 11. p. 3. 



Betou founded the dij of CastB. Thig monarch w«s sueeeeded CIUP. 
by hia hrotbar Bertke, who beouneaMafaomedan; but he died before <^^»-v-^-' 
he could peiwade his mibjecta to foUow his example*. 

The Mimgol general Nogu, haring subdued the nations on the 
north of the Bladk Sea, revolted, aadfc^t thoee countries for himself. A.D. ISfid. 
The B-nsaiaas, taking advantage of this' disBensioc, and impatient of 
titeir hearr chains, maaaaored all the Tartars is thoae towns, wfaidi 
had confederated for thia purpose. 

The Grand JhikB Akzander was aommanded to ^ipear at Hie horde 
with, his troops: but elading this dango-, he went alone, made has A.D. 1^64. 
peace with the Khan; and died a few days after he had taken leoTef. 
TheGrrandDukeof Moscow married the nater of Usbeck Khan ^: a 
grandsoBi of Alexander Nevaki. and other Buaaian prinecB, formed a^ ^q, 1313, 
•Bcea with the Mmgolaf, 

The Rusrian Gtrand Duke SSmitri, sunwmed Don^oi, vanquished A.D. 1880. 
the Khan Mamai, in a signal and bloody battle on the Don j|. 

Toctaaatdi, ct Tocatmidi, waa now Khan of Capschac. He had a 
very powerfiil army, and hia fiat decided the fate of the Russian grand, 
dnkes. He had been placed on the throne, by the fnendship of Tara- 
erlane> with whom he quarrelled, and brought on himself tlw ve»< A.D, 1991. 
geance of -that conqueror, who defeated him fai a bloody and tanK[e 
battle, bigh^in tJbe north* *. Tootamlsh reestablished himself in hia 

* Peti* dc k Croix, p. SS7. L«r«que, Vol. II. 130. 

t Leveujot, Vol. II. p, 133. BIr. Tooke, Brnt. Vol. I. p. SM^ Oiiaki it probabU 
tbat be was poivoued. 

X Usbeck Was desceoded from Genghis in lb« fourth degree : be was tbe sixth 
••venigD flf. Gi^aiAma, a«d intradaeed. tba MahoBMdra rcKgiun. 8m Ab«l 
Gbazi Bahadur, Part VII. Cb. a 

§ Levesque. Vol. IL p. 175. || Leresque, Vol. II. p. 245. 

* * For some accouat.of this rcpnrkable baltlje, in which thera wen wn than 
d^t boodred thouaand cotDbataots, Me Chapter IV. in thia Toltma. 



CHAP, kingdom, and invaded Timur*8 dominions. The Emperor, being then 
v^^'-y-'.,^ ™ Georgia, resolved to avenge himself, and aent his empresses and 
children tq Sultania. He reviewed his army; and it is said, that, since 
the time of Genghis Khan, there had never been one lo numerous, nor 
so well equipped*. All the emirs and principal commanders, on their 
knees, assured the Emperor of their fidelity. Timur marched by 
Derbend, till he found the enemy. Toctamich was encamped, and 
strongly fortified on the banks of the Terek, a few leagaes from the 
Caspian Sea, with a mighty and formidable force: his regiments were 
surrounded by waggons and great bucklers, like a wall. On the 2and 
A. D. 1895. of April, the two armies came to action. 

[^The writer of these notes has purposely avoided giving long de- 
scriptions of battles; but as this was one of the most famous, and, 
probably, near a million of combatants engaged, besides the person of 
Timur being exposed to extreme peril, the reader may find it .inter- 

" On the morning of the 23rd of Jumaziulakher, says ^erefeddin, 
the soldiers of both armies began to move, and raised a noise like 
two oceans heating against each other, when agitated by the tempestu- 
ous wind. 

The commanders displayed their standards, and put on their hel- 
mets at the first sound of the Emperor's kettle-drums. Hmur had 
formed his army into seven bodies, placing at the head those who 
had the title of Bahader: the in&ntry,. being covered wiUi their buck- 
lers, were placed before the cavalry. Mii;za I^hemet Sultan com- 
manded the main body, which he strengthened with the bravest men 
of the army. Timur again rode before the soldiers, to see whether 
they had all their arms, which were swords, lances, clubs, bows, and 

* ** And 1 renewed ray artniea, and behold, they stood on four fnraungs (abont 
thirteen English milea) of ground in bsttltt array: and I gave thanks to. God." 
Timur's Institutes, p. 127. 



nets to catdi men*. Then he mounted at the bead of twenty-seven 
^osen comiMniea, who composed the body of reserve. The enemy ' 
abo ranged his army, opposite Timnr's, and displayed hi^ ensigns. 

The fi|At began. The .great shout was heard on each side ; and on 
a sudden, the air was d^kened with arrows, and filled with the cries of 
dart or ghirt that is, give and slay, hold and take. Then came a man 
from the left wing, who told Timur, that Condge Aglen, Bicywoc Ag- 
len, Actao, Daoud Sou& (son-in-law of Toctamish), and Otourcou, were 
advanced with a considerable detachment from their right wing, to at- 
tack his left. Whereon Timnr immediately marched against them 
with bis reserve, and attacked them with so much fury, that tiiey 
turned their backs and fled. One of Ttmur's choeen companies, pur- 
sued the enemy, till, when near their main body, they rallied, slew 
many of their pursuers, and beat back the rest as &r as where Timur 
was. This created a confusion, which induced the enemy to advahce, 
and they boldly attacked the Emperor. • Notwithstanding his rigor- 
ous and intrepid resistance, in which he discharged all his arrows, 
broke bis half-pike, and his sword, they liad now henuned him in, if 
the Emir Sheik Noureddin, resolved to sfwrifice his life for bis mo- 
narch's safety, had uot dismoimted close by bim, with fifty others, who 
kept off the enemy with tiidr arrows. Mebemed Azae, bis brother 
Alicha, and Touzel Baonrchi, seized ■ three of tlie enemy^ wagg(ms, 
which they joined together just before Timur, to try to break the ene- 
my's ranks: Alladad came -also to his Majesty's assistance, with bis 
fiuthfiil company; he got off his horse, and poSted himself near Nou- 
reddin. Hussein Malec Contchin arrived with his club men, and Zi- 
rec Tacou with his : the regiment of guards, with their ensigns, and 
witii the horse-tail, came up and gave the great shont: Ustoui ad- 

* No iDstftnce has been met with to explain how the Tartan caagbt their 

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TUkced with his company, and poated himadf behind the gtunvU. AU 
these troops, having dismounted, stood tfam grovnd against the eiM- 
my, whose soldiers continued their aitoAB, with the utmost r^^Mir; 
nevertheless 'Hmur's troops did not recede, but poured in rast showers 
of arrows. 

Codadad Hussein, who conducted the vanguard of the left wing, 
advanced between Condge Aglen, who commanded the enemy's right, 
and planted iumself behind Actao, who hoMly fiwed Timnr. 

In the meantime the M irza Mehemet Sultan, with his recruits, 
marched towards the left of the Emperw: these brave mea rushed 
uptm the enemy^ and with their scimitars and lances routed theii 
right wing, and constrained Actao to flee. 

The Emir HadgiSeifeddin, whoconmunded the vanguard of TimuijS 
right wing, found himself more pressed; tar the enemy's left, whose 
VMiguard was commanded by ih& Emirs Aisa Bey and Baeohi Coga, 
had the advantage of this emir: they got behind him and enclosed 
him; »o that, dismounting with his tmnan (corps of ten thousand), 
and blading bU great Judder before htm, as all his soldi^s did like- 
wise, they put themselves in a posture to discliwge their arrows, and 
defended themselves with undiaken rescdution against the enemy, 
whose number continually increased. But though they fell apon o«r 
men with their lances, scimitars and demHabres, yet onr si^iers did 
not cease repulsing them with their arrows ; slaying the moe^ forward i 
till Crehanca Bahader, who came from another pait of the field, seeii^ 
the dai^er Seifeddin was in, fiell impetuously with his tamaa upon tl» 
enemy, who were almost conquerors : the cluh^oen gave wsy on one 
side, and the laneers on the other : the attacks were sosfsined so vigta- 
onsly, that the slaughter was tntly honible. 

When these two great emirs joined against the enemy, they assault- 
ed them with so much courage, that their left wing gave way. Mirza 


tUmatem, b«b of Omar Chcik, nuhed like a thunderbolt with his toman 
upon the malD hodj, which he pnt to flight after having slain Beverd v 
«t them, tfaOQgh to very young, to the honor of the Emperor his grand- 

Tfl^ghlibi BehriOi a farorite and even a relation of Toctamiafa, wish- 
ing to dhtingnish himself by some great action, advanced with a troop 
of brave men, and haughtily cried out that he dared to the combat 
the most conregeous of TirauT*8 army : he even called with a lond 
voice to Osman Bdiader, and told him that the place he was in was 
the field of battle, and that be expected him there. This piece of 
vanity so incensed Osman, that he instantly marched agunrt him at the 
head of his toman: they iboght hand to hand, and having broken their 
sabres, they seized their war<clubs and poignards, and grappled like 
two enraged lions. The soldiers of their tomans imitated the exam- 
ple of their chieft: never was there a fiercer encounter; and blood 
flowed Ifte a torrent. At length, Osmlin Bahader overthrew hia an* 
tagon{8t,and fen on his troops with such fury, that he entirely defeat- 
ed them. 

All OUT generals in their respective posts performed their dnty so 
wen, that, after a long, obstinate battle, they made the enemy give 
ground, and put them in disorder. Yet we were not certain of the 
defeat till the flight of Toctamisfa, who shamefully turned his back, 
with the princes of his falood. (that is, of the race of Touschi, eldest 
«on of Genghis Rhan), the Nevlans, or fiire^ princes, dwellmg in 
the kingdom of Capschac, and tiie emirs and generals of his troops. 
Then all our men ratUed, w>d, joining together, fell on the enemy, 
shouting out, Victory! Vast numbers wefe slain, and many of those 
who were taken alive, were afterwards hanged *. 

* Lienienant Hart of the Fourth Dn||;ooDa, nepfaew of the writer, in eoa p any 

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CHAP. TimuT, when certain of this result; dismounting from his horse, 

VMa-v-"*^ humbly knelt down before God, acknowledging that.tiu-ough his good- 
ness alone he had gained the victory. The Emperor's sons and other 
princes fell on their knees, congratulated his majesty, and cast upon 
him gold and jewels. The monarch oubraced them, and loaded them 
with praises and thanks. He distributed treasures on the most dis- 
tinguished: and presented the emir Sheik N^oureddin, who had with 
so much zeal exposed his person to save his sovereign's life, with a 
horse of great price, a vest of gold brocade^ a belt set with precious 
stones, and a hundred thousand dinars copeghi ; besides honorable pro? 
motion in the army *. 

In order that every one might be contented, his majesty made also a 
general promotion of all the officers in the army-f . 

Timur, leaving the baggage and the great booty which was cap- 
tured, went with his best troops in pursuit of Toctamish ; but, on his 
arrival at the Volga, finding that the fugitive monarch had crossed the 
river, Timur invested Coraitchac Aglen with the crown of Capsehae, 
and the whole empire of Touschi X- 
The army pressed on in pursuit, northward, to Oukek, the last town 

with 'G«org€ Lamb, Esq. on Ifaeir joarney Irom Bombay, in 1824, passed over 
the extensive desert plain upon which this great battle was fought: it ia be- 
tween Kislnr and Mosdok, Tfae number of Tumuli which were in view, was im- 
mense: and they were visible as far as the eye could reach: tfaey were of differ- 
ent sizes, but perhaps none above twenty-fire feet in height. The soil was 
barren earth; and here and Ibere some straggling weeds, like worm-wood. 

* About tbtrty-tbree thousand pounds. A dinar cop^hi is seven lirres ten 
sous, French money. Sherefeddin, Vol. 11. p. 147, note. 

t Sherefeddin, B. HI. Cb. LUl. 

i Petisde la Croix, p.38&, asserts, that notwithstanding this installation, Schadj 
Bee succeeded to the throne in 1395, Toctamish fled for refuge to the Duke of 
Lithuania : returned to dispute the throne, and, at last, perished in the wilds of 
. Siberia. 

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of the dependaice of Serai; and thence into the impeaetrable fiorests . 
d Bouhu. The army marched on the west side of the rivw to Uie 
place where it had ravaged the country in 1391, whidi is near the 
Icy Sea. On their retnra, the soldio^ acquired an immense plunder 
in gold, silver, pearls, rubies, fors, and several wild animals unknown 
among the Zagataians. Many young persons of both sexes were also 
bron^ away captive *. 

As Timor's courage was not satisfied with an enterprise till he had 
carried it to the utmost perfection, he was not content with haying 
chased Toctamich from his empire and destroyed his army : he there- 
finre resolved to reduce to obedience the nations of these western fron- 
tiers. According to this graieroos sentiment, he sent forward the 
Emir Osman, who cut the Usbec Tartars to pieces, and pillaged their 
houses f. The toman of Actao, the Usbec, abandoned the country, 
and fixed themselves in the plains of Isra Yaca, near Natolia. 

Timor then went in person towards Grand Russia, plundering the 
cities as he went, defe^ii^ and cutting in pieces the princes and go- 
vernors, as iar as the borders of Reran, with an army of four hundred 
thousand men. 

Appearing to take the road to Moscow, which had not remvered 
from the devastations committed by Toctamich, the inhaMtants of 
that unfortunate city were in despair. The Grand Duke, VassUi IL 
resolved to encounter the storm, and pitched his camp on the borders 
of the Oka {. Against Timur's mighty force there could be no hope. 

* SbenfeddiD, Vol. L p. 499. 

t The reader will recollect that these gmenmt proceedingi are dcMcribed by 
8 subject of Timur. 

X Sberefeddia hasaesertedthat|Timur took Moscow; and many authors hare co- 
pied him: but Toctamich had plundered Hoscova few years before Timur's inrasion, 
and he did uotgo to that city. See Lerewine; and Gibbon, Vol. VL p. 388. 



Contrary to all expectation, Timur changed his coura^ and turned hi> 
' foce homeward *. His fatoops were eori^^ied with ingots of gold, 
silrer, linen cloth woren with gieat neatness and skill, skins core»d 
with spots, in con»di«aMe loads, the most beantiftil sables, enmnee^ 
and oUiex fois in such quantities as to supply the actors for tbBii own' 
and their children's l!v«s. In Little Russia, the army took prodigtons 
droves of cattle, an infinite number of colts which bad not yet been 
shod, besides abundance of beautifol girls and wnnen of all ages. 

By this campaign the power of Toctunicfa, and of the kingdom of 
Capschac, were considerably shaken; it was therefore a fortimaie 
event for Russia, llie soas of Toetamich, and other prinees, reigned 
in rapid succession, and. by l^t^r dissensiona, paved the way for the 

A. D. 1475. Russian conquests. Ivan IIL being required by an order undex the 
great seal of Afchmet, khan of the Crolden Horde, to pay the accus- 
tomed tribute; he treated the orders with contend and put Ae de> 
. puty to death. The next year Akfamet Altered Rossis,' ravaged the 
fiitmtaws, and reached the river OkM, wime he was surprised at the 
■ght of a fiHinidsfale army; at the discovery of which he retraced his 
steps, and no sooner reached his own territory than his troops became 
' ' victims of t^ plague. 

A. D. 1562. Casan, after a terrible siege, was tak^ by stoim by Ivan IV. and 
the oomrtry subdued. The Russian monarch, when he entered 
GaoMk, wept at the horrid sight of the heaps of Hui stainf. 

• Levesqae, Vol. II. p. 267. 
t JeroDM Bowes was sent by Qaeen Elizabelb, as ambaandor, to Iran, who was 
the first who took the title of Czar. To coDform to Ae «tiqnettfl of die times, he 
mntiiiwd-witli hn hat oq at the first aadi^ce. Some one represented tbedanger 
of such conduct, and the evils he might bring on himself by if " I pm not unac- 
qradnted wMi ibeta^ mtd be; * frat I am the ambassador of a Qneen, who will 
"wrreB go any afthint ofl!bred to her in fte person of her minister." Ihe Czar, t«r 
frombenigofendedipresentedhinitotheassembly. '"Behold,** said he, "abrare' 



Astrachan &Us; and the Tartar domination in these quarters C^^- 
endi. "^-.^/-^fc.* 

The conquest of Sibir, near ToboUlf, was effected; after having a! D*. 1686. 
been in possession of the descendants of .Genghis Khan about three 
hundred and fifty years*. 

When king James's ambassador. Sir Thomas Smith> was at Mos- A.D. 1604. 
cow, in 1604, the Emperor Boris's table was served by two hundred 
noblemen in coats of gold. The prince's table was served by the 
' young dukes of Cazan, Astrachan, Siberia, Tartaria, and Circassia f . 

By the middle of the seventeenth century, most part of Siberia was A.D. 1650. 
reduced; and about the year 1711 Kamtschatka was added to the 
Russian Empire. 

The Crimea, the last possession of the descendants of Genghis A.b. 1784. 
Khan, in the kingdom of Capschac and in Siberia, fell to Russia, 
about five hundred and fifty years after the conquest of those coun- 
tries by the Mongols. 

BOD, who baa die oobr^ to upbold (be fawour of hn aovMreign with dignity. 
Who amongf yoa would do as mncb for mef" — Ctaiuen. 

» Lereaque, Vol. III. f Mihou'a Hiatorical Works, Vol. U. p. 147. 



Fossil remains of Elephants, Rhinoceroses^ and Buffaloes, found t» 

Siberia and Russia. Remarks on the Elephant found in the 

Ice at the Mouth of the Lena. Sublime Scenery. Ruitis 

of Ancient Forts. Happiness of the Natives. Numerous 

Errors arising from Eur(ypeans having transferred the word 
Mammoth, the Siberian Name of the Walrus, to the Remains 
of Elephants, Whales, ^c. 

" HThE celebrated Bayer conjectures, that the bones and t«eth found 
, in Siberia belonged to elephants, common in that country, during the 
wars of the Mongol monarchs with the Persiaos and Indians ; and this 
plausible supposition is in some measure corroborated by the dis- 
covery of a whole afceleton of an elephant in one of the tombs of Si- ; 
beria. Pallas refutes this, by the consideration that the elephants 
employed in all the armies of India, could never have afforded the 
vast quantities of teeth which have been discovered*." 

" Many persons go from Tomsk (lat. 56° 30') to the graves, eight or 
ten days journey, where they dig, and find, among the ashes of the 
dead, gold, silver, brass, precious stones, armour, sword-hilts, bones of 
horses, and sometimes of elephants. It appears that many warriors must 

• Coze's Tnvels. Vol. IIL p. 170. 



hftve bOen here, firom the number of graves: as they have dag for 
jears, and the treasures are. not exhausted. The Tartars in the Ba- 
raba told me tiiat Tamerlane, others said Genghis Khan, had many 
eogagements in that country with the Cahnucs*." 

" Mammotiis* bones, or teeth, says Strahlenberg, are now here found 
in greater plenty than near the mpuths of the Oby, Jenesai, and Lena. 
-After these rivers have swollen, and have washed away a good deal of 
the lower part of the day and sandy banks, then, only, these teeth are 
found. They are of different sizes. I have seen some above four 
Russian ells long (nine feet four inches English), and, at the thickest 
part, nine inches in diameter. They are like elephants' teeth, but some- 
what more crooked. They serve to make any thing that is required 
of ivory: but,when they have been exposed to the air, they are a little 
more yeUowUk and brown like cocoa-nut shells: and sometimes of a 
blackish bluef . Agreat moMf ((f ikete teeth, which are white, are car- 
ried for s^ to China %. 

I have taken a gpod deal of pains to come at some certainty with 
respect to this mineral, if I may call it so; but I have not been able to 
obtain such an account as is capable of obviating all objections. The 
name, doubtless, has its origin from the Hebrew and Arabic, denoting 
Behemot, of which Job speaks, Cb. XL. and which the Arabs fpro* 
Bounce Mehemet. 

• Bel) of Antermony, p. 209. 

t See Chap. XVI. on the Walraa. The writer will, with tbe aid of that chap. 
ter, eadesTOur to elucidate this coDfused account of Strahleaberg^a : he does not 
in his work meotion the Walrus fisheries. He was thirteen years in Siberia. So 
fer theaboTC means the elephant. 

{ These are all Walrus's teeth. " The Bussiaoa bring many teeth of a sort of 
^AtoPekin; they are tvAtf^r than ivory." DuHalde, Vol.ll. p.263. The read- 
er is reqaeated to bear in mind this important distinction in tbe txlour of the 

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But OUT coiomentators are not agreed what kind ot animal is to M 
understood by Behemot Luther, with many otbav, take the word t« 
mean only in general a monstrous large beast; and it seemB the Ara* 
bians were not at a greater certainty. It is they, donbtleas, who brot^j^ 
this word into Great Tartary*. for the Ostiacks call the Maaunoth 
Khogar; the Tartars call it Khir; and though the Arabian name ii 
Fyhl, yet, if very large, they add the adjective Mehemodi to itf. 
These Arabs coming into Tartary, and finding there the rdics of 
some monstrous great beasts, and not knowing what kind they mi^ be, 
called these teeth Mehemot, which afterwards became a proper name 
among the Tartars, and is by the Russians corruptly pronouneed 
Mammoth. (The Tartars about Jenesai have many Arabic words in 
their language. Bell of Antermony, Ch. III.) Some think that Job 
meant the hippopotamus ; others, that he meant the whale. Be this as 
it will, the Russian word Mammoth certainly came from Bdiemot. 
Father Gregory, confessor to the princess Sophia, wag many years an 

* The Arab conquests of Persia and Maverulnere, were in the seventh cen> 

t In tiK Vocabniarium Calmocko-Mungalicum of Strablenberg, the word for 
ail elephant is Sann or Sogo; and we here find that the Tartars and Ostiacbs do 
not call the elephant mammoth. We And (see Cb. XV,) that the Yakales, with 
Mr. Adams, inscribed selichaeta, meaning " montagnede maiWMrth ;" and olao 
that the governor of Siberia means, by the word Behemot, the Walrus. Job's de- 
scription indicates, clearly, the hippopotamus. "He ealelh grass as an ox: he 
drinketh uparirer; the willows of the brook compass him about: he lieth in the' 
covert of the reed and fens." The Arabs, who could not be unacquainted with 
elephants, finding ivnry in Siberia, which was from an animal that was ampH- 
hious, and fed on grass or moss, would naturally think it a sort of Behemot; for 
they are acquainted with the Bible, great part of which is transcribed into die 
Koran; and among the figures found in the Tartar tombs in Siberia, the hippo- 
potamus is one of them, " There is every reason to apprehend that the morse has 
been confounded, by some Irarellers, with the hippopotamus. " It«es's Encyc. 
" Hippopotamu*." 


exile in Siberia : be taiA me, tlut formerly the name wa» Hemoth, 
ba[t that the Rtuaom dialect had made the Alteration to Mammoth. 

1^ next qaestion, since tiiere are so man^ tokens of prodigtously 
large amtiudfl faond in Siberia, is of what knid they must have been. 

As to <he opinion that they were an^hUnoMs creatures, which is 
eurreaUy believed bjf tke SSterkm populace, I have alwajrs looked on 
it as a fable; nor have I erer met with two accounts of that matter 
which were of a piece. 

The author of Daa Veramderte Rtualamd, p. 179, says, that these 
aaaimab were nine Russian ells long *: but an ancient painter, Reme- 
81^ who lived at Tobolsk, informed me, in the presence of Dr. 
Messasclunidt axd many others, that he, and thirty more of his com- 
panions, had seen, between the cities of Xara and Tomskoi, near Lake 
Tsana, an entire skeleton of oaie of tihese creatures, thirty-six Russian 
eils Iflog, and lying on oae side: and tlw distance between the ribs 
was so great, that he, standi^ upright cm the coacavity of one rib, 
eould not qiute readi the imier surfiu:e of the opporite rib with a 
pietty long batUe-axef . To which may be added, that bones of a 
naf) bigness, and grtndcis twenty or twenty-four pounds weight, are 
found almost aM over Siberia }. 

Dr. Messerschmidt has seen the bones of a whole skeleton of a mon- 
atTMis size, in a ditch, between Tomskoi, and Kasoetsko, on the banks 
of theTQmber§. 

The Swedish prisoMrs mw a head at Tumeen, two eils and a half 
lot^, which the Russians reckoned one of the smallest size j|. 

* That is, twenty-one feet English, which (s fhe lengfh oTAe Wafrat. 

t A whale, no doubt; but this idea seems not to hare been entertained by fitrali- 
lenber^ or Mesaerachraidt. Tins pfaee is eight hundred imlea from tha oeean. 

X Tbeaeare grinders of Elephants. 

% This is probiMy another wattle, as Dr. H. wotdd not ban deened elepbant^ 
bones monMroos. |I Fire feet ten inches is too la^^e for an elephant. 



If we look to the mighty size of a whole ekeleton, and the teeth, 
and theii crookedness, it is impossible they should be wrecks of ele- 
phants ever since the flood; though I formerly thought fhftm to be 
so: but there is no manner of proportion between thean and the ske- 
leton of this huge animal*; I am therefore construned to beliere, that 
, these teeth and bones are of sea animals, such as the Danes used for- 
merly to bring from Greenland and Iceland, and sell for those of nni- 

What inay make it probable that they may be relics of the flood, is, 
that thirty years ago the whole hull of a ship, with the ke^ to it, was 
found in the Barabintzian Tartary, far enough (six or seven hundred 
miles) from the ocean : and a shaped oaken beam near ToboUky, at 
axty-f our Jathomg deep. 

Every year, near the habitations of the Lamuti and Koraeiki in tbe 
bay of La&a, whales and other great sea animals are carried into the 
rivers, and when the water falls, are left on the shores. Nor is it int- 
probable that, when the Oby, Jenesai, and other rivers swell in so 
extraordinary a manner, there should be such teeth or horns of Green- 
land sea animals, carried up and thrown on the banks of the rivers, 
as we have seen in the example of a sword &h:t. Or it may be con- 
jectured, that the Mare Glaciale went &rther into the land before the 
flood ; and, at the fall of the waters, left these creatures in the mud 

It is observable ' that the mammoths' teeth are ttiostly found near 
the Mare Glaciale, in rivets which discharge themselves into the sea§. 

* The tuiks are here atbribnted to the whale. 

t This means the Monodon or Narwal. 

X Thu also miMt allude to the Narwal. 

g AlthoDgh some elephants' tiuka hare been foond in the places here alluded 
to, the remark, it is very reasonable to suppose, arises from .the great number of 
walrus's tnika, found in that . quarter : Stnhleoberg neaer haviag raentioaed that 



Should any one hereafter accoant better for these appearances, 
shall willingly retract my opinion *." Strahlenberg, p. 402. 

" On thebEutks of the Oby, and about Surgute, a great many tusks, 
called Mammon's horns, are found. I have seen them weighing above 
one hmidred pounds. The commandant had several, and gave me one 
which I presented to Sir Hans Sloane, who was of opinion that it was 
an elephants tooth. ■ The Tartars relate many fables of its having been 
seen alive. The Siberians in the Baraba told me, that they have seen 
the creature called Mammon, at the davm of day, near laies and rivers : 
but, that on discovering them, the mammon immediately tumbles into the 
water, and never tsppears in the daytime. They say, it is about the 
size of a large e1ephant,'with a monstrous large head and horns, with 
which he makes his way in marshy places, and under ground, where 
he conceals hhnself till night. I only mention these things as the 
reports of a superstitious' and ignorant people. I have observed in 
mWt of the towns we passed between Tobolsk and Jenesai, many of 
these mammon's horns, like the best ivory, except in the colour, wbith 
was pf a yellowish huef ." 

* The reader will be able (o form a jadg^tneDl of the effect of •torma from the 
ooeaD, flood* from the melting of BQOw, and the consequent rapid changes of the 
anrface in Siberia— ~. Elephants at the mouth of the Lena, whales eight hundred 
miles inland ! 

t Bell of Antermony, Ch. XIV. It appears by this, that the natires in these 
parts call both the tnska of the elephant and the liriug walrus by the name of 
Mammon ; for, what they told Mr. Bell about having seen them alive, may very 
easily have been true, as walruses might visit those waters ; though it was Da> 
tural for Mr. B., like Strahlenberg, to treat as ign<nance the assertion that ele- 
pfumta live in the rivers, he not imagining that they alluded to' the walrus. This 
is the usual mistrnderstanding throughout. It was to be expected that numbers 
of elephants' bones might be found in these parts, where Kublai's andTimur Kaan's 
wan and invasions, sometimes of three hundred thousand troops, were carried 
on for upwards of thirty years, as is shown in Chap. V. 



The reader will be able to judge, by the preceding eximcts, what 
' confusion of ideas exists, even in Siberia, on this subject, among the 
most intelligent gentlemen who have resided there for yeu^. The 
main facts on which the writer founds his proo& in this essay were 
either unheeded, or unknown to Europeans in that country, viz. the 
immense invasions, during the rdgns of the Grrand Khans, Kublai and 
Timur Kaan, from China, and India beyond the Burrampooter: and 
the vastnumbersof walruses and narwhals, at the moudis of the Leni^ 
Jenesai, and the Oby. 

We will now endeavour to show, that wherever bones which are 
really of the elephant have been found, they may, without any Tiola< 
tion of probability, be referred to the wars from, the earliest times 
with China, and Tangut, which reaches to Assam^ besides the connec- 
tion there may have been witii Hindostan from the wesbenx frontier of 
that country, for much more than twenty centuries. 

The great number of years the descendants of Genghis Khan 
reigned in Siberia may also account for many of the remains of those 
animals, which, according to the invariable custom of the Moguls, 
were received as presents, and used for the purposes of pleasure and 
hunting. In those instances which follow^ there are, probably, some 
which relate merely to reports made to Europeans by the Siberians of 
mammoth bones, (meaning walruses) ; and which the Europeans would 
erroneously conclude, meant elephants: sodi as in the goieial asser- 
tion about those described in XXVII. 




L Son im rivage de la Toura, dont les couches sont horizontales, 
je vis quelques os d'£lephans: ils ont eU trouve avec des belem- 
nites et des gloBsopetrea petrifies. (See XL.) Pallas, Vol. III. 
p. 334. 

NoU. — ^The first capital of the Mongols was on the river Tura, or 
Toura> an4 was named G^ighis Toura, two hundred and fifty-four 
versts west of Tobolsk and Sibir.—Tooke, II. 60. 

I I . At XscfairikoTO on the Siviaga, thirty versts from Simhertk, bones 
of elephahts were found in several places. 

Note—IthaA is in the district of Kazan, governed by Genghis's de- 

III. On the river Irguis, near Samara, a horn of a buffido weig^iing 
more than eight pounds. 

Note, — ^The Samara runs from the Yaik, Batou's and Sheib&ni's ter- 
ritory, into the Volga, government of Kazan. — Levesque, Vol. VIII. 
268. (See XXXVIIL respecting bufbloes.) 

IV. At Kahnyoova, on the Yaiie, bonn of an elephant> and the top 
of a bufi^o's skull, with the horns upon it. 

Note, — Batou founded a Grolden Horde on the Yaik : Sheibani had 
hereditary possessions there, and the vestiges of Saratchiensk are still 
visible.— Strahlenberg, 266. Tooke, II. 60. Levesque, VoL VIII. 268. 

V. Near the Oufi the head and bones of an elephant. 
Note.-jnhK Oufo is in the district of Kazan. 

VL Near the river Iset, and the convent Dolmatof, fifty vents 
from Kameuaki and Taaakoulskaiai, some elei^uuits' bones were found 
" en fouillant une mine de i&c.' — (Paltos). Mammoths' bones were 



CHAP, found nedr the Tobol, at Alacul, and Dolmatoff. — (Herman's Minera- 
Vmo-v-^m^ logical Map). 

Note.^The Iset, Dolmatoff, and tiie Tobol are near Tinmen, Shei- 
bani's capital. 

YII. On the borders of the great and Uttle Souvarisch, many teeth 
and bones were fonnd spread about, and in good presiervation . 
Note. This place has not been found on the map. 

VIII. Near the Ischim and Karrassoun, on the river bank, bones, 
a tusk and tooth of an elephant. 

Note. — The Ischim runs into the Irtish, less than a degree south of 
Sibir and Tobolsk. 

IX. At Tobolsk there is a very remarkably thick tusk, four ells and 
a quarter long. (A Russiaa ell is twenty-eight inches English). It 
was found near the river Ischim : and an enormous buf&lo horn was 

, brought from the country watered by the Ischim, Vagai, and 

' Note Sibir is on the Irtish, close to the Vagai, or Viaga, and lower 

down is the Ischim. 

X. Near Tschenolonskaia-Krasnoyar on the Irtish, bones and teeth 
of an elephant. 

Note. Not found on the map. Timur Kaan's battles were, most 

of them, on the Irtish. 

XI. From Beresof, one hundred and fifty versts, and three versts , 
above Kousevarzskoi-Pogort on the Oby; several elephants' bones, 
and a large buffalo's skull, were found. 

iVbfe— Beresof is north of Tobolsk, Ut. 63° 56', whither the To- 
bolskians go to tra£Bc with the Ostiacks and Vogoules. — I^evesque, 
VoL VIII. p. 283. 

XII. At north Jenesai, below Selakina, and near the Krasnoyark; a 
tooth and bones of an elephant (See XXXIX). 



XIII. At Beresofski, which runs into the Alei, teeth and bones of 
an elephant : teeth supposed to be of a buf^o, and of other animals v 
unknown to me. — Pallas. (See remarks on XXXH). 

XIV. Remains of a rhinoceros were discovered forty versts above 
Simovie de Vilouiskoe/ on the sands of the river, one toise lirom the 
water, and four toisesfroma high bank. The animal was df ells long, 
3^ high. (Supposed to mean a Russian arshine-; twenty-eight inches 
English), tt had the skin on, and was much corrupted. " I saw the 
head and feet at Irkutsk, the skin shewed its exterior organization; 
the head had aiil the skin on : the eye-lids were not entirely destroyed ; 
and there were many short hairs. (The above extracts are from the 
" Voyage dans I'Asie Septentrionale," by Pallas.) (See XXXIX. and 

Chap. xvni). 

XV. Mr. Martin has a jaw bone, several grinders, a calcined ivory 
tooth, and a rib of an elephant; found under the surface of the soil at Le- . 
vino, fifty versts from Penza, and a piece of an elephant's tooth found 
in the brook Shuksha. This fragment appears to be part of a per- 
fectly sound toothj very crooked, and much furrowed on the outside. 
These vestiges of a former deluge are discoverable in the uppermost 
sandy and loamy strata, which are frequently intermingled with cylin- 
drical stones : and, in the deeper clayey layers, there are found the re- 
mains of marine productions: even on the heights of Penza, in sink- 
ing a well at a considerable depth, large quantities of oysters were dis- 
covered in a bed of clay. — Pallas's Southern Travels, Eng. Ed. Vol. I. 
p. 47. (See XL). 

Note. — Penza is between the Volga and the Don. 
' XVI. Near Katinskoi, on the Don, thirty versts from Voronetz, on 
the brink of the river, were found, in 1784, vast numbers of bones 
of very large size, disposed in the greatest disorder: they con- 



CHAP, sist of teeth, tusks, jaw bones, ribs, spinal T»tebre, the os pubis, Idp 

v..,.»-v~'h-^ bones, tibia, &c, not petrified, but somewhat decomposed. Setoctions 

from the Gent's. Mag. Vol. II. p. 463. 

Note It will be seen that the D<m was the Mogul fhmtier, by 

what follows. " There are high promontories on the sea shore, from 
Keraova to the mouth of the Tauais, (Don): uid at Keraova and Sol- 
daia there are forty castles. Beyond these mouutains, to the north, 
there is a most beautiful wood, in a flat pleasajit country, fiill of 
springs and rivulets. Beyond the wood, there is a mighty plain, fire 
days' journey unto the end of the province, northward ; and there is 
a narrow neck of land, having the sea on the east and west aides, and a 
canal from one side to the other. The Tartars drove t^e Cbmanians 
to the sea shore. 

Towards the borders of the province, there are many salt-pits in the 
Uikea^ where the salt becomes hard, like ice. ~ Out of these pits Batou 
and Sartach have great revenues; for they repair thither out of all 
Russia for aalt, and for each cart-load they give two webs of cotton. 
There come ships for salt, which also pay tribute. 

The tiiird day after we left these precincts, we found the Tartars; 
and I thought myself in a new world: they flocked about us, and were 
very mquisitive. I answered, that we had heard that their prince, 
Sartach. had become a Christian, and that I had your Majesty's letters 
to him, and was proceeding with then) ; and that, if they permitted me 
not, I would return to Batoa's kinsman, Zagatai, who was in the same 
province, and to whom the Emperor of Constantinople had written to 
let me pass through his territories. (Voronetz was, probably, this 
Zagatai's government). The day following,' we met the carts of Zaga^ 
tai, laden with houses, and moving like a city ; they were drawn, some 
by camels, most by oxen, of which I counted twenty-two to one cart. 



the ude of which was as thick as the mast of a ship^ We were admit- 
ted into Zagatai's presenoe, with fear and bashfohieBB; and I delivered ' 
the letter from the Emperor of Constantinople. He inquired the su1>-. 
ject of your Majesty's'(Louis IX.) letters to Sartach. I answered, *' the 
words of Christian foith." He asked what they were, and I expound- 
ed the Apostles' Creed, as well as I c'ould, through a sorry interpreter: 
which, after he had heard, he shook his he'ad. 

We travelled eastward, having the sea on the south, and a plain on 
the north, twenty days' journey in breadth, without tree or stone; it 
is a most excellent pasture. To the north is Russia, wasted by the 
Tartars. Wenowarrived atthebanks oftheTanais; it is here as broad 
as the Seine at Paris. Batou and Sartach had caused cottages to be 
built for some Russians to dwell in, to ferry over ambassadors and 
merchants. This river is the limit of the east part of Rtusia, seven 
hundred miles in extent, and &lls into the Black Sea ; and all the rivers 
we passed run into it. These Tartars remove no farther north, bnt 
begin to return to the south on the first of August. The two rivers, 
where we travelled, are ten days' journey firom each other. 

We found Sartach within three days' journey of the Etilia, or Vol- 
ga; his court seemed very great, for he had six wives; his eldest 
son bad three; every one of which bath a great house, and above two 
hundred carts. We were introduced to Sartach, and entered singing 
5a^ A&gina, and delivered your Majesty's letters; which, being in- 
terpreted and heard, he permitted us to carry our vestments and 
books to our own lodging. The next morning, we were told that there 
were difficulties which Sartach dare not determine on without the ad- 
vice of his father Batou. This Sartach will not su£fer himself to be 
called a Christtan. 

We arrived at the court of Batou, (Serai), which, firom the numerous 



^H AP. houses iand tents, appeared like a mighty city three or four leagues 
v-w^v-^^ long." — Rul^ruqutB, in Harris, Vol. 1. 666. A. D. 126S. 

Note — VoTonetz, according to Rubruquis, is on the frontier of Rus- 
sia: Casimof, a Tartar Khanate is north ; the Crimea south ; Serai, 
Kazan, and Bolgar, east; all residences of princes of the imperial blood 
of Genghis. It is very probable that there was a Khan at Voronetz, 
for the Tartars appointed viceroys at Kief and every where. — Tooke, 
' Vol. II. p. 1 1. And Voronetz is a central position. Peter the Great 
was of opinion that the bones of the elephants found at Voronetz were 
left when Alexander the Great crossed the Don, according to some 
authors, and advanced to Kostinka. But Alexander did not cross 
the Don — Vide Introduction, and also Tooke's Hist. Vol. I. p. 
S98. Ihere are many gypsies at -Voronetz. — Rees's Cyc. "Woro- 

The Romans were posaibly also at the Don. ." The Emperor De- 
cius posted Gallus on the banks of the Tanais, with a competent force ; 
and led in person the remainder of his army against the Scythians. 
This expedition succeeded to his utmost wish. But Crallus intrigued 
with the barbarians, and retained his post on the banks of the river: 
Decius was decoyed into a marsh, and was so assailed by missiles, 
while in the mire, that he was killed, and also his son; nor did one of 
his army escape with life: and Crallus succeeded to the empire." — Zo- 
simus, p: 15*. , 

XVII. Among the hills not br from Makofskoi, retuains of mammuts 
are found also on the shores of the rivers Jenesai, Trugan, Mongamsea, 

* Gibbon, on the auUiority of Tillenaoat, says, that this fetal affair wa? on the 
Danuhe. Connt Zosimus was Chancellor of the Empire, noder llmMlosiiw the 
yennger, at C<M»twiiiD(^le. 

y Google 


and' LenA, even to the frozen sea. The ice, from its vast force in the 
spring, carries high banks before it, and breaks off the tops of hills; v 
when these- anhnals, or their teeth only*, are discovered. A pers(m I 
had with me, who had annaally gone out in search of these bones, told 
me,thathe and his companions had found the head of one of these crea- 
tures. The greatest part of the flesh was rotten: the teeth were plac- 
ed like those of the elephant ; they cut off a fore foot, the circumference 
being as large as the waist of an ordinary man. The bones of the 
head were somewhat red, as though they were tinctured with Uood. 
The heathens of Yakuti, TungusI, and Ostiaki, say, they mostly live 
under ground, and tell us they have often seen the earth heave up, 
when one of these beasts was upon the march, and when he was pass- 
ed, the place sinks in, and leaves a deep pit That when they come 
Unawares out. of the ground, they die on smelling the air; but they 
are never seen. The old Siberians are of opinion, that there were 
elephants in this country before the flood, when the climate was 
warmer; and that, after floating, they were washed and forced into ca- 
vities; that then the air changed to cold, and flroze them. The above 
person told me, he once found two teeth that weighed four hundred 
German pounds ; a great many lesser teeth axe found. No one ever 
saw one of these animals, therefore^ all we can say about its shape is 
conjecture. — Isbrants Ides, in Harris, II. 928. 

Note. ^The great many lesser teeth are of the walrus; and the 

tales told about the walrus are here confounded with the dephant. 
Vide Ch. XVI. of this Vol 

XVIIl. At Astraohan, a grinder was found; others are often found 
on the borders of the Ytuk, encrusted with shells. (See XL.) De Lille 

* Wdmaeaibed their tuBks, elephanta do not, except once, when sboat a year 
old. Vide Cb. XV. WalniMS climb npon emineDces to feed on the mo«. 



found some fragments on the borders of the Talk.— ^tttier> p. 148, 
' (See the note on IV.) 

XIX. At Swijatowski, serenteen rersts from tk. Petersburg, in 
1775, remains of a lai^e elephant. — Cnvier. 

Note Presents of elephants have often beeo sent to St. Petersburg. 

Tfaaknas KouU Khan, in 1741, srat-at one time fourteen, for the Em- 
peror and the great lords of the Court.— Levesque, Vol. V. p. 2S1. 

The writer saw an elephant at St Petersburg. Two, he was told, 
had been sent by the sovereign of Cabul to the Emperor Paul ; one of 
th«n died on the journey. 

XX. Near the Volga, a large skuU.— Cuvier, p. 140. 

Note. — Astrachan, Serai, and Cazan, residences of Mongol KluuM, 
for three hundred years, are all on the Volga. 

XXI. At Malochnye Vodi, near the Palus Mseotis, at the depth of 
forty-fire feet," une portion de tcte de femur, qui annonce un indiridu de 
quatorze ou quinze pieds de faaut. Deja Phlegon de Tralles, sur la foi 
de Theopompe de Synope, avoit parle d'un cadaTre, disoit il, de vingt 
quatre coudees, mis au jour par un tremblement de terre, pr^ du 
Bosphore Clmmerien ; et dont on jeta les os dans le Palus Meotide."— 
Cuvier, 141. 

^o<«._ These parts were during five hundred years frequented by 
the Mongols. The cadavre must surely foe ft whale. 

XXII. At Stanoi Jarks, on the banks of the Indigerska, a skull. 
J. B. MuUer Bpe^3 of a tuA, the cavity of which was full of a sub- 
stance resembling curdled blood. — Cuvier, 145. See XXXIX. 

XXlil. Anctephantneariyaitfi'e, and some long hairs upon it, was 
diftoovered by Suytchef, on the banks of the Alaseia, beyond the In- 

In i«OS, M. Tilashts reoeWed a bmich (ftls^ean) of hair pnUed by 
one Fatapof from the carcass of a mammoth near the shore of the 



frozen SflB. Some of tlie hair aad a piece of the skin of thu indivi- C^^^- 
dual is in the cabinet du Roi— Cuvier, 147. (See XXXIX.) v^>-v^ 

XXIV. Elephanls' bonee hare been found along the KAma^ ntixed 
witii marine «hells, by the River Ii^tiin. And . Bovte mixed with 
rhinooerofi' bones.— Cuwr. 

Note. The Kama runs into the Vol^ near Kazan. The Irguln 

is not fooad. 

XXV. At Kazan, a thig^ bone of an ele^iant: and near BtxwhoB, 
in the govenunattof Cazan, a whole skel^on.— Cuvier, 148. (See 
the resiark on XX.) 

XXV J. Pallas gives a kmg list of tusks, grinders, and bones of ele- 
phants and rhinaoeroses sent from the bwders of the Siviaga. — Cu- 

Note. — The Siviaga runs into the Volga> some miles west of the 
'City of Kacan. See remarks on XX. 

XXVII. The Samoyeds find many elepbimta' b<mes on the naked 
plains through wfaicii Uie Oby runs to ^e sea. — Cuvier. 

Note. In Ch. y. it it ^evm, that immeiue armies tofre kept in Si- 
beria for vumy jfeart to tUtpute the empire: that ihey were stationed 
about the Iriish, and that Aef drove Caidou, the rebel, in the year 
1297,Jiirther into the north. 

XVni. An enonnouB heap was foond at Kutschewarski on the 
Oby.— Cuvier. (SeeXXXIX.) 

Note. — This place is not oa the maps which Uie writer has seen. 
The ruins of the M<Htgol town of Tontoura, near Tomsk, are cm 
the Oby. 

XXEX. A jpindfflr and some bones were procured by Pallas, near 
the mouth of the Obdorsk.— Cuvier. (See XXVII.) 

XXX. The Irtish and the Tobol, the Tonra and the Isete, have, 
pohaps, affiMrded-the greatest quantity of remains: they are found at 



CHAP. Verkotourie, near the source of the Toura, and along the Irtish, un- 
^.^v*^ dsi* various soils, and mixed with shells. — Cuvier, 149. 

Note. These rivers are all in the very neighbourhood of the places 

where the Mongol sovereigns resided during three centuries. 

XXXI. The banks of the Ticuman, the Tom, and the Keta, furnish 
elephants' remains. — Cuvier. (See remark on XXX. and Ch. V.) 

XXXII. Remains were found on the Alei and at the foot of the 
mountain in which the Oby rises. — Cuvier. 

Note.-— The Alei runs into the Oby near the country of the AI- 
bintzi, who are supposed to be Mongols, two or three degrees south of 
the ruins of Tontoura, near Tomsk. — Levesque, Vol VU. 420. 

XXXIII. "Pallas assure avoir ime molaire tiree d'une minede 
la montagne de serpens, et trouvee avec des entrogues." — Cuvier, p. 

^ote.-_:Remains have also been found in the mines of Britain, and 
may have been conveyed thither by miners. There can be no reason 
to conclude that the entrdcfai and the tooth are coeval. 

XXXIV . Remains have often been found near Krasnoyarsk, to lat. 
70* below Selaniko. (See flag. No. 27, on the map). On the Angara. 
On the Chatang. At Irkutsk. Between the Lena and Jenesai.-^See 

XXXV. On the banks of the Kolyma and the Anadyr, remains of 
elephants have been found. See XXXIX. 

XXXVI. The greatest quantity is found on the islands between the 
mouths of the Lena and Indigerska. The nearest island is thirty-six 
leagues in length. The whole island, (it has often been repeated) is 
formed of mammoths' bones, with boms and skulls of buffaloes, or 
some tmiina.1 which resembles them, and some rhinoceroses' horns. 
Another island, five leagues farther, and twelve leagues long, furnishes 
the same bones and teeth. — Cuvier, 151. According to Pallas, there 



is Bcarcely a river, from the Don to the Tsdiutskoi Nos. in the banks 
' ot which the bones are not Abundant. And the two islands at the mouth ' i 
of the Indigeraka seem entirely composed. of these bones, and those of 
the elk, riiinoceroB, and otker large quadrupeds. — Rees's Addenda. 
" Manunoth." 

iVofe.— .These are the paragraphs and allusions which have-filled the 
world with aatonishment; and history, geology, and natural history, 
with marvellous perplexity and conjecture. Instead of elephants, 
rhinoseroses, elks, and buffaloes of foreign regions having furnished 
these heaps of bones, it will be seen that they are remains of native 
animals of the places where they are found. The elephants and rhi- 
noceroses, which hare been found in Siberia, have caused the con- 
fusion. Here mammoths are walruses: to prove which, the reader 
is referred to Strahlenberg, p. 402; Muschkin Puschkin in Pere 
. Avril's Travels, p. 176; and to this Vol Chap. XVI. 

Unicorns are narwhals, which are called sea-unicorns, and abound 
in that sea: they also go up the rivers. Rees' Cyc. " Unicom." Strah- 
lenberg, p. 40S. 

Elks abound in Siberia, and in the most northern parts. The Rus- 
sians call them Losh; the Siberians name them Ruyck. They are of an 
immense size; the hides are valuable, and they su{^y a great quanti- 
ty of food. The natives kill about four hundred annually at Wilwa, 
near the river Pytschiora, the mouth of which is in latitude 67°. — See 
.Strahlenberg, p. 361. There are elks also in Nova Zembla. — Abul 
Ghaxi, notes. Vol. II. p. 663. 

The horns of the animal resembling a bufiklo may be the cattle of 
the country: the largest cattle of this kind are found among the Cal- 
muc Tartars. (Encyc. Brit. " Bos.") The Burathairy bull is more like the 
Yak of Thibet and Napanl than to the ordinary cattle; and the vici- 
nity of Tangut and China may have introduced a variety of such ani- 



besides which there are yriii cstUe like the unu m SU>aiB. 
' These aninals, and the elk, way bare supplied the fidiers with diet far 
many centuries. The information is doived fEom the waknK and nar- 
whal fifdiermen, who are the native Tui^uses, Yakutes, and Tuk^il^ 
no traveller or naturalist having visited those islands. Pdks 4loes 
not appear to have been withm twenty degrees of the latitude of 
those isles, nor does he mention the AFWrtw&heries; neither'do Steak- 
lenberg nor Mr. Adams. Goldsmith, in his Natural Histmy, says, 
quantities of the bones (tf the walrtu are found on the coasts of the 
North Sea. Do not these elucidations asust, in a most material man- 
ner, to untie this Gordian Knot? 

XXXVII. A petrified fragment was fonnd in the sea of And. See 
XL. The borders of the Jaxartes produce some : the Bucbarians 
bring ivory from that place. — Cuvier, 152. 

Note. There are Bucharians resident at Tobolsk, Tinmen, Tara, 

and Tonrin^, all of which are places in which the tusks ctf elephants 
and walruses are articles of traffic. 

XXXVIII. On the hills and in the woods, near Tomsk, is found 
the urns, exceeding in size and strength all the honied spedes: no 
animal is so fierce. There is in the same woods a species of oxoi net 
so big as the Urns, with a high shoulder and a flowing tail like a 
liorse. — ^Bell of Antermony, Chap. III. Qf the craniums of two ani- 
mals found in Sibena, Pallas refers one to the oidinary bufihlo, bnt 
has since attributed them to a species, natives of Thibet, named Ami. 
Cuvier proves, by osteologic comparison, that those craniums have not 
belonged to the bufiblo. The other appeased to Pallas io have be- 
longed to the c^>e or musk ox of Canada. Cnvier shevra that they 
cannot have belonged to the former, bat he has not a cranimn of the 
ami or musk ox, to compare with them. — Reecfs CycL ** Bones." 

Note — ^The bu£blo's bones, fonnd in Siberia, wore pn]1»bly£rom 



Antm, Thibet, or Cfaiu; and of a ^d tkat maj never have been 
kiunni to Euopean natmafiits. Thej must have been very common, '' 
as armour was often made of bufiUo hides, hardened by fire *. In 
1^ year 128d, Timur Kaan was Goveroor of Yunan and seven 
neighbonring kingdomB, Bongalla, Mien. &c. It was he who invaded 
Siberia. — See Marco Polo, p. 424, note 827. lliese oountriee, and 
Siberia Hself, prodnce many varieties of the boa genus, some of which 
might aecompany a Tartar anny as beasts of burthen. " The oxen 
wiiiefa draw the lionaee of the Mongols are the finest ornament of 
tiMJr equipages; they are extremely strong, have hair like horses. 
and that on their tails is white; and soft as silk. They are firom the 
country of Tangut. and are very dear." — Petis de la Croix, p. 358. 
In addition to the above, it appears, in Vui Bream's Journal. March 26. 
179S, that buffidoes are employed by the Chinese to draw their four- 
wheeled carts; and many may thns have been in Siberia with the 

XXXIX. In the Chapter on Siberia, it has been shewn that the 
oeigfaboorfaood of Irknt^, Angara, and Baikal, is the original sove- 
reignty of Gcnghis's &mily. and his birth place. The most ancient 
Tartar dnke liad his court there, when Carpini passed, m 1346. The 
Grand Khans sent to the mouth c^ the Lena, and to an UloHd in 
the Arctic Sea, for ger-^Uoons imd peregrine-ialcoos. In the chapter 
on Kublai, it appears that he kept many thousands of falconers, and 
that his elephanta were made nse of on all occasions, even sent to any 
distance to fetch evergreen trees, with their roots, for bis gardens- 
There can be no doubt but the tribute in furs must have been great, 
to supply such numerous and rich sovereigns, and their sumptuous 
courts : and that they were collected up to the Arctic Sea, at the Oby 

* Marco Polo, p, 210. 



CHAP, and Jenesai, as well as at the I^na^totbe mouth of whicb the natires 

^— 'v-*^ were dnveti by the Mongols. Mongols inhabit above the riTer Tim- 
gouska. (Tooke, I. 265.) The peissy, some white and some dove 
colour, the size of a fox, with a thick warm fur, which is found /or to 
the north of Jenesai, is much esteemed by the great men in the north 
of China. — Bell of Antermony, Ch. III. It is not in the least probable, 
that the Grand Khan, after the year 1272, did not send elephants both 
for the purposes of war^ {as he always used them in his armies), and 
also for the pleasures of hunting, to his near relations, the sovereigns 
of Siberia and Capschac : possessing, as he did, thousands and receiving 
them annually in tribute*. If the British army dared meet Caesar, 
but fled at the sight of his elephant, we may judge how useful those 
animals would be in Siberia: thus, elephants may have been sent to 
every country. It is not necessary that the elephants and rhinoce- 
roses should have been sent to the nioH/Af of the rivers: they may 
have floated from a considerable distance, and been blown into other 

XL. As shells and marine substances are found every where, there 
appears no good reason to conclude that they are coeval with the fossil 
.bones. The Caspian, Lake Aral, and the region around; are all salt: 
which may account for marine shells adhering to some of the fossil 
bones: and also for their petrified appearance, if four or five centuries 
be not enough to petrify theuL 

The reader wiU now be able to judge whether these he^pe of bones 
in particular, so amply accounted for in Ch. XVI. but described as 

• In Chapter IV. we have seen tbat Timor presented bis frientb with ele^iants. 
The Mogul Emperor, Akbar, gave presents of elephants daily. Ayetu Akbari, 
Vol. I, p. SSI, Kublai's means of doing the same thing were much greater than 
Akbar's. It has erer been the cvMoat in these coantries. See Xenophon, CyrcK 
pKdiB,B.Vin. p.214. 



elephants &c. Avm the reports of the Siberians, or the Europevis in 
Siberia, may not have been walrus, narwal, whale, or other remains, < 
snch as we might expect to find accumulated in those very places, 
after more than two- thousand years that these fisheries hare been 


Mr. Adahs set out from Yakutsk oa the 7tb of June, and towards 
the end of the month reached Rumak-Surka, where he was detained by 
contrary winds; this place was inhabited by forty or fifty Tunguse 
families, who were then fishing to provide the winter stock. All the 
coast was covered with scaffolding and cahaneg quite filled with peo- 
ple, full of innocent gaiety, actively employed, singing while throwing 
their nets, and some dancing the eharya, a dance of that country. 
" I was filled with emotiens of joy," says Mr. Adams, "at these de- 
lightful scenes and so much happiness amidst the polar ice." 

There are not any islands at the mouth of the Lena, near to which 
it is narrower, more rapid, and deeper than in any part of its course*. 

The opposite side of the river' is highly picturesque. The moun- 
tains present a variety of scenes which exalt the soul: their summits 
covered with snow, with an azure tint, contrast finely with the deep, 
dark, and \n\A vaUies. The painter might in vain seek in Siberia more 
beautiful scenes than are found at Kumak-Surka, and which are cele- 
brated in the songs of the natives. 

* MonBienr Lessepa crossed tbLs nobje river Bt Yakutik, on the S9th of Jane : 
be was four hours od ibe passa^, in a diagonal direction, vnd estimstea the width 
fit two leagaea. See bis Journal, Vol. II. p.SSS. 



The wind, at length, heing foir, " I soit mj rein-deer aerass the 
river ," says Mr. Adams, "and followed the n«xt morning, im Isver dti 
tokil, acc<Hapaiiied by Schumaohoff, and sixtem others. The sad^ 
of my rein-deer bdng tied only with a leather strap, andtheTimgiues 
not making use of stirrups, I had several falls, and experienced pun 
and incoavenie nee *." 

After two days* journey over mountains, valUes, and arid plains, the 
party crossed the isthmus of Tamut, where many wild rein-deer are 
caught in the autumn, as they migrate towards Borchaya in the Icy 
Sea. On the third day, the tents were pitched, a few hundred paces 
from the mammoth. 

Towards the end of August, when the fisheries of the Lenaare over, 
Sohumachoff and his brethren visit the istfamm of Tamut, to hunt or 
fish. In 1789, having built a dwelling for his wife on the borders 
of lake Oncoul, 11 s'emburqua pour aller voir s'il ne trouv^oit snrles 
ootes quelques comes de Mammouthf. Un jour il apperfutaumiUea 
dcB glafons, un bloc informe qui ne ressembloit en rien aux amas de 
biriB flottant qu'on a coutome d'y trouver. D ndt pied k teire, grim- 
pa sur un rocher, et observa dans toutes ses faces, cet object nouveau, 
mais il ne pot reoomioitre ce que c'etoit. L'annee suivante il decouv- 

* Marco Polo hid nwfrted Ant the DBtirea of Siberia ride upon rein-deer, 
■which was auppofied to be a wrong tratulation of an early veraioo. This is aao- 
ther and a very remarkable proof of that trareller's eztcnaire iDfonnatioD, and of 
JHS correctness. See Maraden'sM. Polo, p. 2fiS} Bebring's Trarels ; Abnl Ghazi, 
rToJrll. p. MO; aadLoMpa'a Jonrul, Vol. ILp.303., The eastern part of Sibe* 
ria, in which is the Lena, was in the Grand Khan's division, and is named North- 
em Turqaestau. (De la Croix's Map, Life of Timur, Vol. II. p.426.) Mr. Adams 
foand rains of ancient forts in these parts, and also mutilated remains ofgrotesqne 

f By which Mr. A. no donbt understood elephants* tusks : bat these are tbe re- 
igns where the natives range the coast in search of tusks of the walrus, as a regu- 
lar and certain subsistence; and which, as has been shewn, they name Mammoth. 



tit au meme lien la- caicaiae c^une ya^e marine (trichechns rMmaras). ' ^^^' 
La masse, qn'il aToit vu autrefoiB, ^it plus d^gagee des gtafons: ^^*-s,^«^ 
mats il ne Bftvoit encore oe que ce pouvoit etre. Vers la fin de I'et^ 
wuvant, le flano tont entier 6.9 1'animal et one des defenses etbient dis- 
tinctement sorties des gla9on8. 

A son retonr aux bords du lac Oncoul, il communiqua cette de- 
coDT«rte extnuwdinaire a sa femme et & qnelqnes-uns de see amis; 
mais leur manidre d'envisager la chose, le combla d'amertume et de 
bri^esse^ Les Tiefflards racontoient, qu'ils avoient ou'i dire k leurs 
p^res, qn'nn monstre pareil s'etoit &it voir jadis dans la meme pres- 
qu'ile> et que toute la famiUe de celui qui I'avoit aper^ u, avoit ^e eteinte 
en tr^s-peu de temps. Le mamouth, p^r consequent, fut unanime- 
ment mvisage comme on augure d'une calamitd fature ; et le chef Tun- 
guse en confUt nne si vive inqni^ude qu'il tomba dangerensement 
malade; nuus, enfin, etant im pen cMivdocent, sa premiere idee ftit 
le profit quil pouvoit avoir en vendant les ddtenses de cet animal, qui 
^ient d'une beaote et d'une grandeur extraordinaire. 

11 donna ordre de cacfaer soignensement I'endroit oil le mamonth 
se trouToit, et d'en Eloigner, sous diff^tens pr^textes, tous les gtran- , 
gers: chargeant en m£me temps des gens afiSd^, de veiUer & ce qu'on 
n'enlevat ce tresor. 

Enfin, vers la fin de la cinqui^me annle, les d^sirs ardens de Schn- 
machoff fiirent heurensemrait accomptis*; car la paxtie des glacea qui 
se trouTOit entre les tcrres et le mamonth, ayaat fimdu plus- vite que 
le teste, le niveau devint pente, et cette masse ^orme, poussSe par 
son propre poids, vint s'echouer h la c6te sur un banc de sable. Cest 
ce dont fnrent t^oins deux Tonguses, qui depuis m'ont aceompagne 
dans mon voyage. 

* The reader vill judge whether it caa be a common occarrence to find tle- 
pkant^ tnska. 



Au mois de Mars. 1804, Schumacboflf Tint a son mamouth, et lut 
' ayant fait couper les comes, il les echangea avec le marchand Bat- 
tunoff contre des marchandises, pour la valeur de cinquante rubles. 

Deux annees apr^, par cons^uent dans la septidme de la d^ou- 
verte du mamouth, un hazard beureux voulut que je parcourusse ces 
regions, et je me ieticite de pouToir constater un fait qu'on auroit cm 
si invraisemblable. Je trouvai le mamouth, encore but le meme lieu 
mais tout-a-fait mutile. Le proprietaire se tenoit content du profit 
qu'il en avoit tire, et lea Jakutes du voisinage depeceoient les chairs, 
dont lis nourissoient leurs chiens pendant la disette. Les b^tes fero- 
ces, les ours blancs, les loups, les goulus, et les renards, en fesoient de 
• meme. 

Le squelette presque decbame se trouroit tout entier a I'exception 
d'un pied de devant Les yeux out ete preserves et Ton distinguoit 
encore h I'ceil gauche la prunelle. Les parties les moins endomma- 
gees sont, un pied de devant et un de derriere; ils sont couvert de 
peau et ont encore la solle. Suivant rassertionduchef Tunguse,rani- 
mal avoit ete si grosftsibiennoiirri,que le ventre lui pendoit jusqu'an 
dela des jointures des genoux*. C'est un mile, avec une longue 
crini^re au col, nuus sans queue; et sans trompe, selon Schumachofff; 
toaja il me paroit plus probable qu'elle a ete enlevee par les betes fe- 

La peau dont je poss^de les trois quarts est d'un gris fence, et cou- 
verte d'un poil rougeatre, et de crins noirs. La carcasse a une hau- 

* This U the kind of elephant which is, at Tipera, called Koomareab, or Daunte- 
lah. See Ch. XV. of this Vol. 

t If thia BDimal bad beea killed id warftte, the trunk might have been cut off, 
which was not uncommon. " In a short time, the 6eld of battle was corered with 
elephants' trunks, end the heads and bodies of the slain." Sfaerefeddin's Life of 
Timur Bee, Vol. II. p. 59. In the battle of Magnesia, Scipio's troops cut off the 
trunks of above thirty of the elephants orAntiochas. Livy, B, XXXVII, 

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teuT de quatfe arcfalneB, (nine feet fouT inches English) sur pt^s de 
sept de longueur (sixteen feet four inches) depuis la pointe du nez jus- > 
qa 'au coccix*. Chacune des deux cornea a une toise et demi de long, 
et les deux ensemble p^sent dix pouds (three hundred and sixty 
pounds)t. La t^ seule p^se onze et demi.pouds (four hundred and 
fourteen pounds). Je fis fouiller le terrain pour recueiUir tons les crins 
que les ours blancs avoient foul^ dans le sol humide, en d^vorant les 
chairs. Je reussis a me procurer plus d'un poud de crins. 

Le lieu b^ j'ai trouv^ le mamoutb, est eloign^ de la cdte d'environ 
60 pas ; et de I'escarpenient de la glace d'oti il avoit gliss^, de prds 
de 100 pas. Cet escarpement occupe precis^ent le milieu entre 
les' deux pointes de I'isthme, et a trois verstes de long, et dans la 
place m£me ou se trouroit le mamouth cette roche a une elevation 
perpendiculaire de 30 a 40 toises: I'aninial etoit a sept toises de 
la superficie de la glace. Sa substance est une glace claire, pure et 
d'un gout piquant; elle s'incIineTerslamer; sa cime est couverte d'une 
coucbe de mousse et de terre friable d'une demie archine d'epaisseur. 
Pendtuit les chaleuis du mois de Juillet une partie de cette croute se 
fond, mais I'autre reste gSUe. 

La curiosite me fit monter sur deux autres collinea assez ^loignees 
de la met; elles ^toient de la meme mati^re et moins couvertes de 
momse. De distance en distance, on voyoit des morceaux de bois 
d'une grandeur enorme, et de toutes les esp^ces que produit la Sib^e : 
les habitans appellent cette esp^ce de bois Adamshina; et ]& distin- 
guent des bois flottants qu'ils appellent Noahshina J. On voyoit aussi 
des comes de mamouth en grande quantity, qui s'^levoieot entre les 

* " Le coccix qai fimne I'alongeiDeDt du baHin proure eTidemtDeDlqtiel'animal 
B*a point eu dequeue,'' rays Mr. Adams; but when the skeleton waa carefully put 
together, it waa found that a part of the Uil remaiued; as appears in the engrar- 
ing in Baron Cuvier'a great work. 

t See Plate. Cb. IX. 

; The Mahomedan HoBgola are Amiliar with the hialory of the deluge. . 


creux dea rocfaen. faies paroissdent tontes d^une JreddKm Htm- 
' non/e*. ToutelacdteetoitcoimnetopiBS^despluiteslest^VBnusees 
«t les plus belles que produiaent lea 6ords de la mer glacule; mns 
elles D'aroient que deux pouces de haut. 

* Mr. Adams does not mention any other particulars of this moat extnionIiDat7 
ditcorery; Dad, astheaizeofthetuakais not mentioned, it is probable tliat Mr. A. 
may hare seen morse tusks, for the following Kasons: 

I. It appears (in Chap. XVI.) thai all frriters and travellers mention the extraor- 
dinary whiteness of morse tasks; but that the Iarg« elephants' tasks are dirty and 
stained . 

11^ Schnmacboff, if he was present, would naturally call them Behemoth or Ma- 
moth tusks, that being, according to Muschkin Puscbkin and Strahlenberg, the 
name of the morse in those redone. 

III. " Nenr Anadyr, and the Tcbudskoi promotitory, an attonishing quantihf of 
morse teeth are found, which leads Gmelin to believe that they retire to these un- 
frequented regions for shedding their large old tusks, for young on^." Tooke's 
R«ssie, Vol.111, p. 100. Nnrw^'s boraafuvalso found in those porta of Sibwia. 
Eucyc. Briu " Siberia." 

IV. " Morses* tusks are found an ell and a half long, (a Russian ell is twenty- 
eight, inches English); abd thirty pounds weight." BnSbn, XXXIV. 62. 

V. Eminent naturalista, even Danbentoo, hare miatakeo monea* tioAa for those of 
the elephant. (Guvier, p. 142). If these were elephants' tusks, it may truly be 
said to be a greater wonder than to find the animal floated to the mouth of the ri- 
ver; but, when we consider that the morses are natives of those motty rodts, and 
that it ifl their habit to climb upon t^ rocka to seek their food, there is every pn>> 
bahility in favor of the supposition, that what Mr> Adams saw, was a number of 
morse tusks. If one or more have been brought away, (which Mr. A. does not 
mention), the doubt now expressed can easily be determined. It is scarcely pos> 
siUe to imagine that SokKmachoff, who had sighed five long years afi«r two tusfc% 
should have left this "grande quantity," to " waste their whiteness in the desert 
air." Elephants' tusks long exposed to the air are not white; nor do elephants 
•bed their tusks after the first year of their age, wheo dwy do not exceed the ' 
length of two inches, (Corse). The hunters after morses' tusks are likely to deposit 
dtera in sutdi places til) they return homeward. Could these belong to Schum:^ 
choff hnnselff If so, he certainly would not ofier Mr. Adams any asaiabince to- 
wards approaching tbem. If they were not his, be would no doubt keep faJS' in** 
tention to appropriate tbem to himself a secret from any one. On the whole, it ap- 
pears almost certain, that they were walrus's, and not elephant's tusks; and would 
naturally be pointed out by Schumachoff under their real name of mammodu. 

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Autour de la carcaase oa voyoit une multitude d'autras plantea, telles 
que la etnerana agnatica et quelques especes de pedieularis, qui ne 
sont point connues encore dans I'histoire naturelle. Nous erigefimes 
deux croix, chacune assez solidement c( haute desix toises: 
l*une Be trouve sur le roc de glace A'ad ce mamouth avoit gUsse ; et 
Tautre sur I'^mineDce meme oti nous I'avions trouve. Les Tunguses 
6ntdonnd a I'nne le nomde Croix de TAmbassade, et k I'autre celui de 
Croix de Mamouth. L' elevation eUe m^me re9ut le nom de Selichaeta, 
ou Montagne de Mamouth *. 

Je trouvai une grande quantite d'ambre, sur le rivage. * * * Arrive 
a Jakut^ j'eus le bonheur .d'y radieter les defcsuen du mamouth, et 
de la j'expediai le tout ponr St. Petersbourg. 

Le mamouth est couvert d'un poil tr^s epais, sur tous le corps et 
»8iir le col one longue crioi^ef. Quand meme je mettrai en doute 
les rapports de mes compagnons de voyage, il est cependant ^ident, 
que les crins de la iMigneur d'une archine, qui se trouvteent d la tete, 
aux oreiUes, et au col de I'animali ont dd, necesaairement, appartenir 
& la crini^re. Le poil epais semble indiquer qu'il appaiteneit aux re- 
gions aeptentrionaks. 

On a trouve des restes pareib, il y a deux aos, sur lea bords de la 
If^na d une plus grande ^stance de la met; et ik i^toient tomb^ dims 
le lit du fleure : «d en a', trouv^ d'aotiM dsas les provineea jdos meri* 
dionales du Volga, en Allemagne et meme en Espagne. Ce sont au- 
tant de preuves incontestiU>le d'un deluge general* &c. 

* StUchaeta beJDg so different a word, it appears tliat the Tscbudskk do not call 
i\ie tUphant hy tbe word Mammoth: and this agrees with StrahleDberg,(p. 404), 
who Bayi, that the Siberians currently believe the mamiDoth to be an amphibious 
creature. The Ostiacks call the elephant Khosar; the Tartars call it KMr. 

t Is not the circotnstance of this beast being thickly covered with bair, astrong 
presumption that it did not die in a Aof climate? See remarks on the ecliptic iit 
die introdnctioD. 

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Je prie le lectenr curieax de Touloir bien, dans ce moment^ se con- 
teifter de cet essai. Je me propose de doDner I'osteologie du ma- 
mouth, avec toute I'exactitude dont Camper nous a doim^ I'exemple 
dans un trarail pareil *." 


The indefatigable and scientific labour of the Baron Cuvier enables 
the writer to give the exact descriptioD of the hair of this elephant, the 
most interesting circumstance attending it. 

" La peau est semblable i celle de I'elephantTiTant, mais on n'y dis- 
tingue pas les points bruns qu'on remarque dans I'esp^ce des Indes. 
M. Adams assure que la peau est d'un gris fonc^. R-y-a trois sort«s 
de polls. 

I. Les plus longs ont 12 i 15 ponces; leur conleur brunf, et 
leur epaisseur & pen prds celle d'un crin de cheval. 

II. R-y-a ensuite de plus courts, de dix de neuf pouses, qui sont en 
meme temps un peu plus minces, et de couleur fauve. 

III. La laine, qui paroit aroir garni la racine des longs poils, a de 
quatre d cinq pouces de longeur, elle est assez fine, passablement douce, 
et un peu friste, sur tout vers sa racine : sa couleur est un fiiuve clair! 

* These extracts are taken from tlie supplement to the " Journal du Nord," No, 
XXXII. published at St. Petersbnrff, in 1806. The writer regrets (hat be has 
not seen Mr. Adams'a second publication. He wrote to a friend at St. Petersburg 
to procure it, but his friend could not find out that it bad ever appeared. The 
plate and description in Cnvier's fourth volume, gireallthe informalion that is ne-. 
cessary. The writer saw the bones of this animal immediately after they were 
taken out of (he chests in which they were conveyed to St. Petersburg: tbeystill 
retained a most powerful stench. 

+ The brown colour of these may probably be accounted for by their having 
been long " fouUs dans le sol buroide," by the wild beasts ; as Mr. Adaiiu,speaking| 
.of the areneral quantity, says " crina noirs." 



Sar ce qui reste de peau k Fetersbouig, les poils xmt uth et court*. CHAP. 
H. Adams nous dit q'une des oreilles de son individu, etoit garnied'une \..i»-v^ 
toffe de crins." The above is a correct description of the hairs of the 
same elephant, which are in the museum of the Royal College of Sur- 
geons, in London: — 

Mr. Adams mentions that " il est trident que les crins de la longiieur 
d'une archine (twenty-eight inches), quise trouT^rent encore ^ la t£te. 
aux Oreille, et au col de Tanimal; ont dd n^cessairement, appartenir k 
la crinifere." 

The first kind of hair, twelve to fifteen inches in length, is of the 
thickness of the head and lip hairs of the living elephant, now (1825) 
in London; one is three inches and a half, and the other two inches 
and nine-tenths long*. 

The second kind, of nine or ten inches, is in thickness like that taken 
from the fetlock of the living animal, which is five and a half indies 

The third kind, or wool, is from four to five inches long. — It is 
shown, in Ch. XV., that Leeuwenhoek discovered the skin of a modem 
elephant to be fiiU of small hairs. 

The hair from the proboscb of the live elephant is stronger than 
the others, is three inches and four-tenths long, and corresponds with 
those discovered upon the body of the Dundee elephant, described in 
the Phil. Trans. No. SM. The hairs upon the body of the London 
living dephant were too short to be procured. 

Living elephants have hair about the ears, Uke the one found by 
Mr. Adams. 

Mr. Adams's account of the mane is not sufficiently distinct, to allow 
an accurate judgment to be formed about that particular. If the 
quality and disposition of the hairs upon the fossil and living elephants 

* See the plate in Cb. IX.' 

L L 



should be found to be similar, the only remaiiiiiig difference would 
t foe in the length. Elephants bear a degree of cold which has been 
fonnd to kill men and horses: would a change of food enoourage the 
growth of their hairf The green winter food of a northern elimate 
must be extremely warm and stimulating. Elephants wQl eat every 
variety of food. Sheep and cattle, in hard winters in England, are fed 
tm the tops of fir-trees *. 

The Siberian climate encourages the growth of the hair, wool* and 
for of all animals. 

The Burat ox, near Lake Baikal, is covered with long hair some- 
thing like the Yak (Bos grunniens) f . The dogs near Sabatskoinos, 
-have hair a quarter of an ell in length J. " The black ox of Tarttry, 
that had been tamed, had long hair like the camel's, but much thicker ; 
he wad quite black, hod short 1^, and walked slowly and heavily; he 
had a saddle upon his back, and a man led him witti a halter §." 

The summer hair of the Aigali, or wild ram, is short and sleek ; the 
winter coat long and sha^^, much mixed with wool: tJlie horns 
weigh forty pounds. They feed on bitter and acrid mountain herbs |t. 
Is human hair longer in Siberia than in other countries? IslHaodts 
Ides measured the hair of a Tungusiim Prinoe, whieh he found to be 
four Dutch ells long: and that t^ his son (six years td *ge), seven- 
eighths of an ell **. 

The Takutes keep their horses out aU tie winter; th^ scrape aidde 
the snow with their hoofe, to get at the grass; they eat the buds 
of the birch and aspen, become sleeker, fatter, and handsoaner than 

• Keen's Encyc. '• Fif tree." 

f bbrandta Idea, in Harru's Voyage, 11. p.029» with m engnwing. 

X Strahlenberg, p.d60. 

§ Pere GerbUlon, in Da Halde, Vol. IT. p. 084. 

H Tooke,Vol.IlLp.78. 

•• In Harrii'* Voyages, Vol. 11. p.792. 



]n Bummer, when their hair grows long *. Favorite elephants are 
waahed clean and inled: the £knperor Akbar and the King of Fegu ' 
allowed sugar and ghee, or butter, to be giren to their best elephants ; 
inch treatment might promote the growth of hair, in cold countries, 
where they wotdd probably not be rubbed with pumice-stone; not be- 
ing exposed to mud and dustf. The doubtful circumstance of the 
mane spears to be the only material difference between the hair of 
the living and of this fossil elephant. Such hairs as are upon the pro- 
boscis of the live elephant, and upon the skin (as described by Mr. 
Blair) of the Dundee elephant, if growing upon the back, as in the 
musk ox, might, firom their atifibess, appear as a mane. 

There does not appear to be such a difierence between the bones 
of the Lena elephant, and those of other fossil skeletons, as to entitle 
the former to be considered as a dlGferent species. " From the draw- 
ing I have before me," says Baron Cuvier, " I hare every reason to 
believe, that the sockets of the teeth of Mr. Adams's elephant, have 
the same pToporti<mal lengths wiUi those of other fossil elephants, of 
which the entire skuUs have bcNen found in other places X- 

" The alveoli of the tutlu of the fossil elephant, found on the banks 
of the Indigerska, of another found in Siberia, of one (seen by Baron 
Cuvier) at Florence, and of one from the banks of the Volga, are three 
times as long as those of India and Africa, of the same size. The alve- 
oli of Bfr. Adams's elephant had been somewhat mutilated by the 
Tunguses, and therefore an accurate idea of their length could not be 

* Strehlenberg. 886. LereMige, Vol. VII. p. 486. 

t ** We went to the river to tee tbe king's and gicM noUeineD'B elephants 
wubed. When they hare ■oaked Uiemtelvea in the water, theyare robbed and 
cleaned with pnmice-stone, and after they are dry, they are nibbed with oil of 
cocoa." Tarernier, P. 11. B. I. Ch. XIX. Ayeen Akbery, Vol. I. p; 137. 

X Theory of the £arth, p, 237. 

LL a 



formed. This difference in the alTeoti is of the more importance, as it 
' agrees witii the form of the lower jaw, and required a differait con- 
formatioD of the trunk of a fossil elephant*." The reader is referred 
to Chapter XTIII, for the reasons adduced why the foasil elephants 
differ firom the modem individmah wkieh have been deteribed. 

• Cnrier, p.176. 



Description of the ancient City of Bangalla^ which stood at the 

Eastern Mouth of the Ganges, now overflowed. Burmah. 

~ Pegu, ^c. in the Sixteenth Century; alt of which had been 

subfect to the Grand Khans, in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth 

Centuries, Bloody Wars for a White Elephant. Siege of 

Pegu. Deplorable Famine, Immense Treasures. 

31UCH historical confusion has arisen from the circumstance of 
there haring been two countries called Bengal, or Bangalla; one of 
wluch had Gour for its capital, for the space of two thousand three 
hundred years*: the capital of the other was Bangalla, a very ancient 
city, situated at the eastern mouth of the Granges. 

" In some ancient maps, and books of traTcIs, we meet with a city 
named Bengalla: but no traces of such a place now exist. It is de- 
scribed as being near the eastern mouth of the Chmges : and I con- 
ceive, that the site of it has been carried away by the river; as, in my 
remembrance, a vast tract of land has disappeared thereabouts. Ben- 
galla appears to have been in existence during the early part of the 
seventeenth century f." 

* Vide HamiltoD'a E«at India Gvzetteer," Bengal*" 
t Rennel'a Memoir, p. 57. 

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Marco Polo relates, that the Grand Khan Kublai oonqoered Mien 
and Bangalla; which has been contradicted, in consequence, it is pre- 
sumed, of its not being generally known that there were two king- 
doms of that name. The object of these notes is, to prove that tiiere 
were two kingdoms; and that Kublai conquered the eastern one. 

Hindostan was frequently invaded by the Mongols, in the thirteenth 
century, in great force, by way of MouHan; and Great Bengal was 
invaded by Chitta and Tibet; bat they were always repulsed with 

In 1272, the Grand Rban Knblai sent an anny into the coontries 
of Vochang and Karazan, for their protection f^;ainst any attack 
from foreigners. It was afterwards his Majesty's policy to ap- 
point his own sons to the governments; and these places were 
erected into a principality for his grandson, Timur Kaan, or Cen- 

When the King of Mien ( Ava) and Bengalla heard that an army of 
Tartars bad arrived at Vochang, he advanced immediately, to prevent , 
the Grand Khan from stationing a force on the borders of his dotni- 
nions. He had a niunerous army of horse and foot, and a multitude 
of elephants, with twelve or sixteen men in each castle upon th^ 
backs. Nestardin, (a Nestorian), a brave and able officer, was much 
alarmed, having but twelve thousand men, (veterans, indeed, and 
valiant soldiers). The king had sixty thousand troops, and one 
thousand elephants. N^tardin reminded his troops, that their very 
name was a terror to the whole world, and promised to lead them to 

A bloody action ensued, which lasted from morning tin noon. 

• Vide Dov'i Hulory, Vol. 1. and Chap. IL of Hub Vol. 

f Timur Kaan, while in this gOTemment, inraded Siberia. See Chap. V. 

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The Mongob were finAll; Tictorioua, which wai attributed to their 
wearing armour. Their horses bdng frightened hy the elephants, the 
men dismounted, tied them to trees, and fought on foot. Two hun- 
dred elephants, or more, were captured. 

From this period, the khan ha$ alwap» employed elephant* in Ma 
amie*, which, before that time, he had not done. Hie consequences 
<rf'the victory were, that his Majesty acquired possession of the whole 
<tf the territories of the king c^Mien and Bangalla, and annexed them 
to hii dominions*. 

" The kings of Bangala, in times past, were chosen of Uie Abyssini- 
an slaves. Chandiguu Aracan, and Siripur are^ by Femandes, placed 
in Bangala as so many kingdomsf. Patenau, by Frederic and Fitch, 
is reckoned to be another Bengalau kingdom, which our countryman 
Fitch calleth the kingdom of Gonren; so tluit. under this name, Ben- 
gala, there are many seigniories, all, or most part, subject to the Mo- 
goL (Latter raid of the sixteenth century). Goura and Bengala are fiur 

" The king, (Shah Jehan), seqt for his second son. Sultan Sujah, from 
Candahar to Lahore, and conferred on him the government of the 
great aitd Uttle Ungdomi of Bengak§." 

Vincent Le Blanc visited the eittf of Bangalla about the middle of 
the seventeenth century, or earlier. " Leaving Coromandel," says he, 

• HarcoPoIo.B.11. ChaptoraXXXlX.XLU.«iidnote«.HBrrii'«VoyagM, Vol.1, 
p. 614. Id the first is a iong and intereatii]^ account of thn battle. 

Id 1279 the goranor of Ben^l rerolted from the Patao Emperor Balin, but 
was defeated, and killed; this was the Great Bengal of which Gear was the capi- 
tal. Set! Dow, Vol. I. p, 201; and Hamilton's Gazetteer, " Bengal" 

t See in the Conrier, Sept. 33, 1824^ a letter from the Viceroy of Pegu; in 
which he represents that Bamoo, Chittagoog, and Bengal, form part of the four 
great cities of Aracan. 

t Porchas, Vol. I. (B.) pp. 676 and 577. Barclay's Unir. Traveller, p. 496. 

S Ogilby's Asia, V»H I. p. 161. 



" we came to the kingdom of Bengale the chief town whereof bears 
' that name hy the Portuguese and other nations*, and by the natir^ 
Batacouta, one of the greatest antiquity in the Indies. Some would 
have it to be old Ganges, a royal town on the river Ganges. This 
kingdom of Bengal was, three hundred years since, subd ued by the Great 
Khan of Tartary, but subsequently freed herself; and after that was con- 
quered by the Parthians (Patans) ; aiid is at last subject to the Great 
Mogiil. It contains Sirapu, Chandecan, Bacal, Aracan, and other 
countries. The town is situate upon one of the mouths of the Gran- 
ges, there being tw0 principal mouths. Eastward of the kingdom 
is the province of Edaspa, which joins the kingdom of Aracan. On 
another side is the province of Mien and Tapacura, under the obe- 
dience ^Bengal. On one side south is cape Sogoraf; on the'otiier 
Caiigan, at the third outlet of the Ganges, over against Verma, (Bur- 
mah), where there are mines of chrysolites, topazes, &c. Verma 
formerly belonged to Bengal; the people are civil, and all nations have 
free tra£Sc, Persians, Greeks, Abyssinians, Chinese, Guzerats, Jews^ 
Georgians, &c. 


Thebe is great commerce by the mouth of the Ganges up to Ben- 
gal, which is six miles by land, and twenty by water; when the tide 
is lowest, it is three fathoms deep round the walls of the town, so 
that ships safely enter the haven, and are there very numerous. 'Tis 

* It is not uncommon for cities in India to hare two names. Dacca, is known 
also by the nanje of Jehanguir-Dagur, 

f Luekipore, Chittagong, Dacca, and as far as the Cossimbazar Island, were 
claimed as a part of the former kingdom of Aracan, by the king of Ava, in 1796. 
Journal of Captain Hiriun Cox, p. 300, 

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thought there are forty thonsand fiunilies in the town, and the king 
dwells in a stately palace built with brick, with fine gardens to it. « 
He keeps a great court, and his chief guard consists of women*, 
as is the custom in Java, Sumatra, and Fransiane: they are valiant, 
expert horse riders and vaulters, and use the scimitar, buckler, and 
battie«xe dextenmsly: the handsomest are richly attired. The king 
is an idoteter, a vfdiant person, and can draw into the field a great 
army of horse and foot: his country has wherewithal, for he is ridi in 
gold, silver, and jewds. He can draw forUi two thousand elephants, 
capariswed : they have dag^rs on their tusks, and they carry as many 
men as those of Kaningue. They use hand-guns, muskets, swords, 
pikes, javelins, and halberds. The king has many Ixibutaries, as the 
king Of Apoia, who pays him fifty elephants yearly, and twelve pearls 
for the ransoms of six towns, which the king of Bengal had taken from 
bim. The king of Dimali is also tributary for having assisted the 
king of Apuraf, and pays Mty horses and fifty thousand crowns an- 
nually. The king of OrixaJ, and many more, pay him tribute too; 
though he himself, in some manner, acknowledges the Mogul §. His 

* In Chap. VIII. of thia work, tbfl reader will meet with afverel imtancea of the 
wartike character of the ladian ladies. 

■f There can be little doubt but that this means Tipera, which was oot subjected 
by the Hogals till the eighteenth centary. Hamilton's Gazetteer. 

t OriHa, or Oriza, was foimeriy independent of Great Bengal. Ayeen Akhery, 
Vol. II. p.1I. It was conquered by the Moguls in 1S02. Hamilton's Gazetteer, 
** Orissa." 

% IcaBnotflndthkeityundereither name in the Ayeen Akbery. Bat, Vol. II. 
p. 3, it is said " Emi A^ffaan carried his oenqnests towards the east, into a coun> 
try called Bhatty, which is reckoned a part of this Subah, and caused tbe 
Kootba to be read, and the coin to be struck in the name of his present majes- 
ty. Bordering opon Bhatty is an extensive country, subject to the diief of Tiprah , 
whom the; stile Yeyab Uanick, Their military force conwuts of a thousand el»« 
phants, and two hundred tboosaud in&ntry." All this is reconcilable with tb« 
deacription of Le Blanc's Bataconta. 

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CHAF. anny is ever ready on the inatani to appear in the firid. Tbe Benga- 

«..«7v~«-^ iism lire mnch on preserves, ifweebsieatB, and apices. Their dotjiingt 
are of cotton, silk, damask, s^n, and velvet: they are tho g^batest 
persons of the East, botk men and women, and both sexes go ricfaly ap* - 
pareled and perfbmed. All other nations flock thither to q»end their 
noney, and chiefly to buy young eunuchs, as slaves to manage their 
business, and to guard their women ; for which purpose, tfaey banv 
been instructed in all manner of rirtnes; fhey are Mid tor sixty to a 
hundred ducale *. The complexions of the BengidiaiH ore rsUier ftir 
than black. Their coats arc almost of tbe Italian mode, especial^ 
whea tfaey visit ladies, as at Ormus. Their principal drtefc is- nsBk 
with sugar and cinnamon. 

We went from Bengala to Castigan f , where were arrived some' 
Portuguese ships; this place belongs to thekin^of Bengala. We 
sold our opium at Castigan, a drug of mucJi proit, andl of which a 
great quantity is brought flrom Aden, and other parts of Arabia. At 
the island of Sondina, which is inhabited by Mahomettms, we got 
all the victuals we wanted, almost ftir nothing. fVoBk aA antiquity, 
the people of Sondina were subject to the same king as the Castiga- 

Mr. Marsden, in his edition of Marco Polo, note 881, observes, that 
in Bamusio's text, the true reading is, that the Gruid Kban did not 
c(Hiquer Bengala; and that the king of Mien and Beiigata means but 
.one person: also that the mistake obviously arises from the omissioa 
of the negative. Ramusio died in IS&T, tad probably had heard, 
by way of the Cape of Good Hope, that the Great Bengal (of which 

* Manx) Pcdo, page453, aKerte thesfime thing-: " The'ftatlgaliana gelt to the 
BierclMuite whoxMort tbitfaer, eunucha, of whom there are oambers iu the country, 
M tlavec; for all prtsonera taken io war an presently emascalated." 

f Doubtless, Chittagon^. 

t Vincent Le Blanc, Part I. Ch. XXII. aihl.Parchaa, Vol. I. (B) Book V. 



Gonr-waB the o^fed), had never Itcen amqacMd I7 Kublai^the Grand 
KhaPD. It is hi^ily pmbabfe (if the omission of the n^jatire be an < 
enwr of the printer) that, oa thb intefilgeiice, he, as he imagined, eor- 
rteted dte early editions of Polo. Gonr had been the capital, tecan tiie 
serentfa oeotary b^re Christ, ttU Uie reign of Akbar; when it was 
abmdoned, in conseqaence of the unwholesome tdr; after whicl^ Tai^ 
da, Rajeniahl, Dacca, imd Moorshedabad, were soccessirely the capi- 
tals of Great Be^kL 

Gibbon, Cht^. LXTV. says, " the kntj^oms of Tonqnin, Cochin 
CUna, Pegu, JBtmgiU, and 'Hiibet, w^e reduced to diffiBrenit d^ees of 
tribute and obedtene^ by Um eflbot or ternx of Kublai's arms." 

We find that vesads arrived at Fokeiii, in 1886, from the iribuUtr*/ 
kmgthm of Bvngtd*. We may conclude tiiat there certainly were 
two Bengals, and tbat, as this was not generally knows, tiiese mis- 
takes hare arisen. 

Kien is laid down in Ac nap of the Ewt In^Ues by Joseph Enooy, 
piUiahed by Bowles ami Curer, in 1790, as a proviace two or three 
d^^rees east-north-east of Umar^ora, or Ava. More, on the conquest 
of the regions between the Bnrrampooter and China, may be seen in 
MaaiGO Polo, Ch. XXXTIL to Ch. XLIX. Ooncenung Mien, see the 
sane book, note M4 ; where it appeaia that Ara is meant 


The king of I^egu siAgugated tiie kmgdom of Vema, or Burmahi 
two yean after, he onqoered Siam. He, by fals lieBtaiant, subdved 
many other countries. 

* Modem Unirenal Hiitory, Vol. II. p. 387. 


The ^ng'a palace stands atthe htibeBt end of new Pega. Hehai 
t a walled park, where he keei» all sorts of beasts, never K^ardii^ tlie 
price; as appears by the long war with the king of Siam for the white 
elephant, to dignify hia calachar, or park. It was the Pegu fciiy 
Aieager, who b^an this cruel war, with a miUicm of martial mm, tw« 
hundred thousand horse, five thousand el^bants, and three thousuid 
camels. He sacked and ruined Siam, or Lagi, which was reputed 
twice as big as Paris. The siege lasted twenty-two DKmths. He todc 
the king's treasure, wife, and children; and brought tbem and tlie 
white elephant to Pegu, sixty-five days' journey, by camels. The king 
of Siam cast himself, in despair, from a turret of his own palace. Some 
of his daughters made away with fhemselrra. One lady was saved, 
who was affianced to the Grand Mogul's son, who, Sallowing the army 
to recover her, was taken prisoner. By frequent prayers he obtained 
leave to visit her and his fiiture mother in law. They were now mar- 
ried, and conducted to the confines with great honour aad magnifi- 
cence ; whence grew the greatness of the Mogul, tributary to Uie king 
of Pegu, but who hath since broken his ^th. 

This fotal white elephant hath cost five kings their Uvea and estates. 
The last king of P^u had it taken from him by the king of Aracan, 
through the treachery of the king of Tangut, lus 1»other-inrlaw. The 
coach of the king of Pegu was drawn by four white elephMits. I 
believe that in all the East there were not more to be found. 

At every comer of the king's palace, stands a giant of polished mar- 
ble; who, Athw like, upholds this goodly fabric ; and they are repre- 
sented witii such tortions of &ce, you would jtiiink that they complain of 
th«r load. You enter over a draw-bridge, Uirougb agate of excessive 
height and strengthj where are the figures «f a.giaot and his wife, of 
variegated marUe. 



One palace is allotted to the queen and her court, (not unlike the CHAP. 

Escurial), which joins a paric, stored with musk animals, {pra£fes; \^„^...^J^^ 

and stags, caBed Arsuiga, which are like those in Sweden, and are used 

as horses; bitdsof paradise,andostrichesofprodigiousbigness. There 

is an onicom called Drougala, and the head of another with the horn 

in the middle of the upper part of the forehead, firmly fixed upon the 

idde of a fountain. There is a park for lions, tigers, and other fierce 

beasts, called Siparo ; and 'tis a sad and daily sight to see criminals de- 

Toured by them. 

In 1572, there was a church founded in memory of a miracle. A 
poor Christian pilgrim from FrJUce, who had curiosity to see the court 
of that great monareh, so femous throughout the Indies, having no 
money, swam across the rirer, and was detected, taken, and condemn- 
ed. He was exposed to the lions, next to the elephants, and thirdly 
to the tigers, but none of the beasts would touch him: he was then 
presented to the king; who inquired who he was, and gave him a pen- 
don for life. 

The king is called Quiber Sencal Jasel, that is, grand monarch of 
dephants. He delights to see them monthly exercised in battalions, 
marching ten abreast; the riders in cloth of gold upon a green ground, 
with a lance and a lion's skin. With the captain march twelve negro 
women, with drums ; their faces painted red and violet, clothed in 
figured gowns ; dancing, and making ridiculous gesticulations before 
the elephants. 

When they go to war, the elephants have bars of steel over their 
trunks. A squadron of a thousand elephants follows the captain; 
next comes the king's throne, with his children, high and exalted like 
a canopy, drawn by those famous white ones; followed by many no- 
bles, mounted on others, with silken bridles; all accompanied with 
tmmpets, flutes, qnd other instruments: at whichsounds the dephants 



leap and dance, and shew great contrait ; between times^ th^ nuuteh 
' with a gravity becoming a ratiobd CTeitnre. 

Of the kingdom of Bremah, or Bunnah, tbe city royal is Pega> m 
which place began the greatness of the late kings; these Bnrmans 
inhabited near the lake Chiamsy ; among whom the king of Pegu had 
his viceroys ; one whereof, the deputy of Taagut, about seventy years 
since, rebeUed against him, and surprised the kingdoms of Prom, Me- 
liatay^ Calam, Baccam, Miranda, and Ava; all peopled with Bunnans, 
extending northwards a hundred and fifty leagues. 

He after attempted Siam, with an army of three hundred thousand 
men; and spent three months in making way through the hoge woods 
and inaccessible places; but achieved not his purpose. 

After his return, he assailed Pegu, and conquered U ; and then re- 
turned the second time, in 1667. He subjected to his seigniory, twelve 
kingdoms; which Femaudes thus rehearseth: the kingdom of Cao' 
dan, where are the best rubies and sapphires. Secondly, that of Am, 
the bowels whereof are filled with mines of copper, lead, and sUrer. 
The third, Bacan, enriched with mines of gold. Tungran, the fourth, 
abounded with lac and lead. Such is Prcnn, the fifth. The sixth, is 
langoma, stored with copper, musk, pepper, silk, silver, and gold. 
Lauran, the seventh, had Beioim enough to lade ships. The eighth and 
ninth, are the kingdoms of Tniiian, staples tX China merchandise. The 
tenth and eleventh, are the Diadems of Cublan, betwem Ava uid 
China, powdered with precious stones. Siam, whence we cazne last, 
is the last of the twelve ; in the invasion wfaeraof he armed a milUon 
and three score thousand men : which number is diort of Frederii^s 
reckoning, except we ascribe' that surplusage to victuallets, volunta- 
ries, servants, and att^idants on tix baggage; whidi army, stuth Fer- 
nandes, he titiied out of his people. 

He so abounded with wealth, that a hundred ships, freighted wkb 



noe, seemed to diminish nothing of the plenty. The fields are sftid to ^^^- 
yield three harvests in the year; and of gems, the store is lieyond es- ■^^•-v'-^^ 
timation, and also maketh them, there, ^ort of the estimation of gems. 
But this wenldi, then wuiting no store, had, when Femandes wrote 
^aa, m 1508, a contrary Ticissitnde — of no store; but want even of 
those things which nature exacteth as necessary props of Hfe. Scarce- 
ly, of so many, were left seven thousand persons, men, women, 
and children, to participate the king's imprisonment or siege in his 
tower; and those feeding on man's flesh: the parents requiring of 
the children that life, which before they had given, to sustain their 

own; and now laid them, not in their bosoms, but in their bowels. 

The children became living sepulchres of their scarce dead parents. 
The strongest preyed upon the weaker; and, if their flesh was con- 
sumed before by their own hunger, leaving nothing but skin and bones 
to the hungry assault of these raveners, they ripped the belly and de< 
voured their inward parts ; and, breaking tite skull, sucked out the 
brains raw. Yea, the weaker sex was, by the strength of famine, 
armed with no less butcherly despight against whomsoever they could 
meert in the streets of the city, with their knives, which they carried 
about them as harbingers to their teeth, in those inhospitable inhuman 
hnrnficn banqnets. 

l^us did the besieged suffer; while the king endured in his tower 
no'small part of like misery, besides the indignity so to be, by his own 
vassals, straitened and afterwards slaughtered. But such is the just 
hand of the King of kings, who regardetfa not persons; but, as be 
lAeweth mercy to the mereiful, so doth he reserve vengeance for cru- 
elty and tyranny. Pardon me, reader, if in this spectacle I cause 
thee, with myself, to stay awhile and wonder. The Sun, in his daily 
journey round about this vast globe, saw few equal (that I say no 
more) to thi^ Peguan greatness; and yet, in a small space. He that 



is higher than the highest* hath abated and abased this magnificeBce 
lower than the lowest of his princes *. 

After the death of the Barman conqueror,, his son, finding the iring 
of Ava^his tributary and uncle, was plotting a conspiracy, seized 
forty Aran noblemen; had them ^conducted into a wood, which was 
set fire to; and those who escaped the fiames wiere killed by the 
sword. The two kings agreed to try their &te by single combat upon 
elephants; and the king of Pegu obtained the conquest. 

Andreas Boues, March 28, 1600, relates, that the king of Pegti was 
besieged by the kings of Aracan and Tangut; that he surrendered 
himself, his queen, and prince, to the latter; who, treacherously be- 
heading them, hastened to the tower of Pegu, where he found as much 
gold and jewels as laded six hundred elephants and as many horses, 
besides silver. The king of Aracan, incensed at this conduct, with 
the assistance of the Portuguese, among whom this Jesuit was one,, 
invaded Pegu, seized three millions of silver, and all the artillery; and 
remained lord of Pegu. The king hath four white elephants; and if 
any otber hath any, he will seek them by fovor or force. They axe 
fed in vessels of silver gilt One of them, when he goes to the river, 
passes under a canopy of cloth of gold, or silk, carried by six or eight 
men; as many going before, playing on drums or other instrunients. 
On his coming out of the river a gentleman washes his feet in a silver 
bason. There were black elephants nine cubits high. The king is 
said to have about five thousand elephants of war. When Mr. Fitch 
was at Pegu, the king had one wife, three hundred concubines': and 
he was said to have ninety children. The king sat in judgment almost 
every day f . 

* This punning bat interesting narratire is from Purchas, rector of St. Martiu's 
Ludgate, chaplain to Abbot, ArcbbiBfaop of Canterbury, and contraipmwy with 
Shakeapear and Hilton, who were both pansteta. 

t Purchas, Vol. L p. 468 to 468, and Viucent Le Blanc. Cb. XXVI, and XXVil. 



The town of Pegu is square and very large.having five gates at each 
side of the square ; and a deep trench in which there are many croco- « 
diles. The walls are of wood: the watch towers are richly gilt. 
When in the heart of the town, you discover all the streets ; which is a 
gallant curiosity. The king's guard consists of thirty thousand horse, 
Turks, Persians, or Arabians; for there is a law, that he who brings 
twenty horses for sale, shall pay no duty on his other merchandize; 
they are therefore brought in abundance. 

The soldiers exercise much at a mark, and are very expert. The 
king has about five thousand elephants. Merchants follow the armies 
upon oxen. The country is rich in gold, silver, rubies, sapphires, 
garnets, &c. and his magazine may pass for the treasury of the East. 
There is a statue of a tall man of beaten gold, wearing a golden crown, 
enriched with rubies of inestimable value; and round it, four statues 
of youths, all of gold. In one part they make coaches, litters, saddles ; 
and harness for elephants, covered with gold and silver. I saw a rich 
saddle and furniture for an elephant, bought for the king. They use 
arquebusses and other guns, which are ftir better than ours ; better iron, 
better tempered, and better wrought. The king had three thousand 
pieces of ordnance; one thousand of them were of brass*. 

When the king of Siam goes to court, he has a trun of two hundred 
elephants, among which one is white. If any favorite elephant falls 
sick and dies, he is, with funeral pomp, burned to ashes with reeds, 
and the weight of his body of sweet wood; but, if he be an offender, 
he is not burnt but bnried. The monarch stiles himself King of Hea- 
ven and Earthf. 

• Vincent Le Blanc, P. I. Cfa. XXVI. t Taveniier, P. II. B. III. Cb. XVIU. 



The town of Siam stands upon the large river Mecan, which springs 
' from the famous lake Chiamay ; Siam has a stately wall, and contains 
thirty thousand houses, with a castle strongly fortified, built upon the 
water, like Penivitan and Venice. The country breeds elephants, rhi- 
noceroses, giraffes, tigers, lions, leopards; the fairest ermines, camels, 
dromedaries, and some say unicorns; which, being very timorous 
beasts, seldom appear in sight*. 


" Our English first had trade at Sumatra in the last years of queen 
Elizabeth, whose name was then famous, for her exploits against the 
Spaniards. The queen's letter directed to the king. Sultan Aladin, 
was received with great state. First, ho entertained the messenger 
with a banquet; gave him a robe and a piece of calico wrought with 
gold; and offered pledges for the general's safety, for whom he sent 
six elephants, with drums, trumpets, streamers, and many people. 
The greatest elephant, being thirteen or fourteen feet high, had a 
small castle like a coach, covered with velvet, on his back; in which 
was placed a great golden bason, with a rich covering of silk, where- 
in the letter was laid. The general was mounted on another ele- 
phant; but staid at the court gate, till the king's pleasure and li- 
cence was again sent. 

The king gave him a feast; the dishes were of gold or tambaycfce, 
which is gold and brass mixed. Their wine is of rice, as strong as 
aqua vitffi: the king dnmk to the general out of his gallery, a &thom 

* Vide Le Blanc, p. 105. We are always tantalized with the hope of lindtnfj; 
one of these animals. An Unicom is reported to have been seen by a British 
officer, in the thick wooda near Aracan, in July, 1635. 



higher than where they sat. After the feast, there were music 
and dancing by the king's damsels; which was a great favor, as they *> 
are not commonly seen. 

The chief prelate was appointed one of the commissioners for arti- 
cles of league, which were concluded. 

They took a prize of nine hundred tons, and were like to be taken 
themselves by a strange water spout, which fell not far irom them, as 
in one whole drop, enough to have sunk any ship. 

The king sent a letter and presents to the queen : and, at their de- 
parture, asked if they had the psalms of David, and caused them to 
sing one; which he and his nobles seconded with a psalm (as be said) 
ft)r their prosperity. 

The court hath three guards, between each of which there is a 
great green. The walls of the house are hung sometimes with cloth 
oi gold, velvet, or damask, lite Inng sits cross-legged, with four cris- 
ses, two before, and two behind, very rich. Forty women attend him 
with fans, clothes, singing, and otlier offices. He eateth and drinketh 
all day; or is chewing betel and areca, talking of venery and cock- 

This king had a himdred gallies, of which some will carry four hun- 
dred men; Uiey are witiiout decks; th^roars are Uke shovels, four feet 
long, and are managed with one hand. 

A woman was admiral, he not daring, through sdf-gniltiness, to trust 
men. They have a tradition tiiat Acheen is Ophir*." " The king of 
Acheen places his strength in nine hundred d^hants. 1 have seen 
ibxee hundred at a time in the court of the palacef .** 

* Sir James Lancaster. Purchas, Vol. L 546. 

t Commodore Beaulieu. Harris's Voy. Vol. I. 745. 



Hindostan. Heroism of the Indian Ladies. Court Pa- 
rades of the Emperors Akhar^ Jehanghir, and Aurungzeb. 

Combats of Elephants with Horses; of English Mastiff's with 
Elephants; of Crocodiles with Horses. 

CHAP. rdlNDOSTAN being the country which has furnished the Greeks, 
\^^.^^^ Romans, and Persians, with elephants, from the earliest times, a few 

interesting extracts have been selected, to shew the numbers of those 
animals with which that country abounds; and also for the purpose, 
in later times, of exhibiting the customs of the Moguls, who are de- 
scendants of Genghis Khan and Tamerlane. 

In the ninth century of the Christian era, two Arabians visited In- 
dia. " The king of Tafek," say they, "has the finest white women 
in ail India. He is awed by the kings about him, his army being 
small, and bordering on the lands of a king called Rami, who is at war 
with the king of Haraz, and with the Balhara also. They say, that 
Rami's forces are very numerpus; and that he takes the field with ten 
or fifteen thousand tents, and appears at the head of fifty thousand 

* The Balhara reigned atKanc^tthe capital of Porus; aad wbicb,iii thesisih 
century, conlained thirty thousand ahops for the sale of Betel-nut. See Rennel's 
Memoir, p. 54. Abul Gbazi, Vol. II. p, 764; and Harris's Voyages, Vol. I.p. 525. 



Mamood, Emperor of Ohizni. in his eleventh expedition, marched 
again hy the way of Lahore, in the year 1023^ against Nnnda, the 
prince of Callinger, with a great army. Passing by the fort of Gua- 
lior, he ordered it to be besi^^ ; but the prince of the province pre- 
vaUed on him to remove from before that place, in a few days, by 
means of rich presents and thirty -five elephimts. Mamood, immedi- 
ately directed his march to Callinger, invested that city, and Nunda 
offered him three hundred elephants and other presents for peace ; 
which terms were agreed to. The Raja, to try the bravery of the sul- 
tan's troops, intoxicated the elephants with certain drugs, and let them 
loose without riders into the camp. Mamood, seing the animals ad- 
vancing, perceived the trick by the wildness of their motions, and im- 
mediately ordered a party of his best horse, to seize, kill, and drive 
them from the camp. Some of the Turks, emulous to display their 
bravery in the presence of their king, and of both armies, mounted 
the greatest part of the elephants, and drove the rest into an adjacent 
wood, where tiiey were soon reduced to obediencef. 

English travellers mention immense numbers. Wm. Clarke, who 
served the Mogul many years, saith, that he hath seen in one army 
twenty thousand elephants, whereof four thousand were for war, the 
rest females for burthen, young, &c. (Purchas, (B) Vol. I. p. 640.) 

" The king keepeth tiiirty thousand elephants in his whole kingdom ; 

t Dow'b BiDdostu), V<^. I. p. 64. 



some thirteen feet and a half high." (T. Corjate from Asmeer^ Pur- 
t chas, n. 592.) 

Jehangfair hath twenty thousand camels, four thousand ounces for 
game, one hundred tame lions, four thousand hawks, twelve thousand 
elephants, £ve thousand of which with teeth. Of his and his udldes, 
there are thou^t to he forty thousand elephants iii his empire." 
(Captain Hawkins. Furchas, I. 545. (B) Vol. I. p. 504.) 

Cuttub presented the king with above three hundred elephuits, tak- 
en from the Raja of Benares; the riders had a signal given to them to 
make all tJie elephants at oiu:e fall upiHi their knees to the king; which 
they did, except a favorite white one. This animal was considered in- 
estimable; and, though extremely tractable, he, on this occasion, had 
nearly killed his rider, when he endeavoured to force him to pay his 
obedience. The king, on setting out for Ghizni, sent the white ^e- 
l^iant in a present to Cuttub, who rode it ever after, till his death; 
when the affectionate animal, with visiUe sorrow, pined and expired 
the third day after f. 

Sultan Baber took the route of Lahore, and, on the way, hunted rhi- 
noceros^, with which that country abounded; many were killed, and 
some taken in toils. This gave him an opportunity to put the personal 
luravery of the chiefe to trial X- 

t Dow'sHindostui,A,D. 120&. X^iom,k.J>. 16S5. 



Asaph, haTine heard of the riches of the kinffdom of Gurrah, at that CHAP. 

time governed by a queen named Durgetti, marched against it. Hie v.^.^'i^-^ 

qneen> with fifteen hundred elephants, &c. prepared to meet him. 

Like a bold heroine, she led on her troops to action, clothed in armour, 

with a helmet upon her head, mounted in a castle upon an elephant, a 

bow and quiver by her side. The brave queen received an arrow in 

her eye and one in her neck, which she pulled out; but, finding 

the enemy crowding &st aronnd her, and her son being mortally 

wounded, ^e plunged a dagger into her bosom, and expiredf . 

" There was, aa is said, formerly a Moor king, who, leading a volup- 
tuous and idle Ufe, by his oaptains was dispossessed of his estate. 
One of these was called Idalcan, whose royal seat is Visiapore. In 
the yealr 1572, he encamped before Goa, which the Portuguese had 
taken from him, with an army of seventy thousand foot, thirty-five 
thousand horse, two thousand elephants, and two hundred and fifty 
pieces of artillery J." 

In the year 1582, the Kmperor Akbarled an army to Cabul^ against 
his brother Hakim, who had rdxUed; be was accompanied by a vast 
number of armed elephants. They wear plates of iron upon their 
fi}Teheads, carry four arclsrs, or dse fiour gunners with great pieces. 
They go not in front of the army, lest, being hurt, they should disturb 
the ranks, and therefore are set in the rear: a sword is bound to their 
trunk, and daggers are fostened to their tui^ks. One of the guns, in the 
first advance, by accident, killed three of the chiefs who stood by Ha- 
t Dow, A. D. 1 664. ; Purcba. Vol. I. p. 48&. 



kim, who immediately left the field, and was pursued with great slaugh- 
f ier. The Emperor entered Cabul, and Hakim fled to Ghorehund: he 
from thence sent an embassy to the Emperor, beg^ng forgiveness, 
which was granted himf. 

" The town of Bisnegur, or Chandegy, is eight leagues in circuit, and 
so powerful, that it supplies the prince with a hundred thousand horse. 
Narsingue, the capital of the country, is built in a stately stile, and is 
about the compass of Florence. The laws are so well observed, that 
none breaks them, for fear of punishment The citizens are obliged to 
serve their king on pain of death, or amputation of hands and feet. 

To keep his army more full, he entertains the finest women in the 
world, most gallantly dressed. Many lords and princes, from other 
parts, flock hither to fight under Mars and Venus : but are not admitted 
to the ladies till they have shewn some trophy of their valour. 

They load their elephants and horses with iron and steel hoops, three 
fingers broad, keen as razors, tmd dart them dexterously, uid swift a 
arrows: they poison them; and the large wounds they make are mor- 
tal, lliey have swords, bucklers, javelins, bows, cross-bows, and some 
fire-pikes. The king of Temassery^ is* continually at war with the 
king of Narsingue : he is a gentile, and hath above a thousand elephants 
trained to war, and of the largest size of the East, covered to the 
ground vrith beeves' hides; and. over them, with divers trappings, 
'lliose hides are fastened underneath the belly with iron chains, and 
are difficult to be got off. Four men may easily fight upon each ele- 
phant, with broad bucklers made of tortoise-shell. He who gnides 

t Scw.VoLlL puSTa Pnchas, V»l. I.<B) p.6U. t See Le Blanc, p.m. 



die beast is tiie best armed of the five, being most exposed to tiie ene- 
my, llieir darts hare three sharp points or heads, with a ball of iron 
in the middle, which serves for counterpoise. They are a warlike, 
coarteous, voluptnous nation, and have fair women, whom they treat 
in gardens ftdl of rare fruits. They delight in perfumes, chiefly musk ; 
I quartered at a Jew's, who had a great quantity f. 

" The muster of elephants precedes all others. Every day a kh^eh 
elephant, with his honi^gs and trappings, is brought to the front of 
tiie palace: askd on the first day of every Persian month, ten elephants 
are brought; and on every succeeding day, ten faulkahs of ten each. 
On Mondays, ten hidkahs of twen^ each, are brought to be muster- 
ed f. 

There are always set apart for his Majesty's (Akbar) riding, one 
hundred and one elephants. The daily allowanee of food is in weight 
two hundred pounds, the same as for the others, but difi'ers in quality. 
Host of these have, moreover, five seers (ten pounds) of sugar, four 
seers of ghee, and half a maund (about forty pounds) of rice, with 
round and long peppra, &c. and some have a maund and half of milk 
mixed up with their rice. In the sugar<»me season, each elephant 
has daily three hundred canes, more or less, for the space of two 
months. His Majesty rides every kind of khaseh elephant, making 
them obedient to his commuid; and frequently in the rutting season 
he puts his feet upon the tusks of the elephant and mounts him; to 
the astonishment of those who are used to these animals. Magnifl- 

t Travels of Vincent Le Blanc, p. 81 . The Visi'apore ladies were celebrated for 
Ibeir extraordinary beanty. See Montesquieu, Persian Letter, XCVI. 
t Ayeen Akbery, Vol. I. p. Iff7. 



cent amarees are pnt upon the backs of swift paced el^hants, and 
wbicK serve £i>r places of repose on journies. An elephant sa capar 
risoned is always ready at tha palace *. 

When his Al^eaty goes on a journey, be takes wiUt him a carriage 
of his own contrivance, of such a magnitude as to contain several 
apartments, with a hot bath: and it is drawn by a single ^phant. 
This moveable bath is extremely useful, and very refreshing on a jour- 
ney. Other carriages are drawn by camels, horses and oxen -f. 

The Emperor Akbar built an amphitheatre at Agra, for elephant 
fights %. 

On the return from Cashmere, in (697, Many el^iants died of 
&tigtte and f^nUne; they sometimes leaned on their trunk as a staff to 
enable them to suppwt their loads. The prtnoe was assaulted by a 
lioness, which he wounded with a dart, then with a shot; a sddier 
came on and slew her, but with the loss of his own life. The prmce 
was upon a female elephant. 

The next year Akbar went to Agra; he had eight hundred el^thanta, 
and sev&a. thousand camels, to carry bis tents and proyisions; yea, his 
secretary was at the same time iwovided witii seven hundred camels, and 
seventy elephants, for his own use. The king conducted in this expe- 
dition above one thousand dephants instructed for filling. Brampore 
ftiU into his hands. Miram« the king, had fled to Syra, where he 
had three thousand pieces of ordnance; the gorernor, and seven other 
comnunders, were all reni^;ado Mahomedans. Akbar had two hun< 
died thousand ijoen, but prevailed more with bribes ; and Syra fell § . 

On Tuesday, the 'E^tpent aits in judgment; and hears both ^rtiea 
with patience. He- sometimes sees, witii too mnch delist in Uood, 
the executions done by his elephants. 

• AyeenAkbwy,VoI.I.pp.l27,128. f Ibid. p.^JS, t Ibid. Vol. Jl.p.87. 
§ PurduH,(B)Vol.I. p,568. 



" The EmperoT Jebang^ir was so rich in jewels^ that I never saw snch 
mestidnUe wealth. His greatest dephants were brou^t before him, \ 
some of which being lord elephants, had their chains, bells, and furni- 
ture of gold and silver, attoaded with gilt innners and flags; and eight 
or ten dephants waiting on him, dotiied in gold, silk, and silver. Thus 
passed alioat twelve cimipaniea, most richly famished ; the first having 
all the plates on his head and inreast set with rabies and emeralds, 1)6- 
mg a beast of a wonderftil stature and Iwaaty. They all Iwwed down 
Iwfore the king; who, with some gracious compliment to me, rose and 
went in." • • • 

The king at noon sat out at the Durbttf, where the prince Inronght 
his dephants, about six hundred, rich in trap^ngs and fiimitnre; and 
likewise tm thousand tiorse, with heron top feathers in their tnrbaas, 
all in gallantry; liiuself in cloUk tut silver emtroidered with great 
pearls, and ririning wlft diamonds like a firmament. The king em- 
braced liim with mnch afbction, and gave him a sword and dagger of 
gold set with precious stones, valued at one hundred and forty tkon- 
saiidru]na8; an ctephant and two honeB,witbantheibmitaTeofg^ 
and precious stones; and one of the new coadies made in Imitation of 
that sent by my master. He commanded the finglish coachman to 
drive him to his tents ; he sat in tlie middle, the sides open ; his eliief- 
est nobles on foot walking by him, about four m^es. All the way be 
"Uirew quarter mpias, being followed by a multitude; and, readring 
his liand to the coachman, he put into his hat a mnsber of mpias f . 

" Ne?^ followed the English coach, now covered and richly trim- 
med; which the Emperor had given to the queen Normahall, who 

t Sir Thomaa Rowe. Purcbas, Vol. II. pp. 64S, 6G0, 668. 



rode in it. After, followed twenty royal elephants for bis own ascend- 
ing, so rich, that, in precious stones andiiumitare, they braved the Sun. 
His wives, on their elephants, were carried like parakitoes, half a mile 
behind him. When the king came to the door where his eldest son was 
a prisoner, he called for him; he came and made reverence; his sword 
and buckler in his hand, and his beard grown to his middle ; a sign of 
disfavor. The king commanded him to ascend one of the spare ele- 
phants, and so rode next him, to the extreme applause and joy of 
all men. The king gave him a thousand rupias to cast to the peo- 

The great general Khan Cannawe liveth at Brampore. On the I2th 
October, 1609, he returned from the wars, with one thonsuid five 
hundred dephante, ten thousand camels, three tliousand dromedaries, 
&c. This city is &r bigger than London. Hence we travelled to- 
wards Agra, and met with store of wild elephants, lions, and tigers. 
• • • The elephants that fight before the Mogul, are parted with 
rockets of wild-fire, made round like hoops, which are pushed in their 
faces. Seme fight with wild horses, six horses to an elephant ; which 
he kills by clasping his trunk about their necks; and, pulling them 
to him, breaks their necks with his tusks. Condemned persons may 
crave the combat with the lion. One was seen, who at the first encoun- 
ter felled the lion with his. fist ; but was soon torn in pieces before the 
king. Master Fitch and Captain Hawkins saw also crocodiles kept 
in ponds for like purpose, one of which killed two horses at a time t- 

An English mastiff§ seized an elephant by the trunk,, and kept bis 

t Sir T. Rowe, A.D. 1615. Purchas, Vol . II. 659. 

X Purchae, (B) Vol. I. p. 601. § These were probably balMogs. 



hold so fast, that the elephant, havinir tossed him in the air for some CHAP. 

time, at last swung him off; but did not care to come near him a \.^— v-<w> 

second time. This being told to the Mogul, enhanced the reputation 

of the English dogs: they were carried about in palankines along with 

his Majesty, and he fed them himself with a pur ef silver tongs made 

for that purposef . 

The daily diversions of the Mogul, except on Fridays, were, to see 
the lions, leopards, tigers, and elephants 6ght with one another. • * * 

The city of Amedabat is obliged to maintain fifty elephants. The 
governor's daughter was married to the Mogul's second son. Her fa- 
ther sent her, with an equipage of twenty elephants, and six thousand 
waggons laden with riches. The governor kept fifty elephants for his 
own use. The Mogul never stirs abroad without a guard of one hun- 
dred thousand men; at the head of which march one hundred ele- 
phants, covered with scarlet velvet and brocades. I arrived in Eng- 
land in 1639. Lord Strafford did me the honor to introduce me to his 
Majesty to kiss his hand, and afterwards to the Queen ; both their 
Majesties being pleased to bestow some time to hear the relation of 
my travels, especially in Muscovy and Persia J. 

Aurungzeb was twenty days before Daman, and resolved on storm- 
ing it on a,Sunday, believing that Christians would not defend it on 
that day. The place was commanded by an old soldier, who had 

• t Barclay, Uoirem] Traveller, p. 498. ^ Albert de Mandelsloe's THreU. 



served in France, and had tbree sons with him; and there were eight 
hundred gentlemen, and other atout soldiers. 

Aurungzeb had forty thousand men. The governor made a sally 
after midnight with all his (^vahy, and part of his infantry. He at- 
tacked the quarter that was guarded by two hundred elephants, among 
which, in the dark, they flung a great number of fire-works^ which so 
aflrighted them, that they turned upon the besiegers with such fury, 
that, in two or three hours, half of Aurungzeb's army was cut in 
pieces; on which he raised the siege; nor would he after that have 
any thing more to do with the Christiansf . 

After the court elephants were paraded, combats were given of rhi- 
noceroses, buffaloes, lions, tigers, nilgaus, gazelles, leopards to hunt 
the gazelles. &c. 

Four hundred camels and one hundred and twenty elephants carry 
the tents; there are also tents for the best elephants, and other ani- 
mals that are (dways cartHedJor tports and magn^enee, and alaojbr 
Uons, rkinocerose*, and other amnud*, led for parade. We had above 
one hundred and fifty thousand animals, horses, cameb. and elephants, 
on this expedition to Cashmere. 

Roshinara Begum was mounted on a lusty Pegu elephant, in a mik- 
dember, all shining with gold and azure, attended by five others equally 
splendid, with the ladies of her household. A long file of sixty or more 
elephants, thus marching gravely, had a grand and royal appearance %. 

t TaTemier. P. 11. B. I. Cfa. Xlt. X Bernier'i Joraiwy toCRdmore. 



The Nabob of Oude, in 1794, went on a huntiDg expedition to- 
wards the mountains which separate India from 'Iliibet. He keeps a 
groat inunber of elephants for his pleasure, and had with him of his own 
on this occasirai, above a thooBand. A troop of one hundred and se- 
venty wild ones was met with, and, being surrounded, the tumult, 
none, and confusion, where fourteen hundred elephants were engaged, 
it ii not possible to describe. Five wild ones were killed, and twenty- 
one were captured f . 


"Aftbk this, the Emperor Pheodor Ivanovich was taken out of his 
chair of mtgeaty, having upon him a robe, adorned with precious 
stones and orient peark in great quantity, in weight two hundred 
pounds; the train borne up by six dukes, his chief imperial crown 
upon his head, and his staff imperial in his iright hand, of an wiieom^s 
horn, three feet and a half in length, and beset with rich stones ; it was 
bought at Augsburg for seven thousand marks sterling." Seen by 
Jerom Horsley, Gent, servant to her Majestie, A. D. X584. Pur- 
chas, I II. T43. — ^The staff was, it is to be presumed, the horn of a rhi- 
noceroB^ of extraordinary length, (it is poM^le that it was that of a 
narwal), and valued, horn the fu^erty it is supposed to possess, of 
being a charm and an antidote against poisons. This notion is univer- 

^ t Note ID Sonioi's Buffon, Vol. XXVIII. A full deacriptioD appeared, sood 
after the banting took place, in an £nglwh Uagazine. 



CHAP. 3al, and rhinoceroses have been esteemed as highly valuable in all coun- 
s.i«-v-"«^ tries. 

The writer was going in his budgerow through the SunderbundS^an 
extensive uninhabited district of Bengal, full of rivers, and near the 
sea, when he came to an open place, where a Portuguese and his &- 
mily resided: his pursuit was that of a lime burner; he enq>lo7ed 
some Indians to pick up shells, a species of the Bmccintmt, which were 
in plenty, scattered in the swamps and woods. The lime made from 
the shells, was for chewing, when properly prepared, with the betel 
leaf and areca nut. In this dangerous pursuit, he had lost many men 
by the tigers; but still he found successors. This man possessed a 
small horn of a rhinoceros that had been killed- in the woods; and had 
the same universal opinion of its virtues. On being asked how it 
ought to be used, he said, that he put a small quantity of water in the 
concave part of the root, when held with the point downwards; and 
stirred the water with the point of an iron nail, till it was discoloured, 
when the patient was to drink it: that it had a pungent taste, and 
that he had given it with success to a person who had been bitten by a 
dog. supposed to be mad. 

The reputation of the horn, in this and other instances, is probably 
derived from the patients not having been poisoned, and the dogs not 

The Czar, Ivan Tassilivitch takes great pleasure in hunting jbllow- 
deer: he also loves fowling, he has three hundred fklconers, and the 
best ger-falcons in the world, which are brought from Siberia. Har- 
ris's Voyages. VoL II, 477. 



The king of Persia sent the Czar an elephant, but it died, on its 
way to Moscow, at Zaritza. — Le Bruyn, Vol. I. p. 95. 

The ambassadors and some of their friends took a wdk, about a 
league from Astraoan, to see the habitations of the Tartars. Every 
hat had its hawk or falcon. We met one of their princes retum- 
ing from his sport with his hawk on his fist — CMearins, p. 132. 


Once every year the Grand Seignior recreates himself with hawking, 
and ^o appoints a general hunting match. A space of ground is en- 
closed, of five or six days' riding. All the neighbouring inhabitants are 
ordered to appear. When the game is driven into a narrow com- 
pass, the sultan, from an eminence, has the pleasure of seeing the 
wild boars, wolves, foxes, and hares, killed with clubs; and the phea- 
sants and partridges by his &lcons*. 


The woods in Poluid are well stored with deer, bears, wolves, 
boars, &c. The Masovian forests have plenty of elks as large as 
horses, with bodies like the stag ; wild asses ; bufifdoes ; bisonets, in shape 
and horns like an ox, with manes like hors^', beards on their lower jaws, 

* Comelins Le BrnyD, 106. 

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hard rough tongues, a bund oi their ba^, aad a smell of musk: 
they are incredibly strong. The Polish nobility hunt them, and es- 
teem their flesh, when powdered, a great dainty. The urns, called by 
the PoIaDders Thur, is a kind of wild ox, bigger, stronger, and swifter 
than the tame: he has a short black beard, a bush of hair upon his 
fordiead, and horns very wide and large: Pliny says the Romans 
made lanterns of them. In the tkaerts near the Dmeper, they have 
a sheep Ifte a goat, with short le^ and horns straight up. There 
are wild horses in the Ukraine exo^ent as food: and in Lithuania 
and Muscovy, a beast called Rossomoko, with the body and tail of a 
wolf, and the &ce of a cat, which feeds on dead carcasses *. 

* Doctor Bernard Conner, Physician to John Sobietki. Harrit's Voy. U, COS. 
As dw Mongols were in Poland, that coantry may have fumitbed them with aome 

oF &e animals, of which bones have been found. 

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Of Roman (u^Greek Wars in which Elephants were employed. 

Marches of Hannibal and Asdrubal over the A^, witha great 

number <f Elephants. Arduous march of the Constti Mar' 

duSf tPtth Elephants, over the Olyv^ic chmn of Mountains in 

Greece. Of AdUus^ with Elephants, over rnount Corax. 

Elephants killed, and some captured by CatOy in the defile of 

Alexander the Great, in the battle with Poms, captured all the CHAP, 
elephants that were not slain; besides which Bargantei and Omphis v^^-v'^^-' 
presented him with one bondred and twentj. — Q. Cnitius. Arrian. 

The kings, on the opposite shore of the Ganges, were waiting with 
an immense army, chariots of war, and Bevetal thousands of elephants, 
trained for war. Androcottus, who reigned not long after, made Se- 
lencus a present of five hundred at one time.^ Plutarch, " Alexander." 

All the other kings having united their forces against Antigonns, b.C. 300. 
DemetrioB left Greece in order to join him. Had Antigonus (sup- 
posed to be the illegitimate brother of Alexander the Great) restraiiiad 
his ambition to govern di« world, he mi^liave kept the preeminence 
among the succeBSors of Alexander : but, by his arrogance, he exasper- 
ated many young and powerful princes. He met the enemy at Ipsus 



in Phrygia. He had seventy thousand fiwt, ten thousand hone, and 
seventy-five elephants. The confederate forces were sixty-foar thou- 
sand foot, ten thousand five hundred cavalry, one hundred and twenty 
armed chariots, and four hundred elephants. Lysimachus, Seleucus, 
Ptolemy, Cassander, Antigonus, and Demetrius, were all present 
Pyrrhus accompanied Demetrius, and, though but young, bore down 
all before him. Demetrius, pursuing the enemy imprudently, was in- 
tercepted by their numerous elephants. His father, Antigonus, was 
kitted; and Demetrius fled to Ephesus with only five thousand foot, 
and four thousand horse. The kings dismemlwred the Conquered 
dominions; and each took a limb. — Plutarch, Dem. and Pyrrhus. 

Pyrrhus was the first who brought elei^ants into Italy. They were 
a part of those brought by the Greeks from India. He had twenty in 
the battle of Heraclea, in Lucania: they had towers upon their backs, 
full of bow-men; and the sight was truly terrifying *. A Roman sol- 
dier cutofi'the trunk of one of the elephants with his sword. Pyrrhus 
owed the victory to his elephants. — Catrou and RouiUe, Vol. II. 
p. 441. 

Curius Dentatus was near Beneventum. Pyrrhus attacked him in 
the Xaurasian fields. On tlte first onset, a great number of the Epi- 

* When FabriciuB went to £pini8 to treat about tbe ranom and exchange of 
prisonerB, Pyrrhus received him with particular distinction, b&riag been informed 
that he was highly valned by the Romana for his probity and martial ubilities, but 
ibat he was extremely poor. Pyrrhus privately offered him gold as a pledge of his 
friendship, which Fabricius refused. The next day the king, knowing' that he 
bad never seen an elepliant, ordered the largest he Iwd to be armed and concealed 
behind a curtain in the room where they were to be in conference. On a sign beings 
given, the curtain was drawn, and tbe elephant, raising bia trunk over the head of 
Fabricius, made a horrid and tenifying I'oar. Tbe Roman turned abont without 
being iu the least discomposed, and said to Pyrrhus, smjUng, " Neither your gold 

yesterday, nor your beast to-day, has made any impression upon me," Plutarch, 

" PyirhuB." 



rota w6re killed, and some of their elephants taken. Curius now, with CHAP. 

new ardour, drew up in a ^n. The king, asiusted by his elephants, v.«i-vU^ 

repulsed the Romans. A corps de reserre now attacked the elephants, 

with bumii^ torches in one hand, and their swords in the The 

fire, pushed against these huge andfarious animals, put them to flight, 

and creabed con&sion. . 

A young elephant, whidi had been wouti^ed in the battle, made a 
terrible . roaring. The mother immediately ran to her young one, 
which drew after her all the other elephants, and caused such disorder, 
that the Romtms gained a complete victory. The consnl, it is said, 
had but twenty thousand troops in all. Fyrrhus had eighty thousand 
foot, and six thousand horse; of which thirty-three thousand (some 
say only twenty thousand) were slain: eight elephants were captured, 
four died of their wounds, and four were led in triumph at Rome.-^ 
Catmu, II. 483, 486. Orosius, B. IV . C3i. 2. Eutropius, B. 3. 

Pyrxhus had many ^phants at the siege of Argos. ' The nmse made B.C. 373. 
by tibe elephants, and the gatm not proving' snfficieiitly large to admit 
them through with the castles upon their backs, disconcerted all his 
measures, and produced terrible confusion. Pyrrhus was slightly 
wounded with a javelin through the breast-plate while he was fight- ' 
iug with the soldier; the mother of the latter, from the top of a house, 
beheld her son thus engaged, and threw a large 'tile with both 
hands at Pyrrhus, which struck his head. The king of Macedoa fell 
from his horse senseless. One Zopyrus killed the king; and his head 
was sent to Antigonus. — Plutarch, " Life of Pyrrhus." 

ReguluB, in the battle of Adis, not far f^om Carthage, captured B.C. 265. 
eighteen elephants. — Catrou, II. 576. 

At Panormus (Palermo) the Carthaginian officer, named Asdrubal, b.C. 360. 
drew up his elephants, one hundred and f»ty in number, in one line. 
The Roman archers ponred down a shower of darts upon them and 



iheir guides, firom tiie top of the ramparts >of the ctty, by which these 
' DKMistroas beastB weri» rendei^ fiurious: some threw their guides, and 
trod ibem under foot; otherB fe^ into tiie dUch, whei«di^ were kill- 
ed; many, having no guides, rushed through the Car&af^nian ^«- 
lacxes, beat down the men with thar trunks, and trampled upon what- 
ever stood in their way. This was Uie happy nmntfe Heteilos wilted 
for. He atta(^ed the battalions in flank, and cirt many of the troops 
in pieces. Some fled to the fleet which lay along the coast of Paaoi<- 
mus, but were either killed by t^e elephants or drowned, Twentyniix 
elephants were taken or slain at the first onset; the rest wore running 
about the plain, or wandering in the fidds without their guides ; but 
they obeyed the voices <^ their former mast^s, and were gaftered to- 
gether. Metellus ^ent one hundred and four, or more, to Ibe coast; 
where he ordered a large raft to be constructed, and covered itith 
earth; it was planked at the sides, high enough for the security <tf' the 
elephants. The raft wajs placed upon empty banels, and the whole 
number crossed thte straits to Rh^om, witii &b utmost qutetnen 
during tine passage. Livy and Seneca make the number one hundred 
end twenty. Dion one hundred and thiri^-ei^^ Pliny «ne hondred 
* and forty-two. — Catroti. H. p. 5W. 

Hannibal, on the deaths of his &tiier Hamilcar and his brother-tM- 
Imv Asdrubal, succeeded to the command of the army in Spain: he 
was tw«ity-six years »f age. Althea was taken by assanlt (near To- 
ledo).— Catrou, III. 40. 

Hannibal gained a rictoiy on the banks of the Tagiis, over the Car- 
petani. (Toledo was tiieir capital, according to Pliny.) He had 
forty elephants in the battle, and numbers of the Spaniards were trod- 
den to death by thenL— Catiou, III. 47. 

Saguntum, after a siege of six months, was taken: and Hannibal 
passed the winter at New Carthage. He received a reinfercemrat of 
fourteen elephants from Africa. 


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' liearing the command in Spain to Ms brother Asdrubal, he set out 
oa. iis ezpe£tion to Italy with fifty thonsand foot, nine thousand 
hor^ andthirty-sevm elephants. — Rendezvous at lUiberis (Collioure 
in BiousiUon). Tba army encamped at Niemes. The Rhone was cross- 
ed at Mont&ucon. nearly opposite Orange*, and the army marched 
upon the east bank of the Rhone through Montelimart and Valence to 
Vielinet: eastward to St Genis, and north to Yem;^, where the Alps 
oosdnence, both tipon the Rhone: from Yenne \o Chambery, and 
thence to Montmefian, Conflans, Monstier, >Atme, and Scex, all five 
upon the right bank of the Isere. Hannibal lost many men and cattle 
by the assaults of the mountameers, who rolled down frt^finents of 
T0cl4 and aMac^ed his advanced guard ; but the el^htuds stopped 
their fmy- 

Tlie army reached the little S^t Bernard. It was now the 26th of 
October, and upon the suivh^ of tbsir passage ovo' the mountain, 
ther^ bad recently been a fall of now, wider which the old snow was 
hard^ compact attd 8Ui4>ery . The sorface being cleared, the toits were 
pitched, by. brcakinghcdes in the ioerandtheumy reposed two days. 

The d^ent appeared more difflcuU and dangerous than ascending. 
The Nnmldians, by the use of fire, (some historians say, that vtnegar 
was .used on this, occasion), and iron Insttuairaits, made a faoB*w way. 
so as to lessen t^ declivity; throt^h w^eh men, horses, «nd ele- 
pbai^ passed with a little more ease. 1^ fumy Was Ax days in de- 
Bomding ; raaldng fifteen d^ys for the whnie jonra^ over t&e Alps. 

* Seeihe Abp. Hie very eexiom MlwjnftdU, with the head af.llanoubal,jud 
the other, tappMed to be tliat of Dido, u from Htym, Del TWiro Brittanoico, 
Vol. |. p. 148. Humibars name h in Punic characters, ^o the po§Bession of ihe 
Earl If Pembroke). 

t BrapeiiaMKl bb yonngcr brother haTtitgr qaarMleJ, appealed ta Hannibal, 
who look part widi foftoctn, and left him etttfMiBhed in Ae kingdom (of the Allo- 
broges). Thia, and the iuntUUy efihe Gauk, retwdedhil Aiareh. 



It was now, on its arrival in Insubria, reduced to twenty thousand 
/ foot, and six thousand horse : the number of elephants lost is not men- 
tioned. The men were so pale and ghastly, that they appeared like 
skeletons newly raised from the dead : or hairy sarages born in a de> 
sert. The march was by St. Didier, Aoste, Bard, Irree, and Ghiras, 
to Turin. (This account of the march is taken from the " Histoire 
du Postage des Alpeg par Annibal:" d'apr^s la narration de Polybe, 
compar^e aux recherches faites but les lieux. Par J. A. De Luc, 
Geneve, 1818.) See, also, Catrou, Vol.111, and Rees's Cyc. " Cartha- 

Hannibal joined the Insubrians and took Turin. He gained a vic- 
tory over Scipio on the banks of t^e Temin, about five miles north of 

A lai^e body of Gauls deserted from Scipio, and went over to Han- 
nibal, who gained a victory over Sempronius on the banks of the Tre- 
bia ; in which the elephants killed a great number of the Romans. 

In crossing the Appennines, the Carthaginian army was overtaken 
among the rocks by a terrible tempest: many m6n, horses, and seven 
of the small number of elephants they had left, after the battle of TVe- 
bia, were starved to death *. By this distress Haonibal was driven 
back, and encamped about ten miles from Placentia, where he again 
fought a battle wtth Sempronius, with loss to both armies. AAet 
this the Carthaginians mardbed for Etruria. " The Amo was swelled 
to a greit height, and Hannibal lost many men and beasts, pariiciUar- 
Iff of the elephants, of which the only one remaining was that Getulian 
beast on which he was mounted." — Madan's Juvenal, Sat. X^ note 

* Twelre or fifteen vould be a bcuU number out of tbirty-seren ; wbich vould 
leareafew to Jcne jq theVnl. d'Amo afterwards. The context by no meaas re- 
quires that only one waa left, on the retovat from the A{^ennines^ noristha« 
mention of any bein^ lost in the hut battle with Semproniiu. 



Hamubal gained the battle of Thrasymene, and the next year the ^5^**- 
Romans were defeated by him at Camue. ^.^-v'^^ 

Hannibal attacked Casilinum, near Capua, but foiled : a party sal- 
lied out to attack him ; and was nearly cut off by his line of forty ele- 
phants, with which he had been supplied from Carthage. — Livy, B. 
XXIII. Ch. XYIII. Catrou, III. p. 148. Capua surrenders to Han- 
nibal, a city with which he becomes enchanted. 

Hannibal was defeated by Marcellus, at Nola; four elephants were B.C. 315. 
dain and two captured. — Livy, XXUI. Ch. XLVI. 

Asdrubal (the bald) in a battle in Sardinia, in which he had twenty 
elephants, was utterly defeated, by the Prstor Manlius. — Catrou, HI. 

Bomilcar landed from Carthage a reinforcement of troops and 
elephants, in the country of the Locri, for Hannibal.— Catrou, III, 
p. 309. 

Hannibal, while besiegingthe citadel of Tarentum, was necessitated B.C. 311. 
to march in haste to relieve Capua, his beloved city, reduced to hun- 
ger and great distress. Leaving his heavy troops and baggage in the 
country of the Bmtii, he took with him his invincible cavalry and 
light armed in&ntry, and marched (br Campania. Sis elephant*, 
tMrty-tkree in number, also accompamed him, and were aa 9u^t ae hi* 
men and horses: their heavy carcasses did not sini under the fatigues of 
a hasty march; he encamped near C^pua. In an attack by the Ro- 
mans, three elephants were killed.— Catrou, III. p. 209. Livy, B. 

Hannibal was defeated by Caius Decimus Flavins at Canusium ; 6.C. 809. 
eight thousand men and five elephants were left dead. — ^Livy, B. 

Nine yeani had Asdmbal. Hannibal's brother, comnutnded in Spain; 




CHAP, during which period he destroyed the country of the Carpetani with 
v.^-v-^-i' fire, sword, and eiepkanis. 

He fought the two Scipios at Ibera (Tortosa) and was Seated, but 
saved his elephants. — Livy, B. XXXIII. 

The Scipios gained a bloody victory over Asdrubal, near Cordova; 
in which five elephants were akin. — Livy, B. XXIII. Ch. XLIX. 

At Indibilis, in Arragon, Asdrubal was again de£eaftd by the Sci- 
pios, and nine elephants were killed. — Catrou, III. p. 20S. 

He was defeated, by the same generals, at Munda, in Granada: 
twelve thousand men and thirty^mne elephants were left ^ain upon 
the field of baftle. 

At Aurinx, in Bcetica, Asdrubal lost another battle in which e^ht 
elephants were killed, and three were captured.— Livy, B. XXIV. 

Thus were the nine years employed, when he collected his troops, and 
fled to the Pyrenees, in order to join his brother in Italy. He gain- 
ed the affection of the Avemi in Graul, and was accompanied by a 
good number of them over the Alps, and also by the Afountaine^s. 
He found the mountains more passable tium when his brother had 
' crossed them; the roads being worn by tiie numb^s who had gone 

over them for the kst twelve years. 
B.C. 307. Hannibal, bdng at Gramentum in Lueaaia, was i^taf^ced by the 
consul Nero, who kOled eight thousand troops and four d^dumts: 
and captured seven ihoosand j^oners aad two el^hants. By astrar 
tagem Hannibal reached Metapontus, in the gulf of Tarcaitum, and 
recndted his army with the troops under Hanno. 

In the mean while Asdrubal had unexpectedly passed the Alps in 
the short space of two months. Of his large force he had remainmg 
fcrrty thotnand foot, eight tiiousand horae, and fifteen elei^iants: his 
army increased on his arrival in Italy, 



He laid aege to PlacentU, bat f^ed in his attempt, and proceeded 
to Umbria. His letters to Hannibal were intercepted. On this dis- « 
covery. Kero hastened to meet Asdrubal. After encamping near 
Sena> the two armies fonght on the banks of the Metaurus. The ele- 
phants being attacked at once by h<HBe and foot, turned their rage 
agdnst their own army: some grew fiirious and ran about, having 
thrown thdr guides, treading down the battalions. Asdrabal had 
ordered thdr managers to carry a kind of knife and mallet ; and to 
destroy such as were ungoremable, by driving the knife with all their 
strength, into the joint which connects the head with the neck. Six 
were thus dispatched. Asdmbal, covered with blood, and distracted 
with the slaughter of his troops, rushed into the midst of a Roman 
battalion, and died fighting. Fifty-five thousand Carthaginians were 
slain, and four elephants were captured. — Livy, B. XXVII. Catron, 
410 to 41«. 

When Hannibal's brother marched, by the Alps, to Italy, he left B.C. 906. 
the command in Spain to Asdrubal, the aoa of Gisco, whose army con- 
sisted of seventy thousand foot, forty-five thousand horse, and thirty- 
two elephants. Scipio, with an inferior force, defeated him at Bieco- 
la: and in the retreat, (during which there was a violent tempest), de- 
stroyed all his troops except six thousand: this general and Afago, a 
brother of Hannibal, escaped to Cadiz.-^CatnHi, III. p. 435 to 43ft 
Polybius, B. XL 

Scipio invaded Africa, and at Utica again def»ted the son t^ Gisco B.C. 203 
and'Syphax, who had me hundred and forty elephsjuts, six of which 
Scipio captured.— Catrou, III. pp. 511, 580. 

Mago, HannibaTs brother, invaded Italy by sea. The Pmtor, Var 
ras, and the Proconsul C. Cethc^s, gained a great victory over faim 
in Inmbria, notwithstanding the tcnror iaspind by his Iwge ftont <^ 
elephants, which was drawn up before the Bonan Cttvalry. Mago vat 




CHAP, wounded, and retreated towards Liguria. — Catroa» III. 537. JAvy, 

-^^■yW XXX. Ch. XVIII. 

B.C. @02, Hannibal followed Scipio to Africa. At the battle of Zama he 
placed eighty elephants in the front. These animak causing much 
slaughter among Scipio's light-armed troops, he ordered his Italian 
cavalry to dismount; and, having himself done the same, they show- 
ered their darts upon the elephants, one of which was killed by Scipio. 
Some of the elephants threw Hannibal's right wing into confusion. 
After a tremendous conflict, Hannibal fled for refuge to Adnunetum. 
By the third article of the treaty which followed, the Carthaginians 
engaged to deliver up aUthe e2?p)&an/« which were trained for war, and 

B.C. 201. not to tame any more of these animals. Part of them were sent to 
Rome, and part given to Masinissa. At the triumph granted to Sci- 
pio, after the white bulls and other victims to be o£Ebred in sacri- 
fice, the elephants, taken from the enemy, followed in the procession- 
— Catrou, HI. 558 to 671. 

B.C. 900. The Romans, for the first time, employ elephants in their wars. 
A battle is fought with Philip, King of Macedon, at Lycus. — Livy, 

B.C. 197. At Cynocephalffi, near Thebes, in Boeotia,Q. Flaminius defeated I^- 
lip. King of Macedon, by his elephants producing disorder and confu- 
sion in the tang's army. — Catrou, IV. 73. 

B,C. 193. Greece being now the seat of war, Antiochus the Grreat sent ten 
thousand foot and six elephants to Demetrias. Polizenidas was dis- 
patched to conduct the rest of the troops into Europe. The King of 
Syria threatened Larissain vfun. His first line consisted of elephants. 
—Catrou, IV. 162. 

B.C. 191. The Consul Acilius set out for Greece in the month of May, at- 
tended by L.Q. Flaminius, and the Cunous Cato as a legionary tribune. 
The consul landed with twenty thousand foot, two thousand horse, and 



fifteen elephants. He rested his ariny at Lariasa, and then ravaged 
the country at Hypata, between Mount Pindua and Mount Othrys. < 
All Thessaly fell off from Antiochus, and joined with the strongest 
side. Hannibal was with the king, and gave him excellent counsel; 
biit it was neglected. Cleoptolemus, a considerable citizen at Chalcis, 
had lent his house to Antiochus, with the daughter of whom the king 
became enamoured, married her, and was intoxicated with the charms 
of his new queen. The Asiatic reinforcements had not yet arrived. 
The king seized the celebrated defile of Thermopylse, fortified it, and 
guarded the summits of Mount (Eta which were nearest his camp, 
with his two thousand (Etolians. 

The consul was in great perplexity, and listened to the advice of 
Cato. Taking a detachment of troops, Cato ascended the difficult 
heights; and at the same time Acilins attacked the Syrians in front, 
and forced their first line. While he was endeavouring to force the 
second line, and suffering great loss of men by the pikes of the Asia- 
tics, Cato was seen in the rear by the troops of Antiochus, driving in 
the (Etolians. Some resistance was still making, when the king re- 
ceived a blow with a stone, which broke his teeth, and he withdrew. 
The Syrians flung down their arms and fled: fortunately, their ele- 
phants in the rear covered their flight, and saved a considerable 
part of the army. The Romans fell to plundering the camp, and 
killed many men, horses, and elephants. The remaining elephants 
were captured. 

Acilius, embracing Cato, said — " The service you have done the re- 
public is greater than the favours she has ever done you." This was 
saying a great deal of a new man. After this, the last exploit by which 
C^to signdized himself in war, he became a great reformer.— Plu- 
tarch, « Cato." Livy, B. XXXVI. Catrou, B. XXXIX. 

Acilius marched towards Chalcis. Antiochus, with his queen, retired 



to Ephesus. After taking Chalcis, Heradea, imd Lamis, tiie e(HUul 
Ksolred to attack Naupactus, (Lepaato), for which purpoie he, m& 
his army and baggage, marched across Corax, the MgheH momUmn m 
Greece. Great-numbers of soldiers and beasts of borthen were killed 
by tomblii^ down the precipices. — Catron, IV. 185. (It is not said 
how many elephants were in the army of the consul ; but, in adcBfioa 
to his own, there were those ct^tured at Thermopyle.) 

A Truce was made. 

In the battle at Magnesia, in Asia Minor, between Antiochus and 
L. C. Scipio, the Romans had thirty thousand foot, three thousand 
horse, and fourteen elephants. The Syrian forces were sev^ty thoup 
sand foot, twelve thousand horse, and fifty-four elephants, with towers 
oi seteral fioora full of sUngers and archers, mm mounted on camel^ 
and Arabianft upon dromedaries. Scipio's elephants were &om Afn- 
ca, those of Antiochus firom India- The latter vastly excdled the im- 
mer in strength, height, and courage ; therefore young Bcipio placed his 
elephants only as a corps de r^erve, in the rear of his army. In this 
bloody action, Antiochus lost fifty thousand killed and prisoners. On- 
ly fifteen elephants were taken ^ve, almost the whole of the remaindw 
the Romans had killed iu the battle, by cutting off thfflr trunks with 
their swords. Antiochus fled to Sardis.— Livy, ,B. XXXVII.— 
Catrou, IV. B. XLI. 

By the ninth artide of the peace, the king tngaged to deliver up aU 
his elephants, and not to train up any more for war. 

In the war between the Romans, and Perses, king of Macedon, the 
Consul Licinius received, while be was (m the banks of the Peneos, a 
reinffH-oement of twenty-two elephants and two tiionsand troopfr 
Tb^. vr«r% brought by Misagenes, a bastard son of Masinissa.— 4]^ 
trou, IV. 393. 

Penes, the king, was bow in Macedon. The Consul Maroius, being 



wiA his amy at PhaiBalia, resolred tm inTading Macedon; and, not- 
withstandiiig hii age and coipnlence, he bore the fatignes of the most 
laborioDf march recorded in history. He sent forward Attains and Mi- 
aagenes, with their auxiliaries, to levd the roads as mnch as posaiHle: 
they were followed by the beasts of burthen, waggons, and elephants. 
The consulj, with his legions, brought up the rear. The great danger 
was in descending the mountMns: some elephants and horses had 
tumbled down the precipices. In order to get down with more secu- 
rity, the Romans buitt bridges of boards, one below another, upon 
posts like piles, and covered them with earth. When an elephant 
had come near to the first bridge, the piles of it were cut, and the 
beast was suifered to slide down to the second bridge; and so on, till 
at length they reached tiie valley. The army could not march above 
seven miles each day. Marciiu himself confessed that Perses might 
have cut all his army in pieces, with a handful of men. 

The army, aiter great suffering, arrived in Macedon; and, from ne- 
cessity, encamped in a deep valley, where the enemy might with 
stoaes have destroyed it. Parses became the jest of his soldiers, for 
losing these opportunities. When he received the intdJigence, he was 
amazed and perplexed. He ordered all the gold and sUver in the 
treasury at Pella, to be thrown into the sea: his ships at Thessalonica 
to be burnt, and sll his valuable statues to be sent on board his ves- 
sels at Dinm. He fled to Pydna. 

The consul, being distressed for provisions, returned to the fron- 
tiers of Thessaly: he i^ain adnmced, and the Soman fleet arrived. 
Mdiboea, npon monnt Ossa, and other places, were kept in awe by Ro- 
man detachments. The campugn ended without much weakening 

Polybius (die historian) arrived firom the republic of Achaia, to of- 
fer the conBul some troops to join Appios Claudius: -bnt the ofibr was 
declined.~Catrou, B. XLIV. 



Faulus -^Imilius, now sixty years old, was {^pointed cmunl ; and 
' was sent to Greece. He encamped on the banks of the Enipeus in 
Tfaessaly. Perses, who was encamped on the opposite bank, removed 
to Pydna. On this, Paulas ^milius crossed, and marched towards 
Pythium, in order to join his detachment. This pUce stood on ike 
highest summit of mount Olympus. The consul encamped in a val- 
ley on the sea shore. He mounted Olt/mpu» mtk hit army. Joined hia 
detachment at PgtMum, aod descended with caution, not knowing what 
ambushes Perses might have prepared. Having reached the plain, 
the consul marched along the sea shore, in communication with his 
fleet; his troops being much distressed with thirst and iatigue> from 
the great heat. Having arrived near Pydna, the army was drawn up 
in battaUa, in sight of the enemy, who was prepared and in good or- 
der. But the consul resolved to rest his army, and the pioneers form* 
ed a camp for the night. 

Perses had a fine army, of forty-five thousand troops. A battle was 
fought in the morning. The Romans were inferior in number, but 
killed twenty-five thousand, and lost incredibly few. No use was 
made of the elephants, the Romans being undeceived as to any advan- 
tage arising from them in battle: they were therefore employed in 
pursuing the Aglaspides when the first legion had routed them. In 
this action Cato, son of the censor, who had married the daughter of 
Paulus ^milius, performed acts of valour, worthy his descent Ne- 
vertheless, an inundation of Phalangites fell on the company he com- 
manded, and forced it to retire. In this retreat Cato perceived that 
he had dropped his sword, he therefore assembled some of his friends, 
and returned to the charge. This company of brave men fell witit 
fury on the enemy, and made such a void round Cato, that he had 
time and room to look, for his sword, and found it — an action which 
was very pleasing to Paulus .^Imilius. As to Perses, his whole mind 



and time were occupied in thinking of and attending to his rases 
and other utensils of gold and silTer: and in sparing his wealth, instead « 
of making a liberal use of it among those of his defenders who had a 
just right to expect rewards. This contemptible conduct led to the 
loss of his wealth, his liberty, and his life ; and transferred the mightj 
kingdom of Alexander to the Romans; under whom it became a 
province. See Plutarch, " P. ^milius." Livy, XLIV. XLV. Catrou, 
Book XLVI. 

Antiochus, being humbled by the inflexible and haughty Roman am- 
bassadors, resolved to vent his rage on Jerusalem. — Catron, IV. 409. 
" The number of the king's army was one hundred Uiousand footmen, 
twenty tiiousand horse-men, and thirty-two elephauts, exercised in bat- 
tle. The king, rising very early, marched fiercely to battle, and sounded 
the trumpets. And to the end they might provoke the elephants to 
fight, they shewed them the blood of grapes and of mulberries. More- 
over, they divided the beasts among the armies, and for every ele- 
phant they appointed a thousand men, armed with coats of mail, and 
with helmets of brass on their heads : and besides this, for every beast 
were ordained five hundred horsemen of the best. And upon the 
beasts, were there strong towers of wood, which covered every one of 
them, and were girt fost unto them with devices: there were also up- 
on every one, two-and-thirty strong men, that fought upon them, be- 
side the Indian that ruled him. Now, when the sun shone upon the 
shields of gold and brass, the mountains glistered therewith and shined 
like lamps of fire. Then Judas and his host drew near, and entered 
into the battle; and the king lost six hundred men. Eleazar, also 
sumamed Savaran, perceiving that one of the beasts, armed with royal 
harness, was higher than all the rest, and supposing that the king was 
upon him, ran forward courageously, slaying on the right hand' and on 
the left, so that they were divided from him on both sides. Which 




doue, he crept under the elephant and thrust him under and alew him : 
' whereupon the elephant fell down upon him, and there he died. How- 
beit, the rest of the Jews, seeing the strength of the king, and the vio- 
lence of his forces, turned away from them. Then the king's army 
went up to Jerusalem to meet them, and the king pitched his tents 
agaiiMt Judea, and against mount Sion." — 1 Maccabees, Ch VI. 

Scipio, having the command in Spain, Aficipsa sent him a reinforce- 
ment of elephants and cavalry by young Prince Jugurtha, who after- 
wards becameso famous.— Catron, V. 87. 

Jugurtha, now King of Numidia, delivered to the Romans thirty ele- 
phants, money, &c. — Catron, Vol. V. p. 207. 

Q. Cfficitius Numidicus, at the battle of Muthullus, in Africa, killed 
forty of Jugurtha's elephants, and captured four. — Catrou, Vol. V. 
p. 220. 

Jugurtha deUvered up to Metellus two hundred Uioueand ponitds 
weight of silver, and all his elephants. — Catrou, Vol. V. p. 226. 

Csesar had a vastly large armed elephant when he crossed the 
Thames at Oatlands, at the sight of which the Britons fled.— Polye- 
nus, B. VIII. 

Julius Ctesar drew out before Thapsas, causing sixty-four elephants, 
which he had taken, with all their castles, armour, and ornaments, to 
pass by the town, to reduce Virgilius to reason. 

A veteran of the fifth legion, observing an elephant that was enraged 
with a wound which he had received, attack an unarmed sutler, crush- 
ing him under his knee till the weight had forced his soul to forsake 
his body, roaring all the while, and brandishing his proboscis, could no 
longer restrain himself from engaging the beast. The elephant, perceiv- 
ing him approach, forsook the dead body, caught his enemy up in bis 
trunk, in armour as he was, and whirled him about in the air. The 
veteran, notwithstanding the peril he was in, maintained his presence 



of mind, and cut the elephant's proboscis till he obliged him to forego CHAP, 
his prey. He retired, with a hideous roaring, to the rest of his com- '■-^-y^^,^ 
panions. — Cssar's Com. " Africa," XVIII. 

Claudius invaded Britain, like a great Eastern monarch, with armed A.D. 43. 
elephants, and fifty thousand troops.-— Milton's History of Britain. Ra- 
pin. Camden. 

When Didius Julianus was informed that Septimius Severus had A.D. 193. 
commenced his march, nothing waa to be seen at Rome but horses, 
troops, and elephants, training for service*. —Bernard. 

In the battle between Alexander Sererus and Artaxerxes, the Per- a.D. 230. 
sians had seven hundred elephants, of which two hundred were killed, 
and three hundred taken; the Emperor took with him eighteen to 
Rome. — Speech of Alexander Severus to the senate. Bernard, from 
Lampridius, Vol. I. p. 450. 

The Emperor Jovian, near the castle of Suma, was attacked by the A.D. 364. 
Persian c&rsiry, accompanied by a great number of elephants. The 
shock was great, hut the Romans, taking advant^ of arising^ound, 
threw darts, and wounded the elephants, which fled, and broke the 
line of cavalry, when the soldiers killed many of them, and of the Per- 
sians. The Romans mtirdied forward four days, continually ha- 
rassed by the enemy. At length they crossed the Tigris, upon floats 
of skins fastened together. — Zosimus, p. 88. 

'• All the elephaDts of course fell into (he handa of Serenu, od the overthrow of 

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Of Roman Amphitheatres^ remains of which exist in Britain 

Italj/ France Spain Sicily Greece -Syria 

— —and other Countries. 

CHAP. MeTELLUS brought to Borne, from the SicUian war, one hundred 
\^>-v--^»/ and twenty elephants, which he had taken from Jugurtfaa. These 
were the first that were introduced into the Circus, in the jear 251 
before Christ*. From this period, the passion Jor pubUc exhibitions, 
and-eombais qf wild beasts, ^read not onfy in Italy, but throughout 
the Momatt eti^nre, in all the provinces. Such was the general rage, 
. that scarcely a fixed miUtary station teas without its circus or an^hithe' 
atreqftuifor timber. 

The size and form of the Circus, with the lists and goab, being found 
inconvenient, Caesar introduced the elliptic shape ; and henceforth these 
buildings were named " theatrum Tenatorium," or theatre for hunting; 

* The firat permsnent Circus (called MasimuB) w«b built by Tarqui&iua Pr»- 
ctubetweentbe Arentiae and tbePalatiiie hills: it was eotarged by Julius Caesar, 
Claudios, and Nero, when it contained two hundred and sixty thousand spectators : 
it was furUier increased by Hadrian, Constantine, and his son Constans. Many 
others were built of different size*. The most perfect reuiaiDS are those of the 
small circus, built by Caracalla, capable of holding e^hteen thousand people. — ' 
See Rees's Cyc. " Circus." 

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t» ut, from their superior accommodations, they were likewiseuaed for the 
combats of gladiators. They howerer, continued to be called Circus 
as often as Amphitheatre, and the other names. 

Some were little more than natural vaUeps, with benches cut in the 
declivity of surrounding hills: others were elliptical excavations, with 
benches of turf, like that near Sandwich, in Kent; some were partJy 
excavated, and partly constructed with masonry, tike the amphitheatre 
at Caerleon in Britain. There were also amphitheatres constructed to 
bold water, for the combats of aquatic and amphibious animals. 

Those built witii timber were raised and taken down as occasion re- 
quired. Vespasian's amphitheatre is said, byCassiodorus, to have cost 
as much to build as a capital city : and Martial relates, that, from every 
part of the empire, the Roman world crowded to the capital to be pre- 
sent at these grand games. Many vestiges of amphitheatres still re- 
main, and have been discovered in the following countries: — 

In Italy.— At Rome, Capua, Fidene*, Placentia, Verona, Aousiaf , 
Alba, Otriculi, GarigUo, Puzsnoli, Paestum, Cassino, Mola, Canusium, 

France. — At Aries, Orange§, Autun, Treves||, Paris**, Nismes, 

Spain. — At Italica, (Seville). 

* A few milea north of Bome; thit theatre fell in the reign of Tiberiua. Fifty 
iboiuand perwHw vere killed or maimed. — Tacitiu, Anna]. IV. 

t Rees's Cyclop. 

t See Bernard. Vol. I. p. I8&. 

S Ciritat Aurensis, called Colmiia Secandanomm. Tlw seoond l^'on were 
settled here. An amphitheatre is still to be ■een.—fEeea'a Cyc ** Arauaio." 

j] After the rictory of Constantine the GfeatOTertheFVaolu and the Allemanoi, 
several o( their prt&ces were, by bis order, exposed to the inld beasti in the Amphi- 
theatre at Treves (then the capital of Gaul).— Gibbon, Ch. XIV. 

•• Gibbon, Ch. XIX. p. 177. 



Britain— At Richboroagh, Caerleon, SilobeBtar, Dorchft^r, and 
other places. 

Sicily.^ At Catanea, Agrigentum, Syriaciiae. 

Greece. — At Argos, Corintfa. 

Candia. — At Cirortina and Gerapitna. 

At Pola in Istria. At Delos, Ephesus, Chisico, Heraclea, JeruAileni , 
Csesarea. The two last were buflt by Herod *. 

" Maiden CasUe is the most entire and prodigious work in England, 
and, passing for a Roman stationary camp, it is surrounded by two pro- 
digious ditches, to which all I ever saw are trifles; and at the entrance 
their number is increased by several others, and the way cunningly 
blinded by divisions. About the like distande to Uie north of the way 
is a |»eee of ground, called Pomeroy, (Pomcerium, as I suppose), which 
has in it also a large square, inclosed with a high bank, but without 
any ditch : on the outside there is a raised area, about t«n yards broad, 
which shews its design could not be military. On the south side, 
about a furlMig from Dorchester, is a jdace called Maumbury, being 
about an acre, inclosed with a high bank, which is a very pretty and 
entire amphitheatre f." 

The Roman Amphitheatre, close by the Roman road, and a quarter 
of a mile irom Dorchester, is the most perfect structure of Hs kind 
remaining in England. It was first publicly noticed by Sir Christo- 
pher Wren, and is described by Dr. Stukdey, in hia Itinerarium Cu- 
riosum. It is raised upon, and was probably &amed of, solid chalk, 
cemented by mortar of burnt chalk; and covered with turf. Its 

* SeeRe^'s Encyo, " Ampbitheatn;" Le Bruyo's Travels; Dr. Stukeley's 
JtinerariQniCwrioaim; and Ewyc. Brit. 

t HotchiuB. Antiquities of Dorset, Vol. U. p. 172. 



gjceatest height above the level of the aren» was thirtj feet; the ex- CHAP, 
temal greatest diameter three hundred and forty-three feet six inches: s.^-..^^.^^ 
the external shortest diameter, three hundred and thirty-nine feet six 
inches: the internal longest diameter two hundred and eighteen feet: 
the internal shortest diameter one hundred uid sixty-three feet six 
inches. The number of spectators which it was capable of accommo- 
dating is computed to be twelve thousand nine hundred and sixty *. 

" IVith respect to the games here practised, we may suppose them 
much the same as those used at Rome and other places, with relation 
to hunting and fighting with wild beasts f. Among other shows and 
diversions of beasts, we may safely imagine that our British bull-dogs 
bore a part, since the Romans trained them for the Italian amphi- 

In these parts of Britain, V^pasiau fought thirty battles with the 
Britons j;." In the quarto volume, describing the theatre, Dr. Stuko- 
ley conjectures that Vespasian had this theatre built in order to flat- 
ter and amuse the vanquished. 

" At Silchester, in Hampshire, there is an amphitheatre, in bulk and 
shape and all points the same as that at Dorchester; but not built of 
such solid materials, for it is chiefly clay and gravel. Eastward, to- 
wards the road, there is a pit ; there, it is sixty feet high on the out- 

The whole arena within is now covered with water about three 
feet deep : the bottom must be very solid to contain the water so many 
years: it is a most noble and beautiful concave, and has, for time im- 

* Rces'a Encyc. " Dorchester." 

t At FramptoB in Dorselshhe, extenaiTC and very el^j^ant Mosaic paremeots 
(published by S. Lysons, 1807), were diseoverad, which reproseDt hones, deer, 
leopards, and other animals. 

Z Dr. Stuheley, Vol. I. p. 165 to 175. See Ch. XIII. 


memorial, been a yard for cattle, and a watering-pond*. There is an 

' ascent to it on the entrance side, that being upon the lowest ground: 
at the upper end, the level of the ground is not much below the top 
of the terrace, and vastly above that of the arena; so that I conceive 
the better sort of people went that way directly from the city into 

* their seats: there is such a gap, too, in that part (from the ruin of the 
cave) where the wild beasts were kept Surveying the whole, could 
not but put me in mind of that piece of Roman magnificence, when the 
emperors caused great trees to be taken up by the roots and plant- 
ed in the amphitheatres and circuses, pro ien^ore, to imitate forests 
wherein they hunted beasts, which is here presented in pure nature f ." 
This amphitheatre appears to have contained five rows or terraces for 
spectators {. 

At Caerleon is an oval concavity, fievraity-four by sixty-four yards, 
and six yards in depth, without doubt the site of a Roman amphithea- 
tre. Within the memory of persons now living, stone seats were dis- 
covered on opening the sides of the concavity: and in 1706 a figure of 
Diana, with her tresses and crescent moulded in alabaster, was found 
in this place. Caerleon (Isca Silurum) as described by Gyraldus 
Cambrensis, contained remains of splendid palaces, a gigantic tower, 
numerous baths, ruins of a temple, and a theatre, the walls of which 
are partly standing, aqueducts, vaulted caverns, stoves, tessellated 
pavements^ bricks inscribed " Leg. II. Aug." an altar to the Emperor 
Aurehus Antonius, another to Jupiter Dolichenius as the patron of 
iron mines, statues, coins, inscriptions, &c. §. 

* When the hnnting was concludeil in VespasJBn'a amphitheatre, the arena was 
suddenly filled vith water, in which aquatic animals were made to contend, 
Rees'a Cyc. " Ampb." This refers to Rome; but it strengthens the conjecture, 
that the amphitheatre at SilHievter was built by Vespasian. 

t Dr. Stukeley, Vol. I. p. 17& J Rees'a Encyc. " Silchester." 

i g Rees's Encyc. " Caerleon." Cox's Tour iu HoDmouthsbire. 



" Upon an eminence at Richborough castle, is the (brick) carcass CHAP, 
of a castiennan amphitheatre made of turf, I suppose for the exercise s^^v-*^ 
and diversion of the garrison; tbe soil of it is gravel and sand, and has 
been long so ploughed over that we need not wonder it is so level *." 

The reader wiU form his own conclusion, whether the following was 
an amphitheatre : " I saw," sa^ Pennant, " for the first time, the ' 
path of Helen, (Merioneth), a road supposed to have been made by 
Helena, wife of the British Emperor Maximus. There are tumuli 
here, and five urns were found. Not for from Llyn Rathlin, is a verj 
fine Roman camp and vestiges of a wall and ditch. Coins and urns 
are firequent here: the path of Helen runs into it. At a small distance 
from the camp is an oval indosure, thirty-six yards long, and twenty- 
seven wide, surrounded by a high mound of earth, and an entrance at 
each end: near one end a part seemed to have been divided off by a 
wall, the foundations of which still remain f." 

lliere must have been either a circus, or an amphitheatre at or near 
York. One of the forerunning signs of Sevenis's death, Spartian re- 
lates thus: " Whilst the gfimeg of the cirque were celebrating, as there 
were three figures placed, according to custom, upon the platform 
where the emperor's throne is, aw;." See Ch. Xill. 

lliree miles from Redruth, in ComwaU, there were the remains of 
an amphitheatre, as Dr. Stukeley had been told, with six tire of seats. 

" At Wolvedon, in the parish of Probus near Lanceston, where Ro- 
man coins have been found, there is an angular fort which has a wide 
deep ditch, the outer edge of which was faced upwards, with thin 
stones in cement; and which had round turrets or buttresses, such as 
Saxons, Danes, and Britons built not, as far as I can find. This is very 
singular in our country, where most of our ancient fortifications are 

• Dr. Stukeley, Vol. I. p. 12&. f Tour io Wal«a. Vol. II. p. 103. 



circular, without any projections. From the artfiul fence of tins ditch, 
as well as from the polygon which the whole forms* I guess it ta be 

Where these stone inclosures are circular, uid distii^piished b j aests 
and benches of like materials, they were, no doiAt, constructed thus 
for the convenimce of spectators at plays, games, and festivals. Bvt, 
as to delight the eye more than the ear, was most required, the amphi- 
theatrical form had the preference. Id these amphitheatres of ston^ 
the Britons did usually assemble to hear plays, and see sports and games, 
to quiet and delight the people; an institution very necessary in all 
eiril societies: these are called witii us in Cornwall, where we hare 
gretU numbers of them, ji^n anguare, viz, the ^ain of ^lort and pas- 
ting. The bendi^ round, were generally of turf, as Ovid, talking <rf 
these places of sport, observes. 

>Ve have one whose benches are of stone, and the most remarkable 
one I have seen: it is near the church of St. Just Penw^: an exact 
circle of one hundred and twoity-six feet in diameter ; the height ft«m 
the area within, now seven feet; but fnna the bottom of the ditiA 
without, ten feet now, but formedy mare. The seats consist of six 
steps, fourteen inches wide, a foot hi|^, with one on the top of all, 
where the rampart is, seven feet wide. The plags were in the Cornish 
hoi^aage, the subjects from scripture J." 

About a mile from Cheselbury, on the east side of the Avon, is a cu- 
rious earth work supposed to be a Roman amphitheatre. It is an 
oval: the bank is thirty feet wide, the southeni s^ment five hundred 
and fifty feet in diameter, and seven hundred and twenty in compass^. 

t Borlace. Antiquities of Cornwall, p. 313. 
E Borlace, D. IV. Ch. VII. § Canden, Vol. I. p. 109. 



The most considerable antiquity in Jebilee is the remains of a noble 
Ibettee. The remaining semicircle is a luindred yards in compass, and > 
there are seventeen windows, between which are lai^ massy pillars, 
deTOn feet thick, of firm stone, standing against the wall*. 

We found the ruins of an amphitheatre at Puzzeoli; another near 
to Hola, me at Delos and a statue of Diana ; — at Ephesus the ruins of 
a circus, an amphitheatre, and also rains of the temple of Diana ; — a 
fine amphitheatre at Chisico, and the remains of a noble one at Hera- 

M. JEmilius Scauras, to make a strong impression on the minds of 
the people, chose (B. C. 58) to build a theatre in Rome, which was 
not to be a lasting numumwt, like that of Pompey, but to continue 
only during the time of his being in office. The scenes and decora- 
tions were a solid work ^f the most valuable materials. There were 
three orders of very fine pillars, raised one above another to a great 
height The first rank of columns, was of rich marble, brought from 
Numidia, and thtrty-dgfat feet hi^ The second rank was of crystal, 
an unusual thing, and never since imitated. The third was of light 
wood, vo^ richly gilt: the hdgfats were lessened in proper proportion. 
In the places between this forest of cidumns, stood three thousuid sta- 
tues of brass upon suitable pedestals. The seats held eighty thou- 
sand persons, 

The number and magnificence of the habits of the actors, ell in the 
eastern fashion, were so prodigious, that this mad extravagance ruined 
Scaurus, though very rich. The remain* of this building were valued 
at a hundred millions of little sesterces (by Arbutfanot's calculation, 
sterling .£807,291: 13: 4). 

* Haandrell's TniTela to Jerusalem, A.D. 1696. 
t CorneliuB Le Bniyn'a Traveli. 




Five hundred panthers were let loose in the arena. Five crocodiles 
and a hippopotamns, for the first time, were shewn alive. Scaurus had 
brought the ribs of a whale from Joppa, forty feet long*. 

The amphitheatre at Flacentia is said to have been the lai^^t in 

Vespasian began, and his son Titus finished, the Flavian amphithe- 
atre, called also the Coliseum. It is deservedly celebrated as a prodigy 
of building among the antients. At the solemn games exhibited when 
this theatre was dedicated, five thousand wild beasts, according to Eu- 
tropius; nine thousand, according to Dio, were destroyed on its 

We learn from a ptusage in St. Chrysostom that the beasts intended 
for the pubUc games, were kept in the eTtvirons itf cities; and Procopi- 
us makes particular mention of a spacious place in Rome called the 
Vivarium, appropriated to that usef. 

Maffei, in his elaborate treatise, shews, that amphitheatres of stone 
were not numerous, few cities in Italy could boast of them. Wooden 
ones were built in several parts of the empire X. 

Thig will account/or hone» of wild bea»t» being /owtd in mimy places 
where there are no vestiges of ai^hitheatres. 

• Catrou, Vol. VI. p. 96. Pliny, Lib. XXXVI. 
t Rees'i Encyc. " Amphitheatre." % See Keysler's Travels. 

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Temple for Sacn£.ces 

ATaptitke of Claudius 



S^rts and Combats in the Circus and Amphitheatre; in which 

xpere slairty Elephants Rhinoceroses Hippopotami 

Bears Lions Tigers — — Hyanas Camelopards 

Crocodiles Ostriches, ^c. in surprisifig numbers. Grand 

Triumphal Processions at Home. Chariots drawn by tamed 

Lions, Leopards, Tigers, Orixes * with one horn. Stags, tj-c. 

^O general was the passion for these diTersions, that scarcely any 
camp or military station was without them. The people chose rather xi. 
to live on hread and water in Rome, than lose these sights. ^.^v*- 

Every savage animal that could be procured in the forests of Asia 
or Africa, was brought to be hmited: no cost was spared to' fetch 
them. The shows were designed for the honour of DiMiaf. 

" All ibat with pot«nt teeth command the plain. 
An that run horrid with erected mane; 
Or proud of stately horns or bristling hair. 
At once the forest^s ornament and fear; 

* Spell alw oryx, orjgea. 

t Reea** ** Amph." 8«e K«Bnett, Part II. B. y. Cb. II, fnna vbidb Mftntvt 
Ikne extiBcls am taken. 

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Tom from their deserts by the Roman power. 
Nor strength can save, nor craggy dens secote." 

' Part in laden vessels came, 

Borne on the rougher waves, or gentier stream; 
The fainting slave let fall his trembling oar; 
And the pale master feared the freight he boref ." 

Sometimes animals Trere presented merely as strange sights and rari- 
ties; such as crocodiles and outlandish beasts imd birds. Others for 
combats or slaughter. For these purposes were introduced elephants, 
rhinoceroses, hippopotami, camelopards, zebras, lions, tigers, leo- 
pards, panthers, bears, hysnas, ostriches, stags and deer of every kind, 
hares, and such like. There were three kinds of diversions. 

I. When the people were allowed to seize and secure what they 
could, for their own use, as deer, hwes, sheep, boars, oxen, and all 
kinds of birds. A natural forest being represented by trees trans- 
plante4 into the circus or amphitheatre, the beasts were let in from 
their dens; and, at a sign given by the Emperor, the people fell to 
hunting the animals; and each carried away what he killed. Tablets, 
or tickets, (te*sera), were previously scattered among the multitude, 
entitling those who caught them to the animals inscribed upon them: 
they were termed Missilia. 

II. The combats of beasts admitted of great sport and variety. 
Sometimes an elephant was matched with a bull, a rhinoceros with 
a bear, a lion with a tiger, a bull with a lion. And deer were hunted 

t Clandian. 

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lound the arena hy a pwk of dogsf. But the most wonderful sight CHAP. 
was when, hy ocwrorting the arena mto a lake, huge aquatic animals, >^»^y^<i^ 
crococUles, &c. were introdnced to combat with wild beasts. At the 
Games of Carinas 1> aaysCalphumius, Ed. VII. 

Not only did I see wood-monsters there. 
But sea-calves also tugging with the bear. 
And that misshapen ugly beast withal. 
Which we, not without cause, the sea-korte call§. 

III. Men ei^piged with wild beasts, and had the eommoD name of 
Bestiarit The vflest male&ctors were doomed to sndi combat 
Others hired thoaselTes at a set pay, like the gUdiators, and had theiz 
schools, where they were inatiucted in such omflicts. ScnM of the 
nobility and gentry voluntarily niulertook a part in these encoonters. 
Even the softer sex was infected with this/oney. 

Sometimes, with naked breast, the sturdy w**** 
Shakes the broad q>ear against the Tuscan boar||. 

The safety of the combatants consisted in nimbly turning and leap- 
ing, to elude their adTeraanes> while they assailed them with darts and 
spears: one man has been known Xjo kill twenty animab let in upm 

t British bnll-dogt, lOBstiA, and beaglet, wete exported to Borne.".— Dr. Hen- 
ry, **Higt. of Eag." 

t Carinot was- governor of Britun and other pioviitceB daring the abeeace of \m 
father in the £a«t. Aogualm Hiit. "Carimi*." 

« Hippopotamw. See Gibhen,' Cb. XU. b. 86. Hakewill,4M. 

[| Jurenal, Sat, L 



CHAP, him at once. The beasts, however, were in treneral saccesBfuI: and 
\,^^,^^^^^ were therefore commonly despatched by missile weapons thrown from 

the higher parts of the amphitheatre, out of the reach of the animals ; 

uid usually in one show three or four hundred were thus slua. 

The Greeks and Romans tamed wild beasts. In the procession of 
Ptolemy Philadelphus at Alexandria, twenty-four chariots were 
drawn by elephants, twelve by lions, seven by orixes, five by buffaloes, 
eight by ostriches, four by wild asses, &c. Upon the neck of one of 
the elephants, was mounted a satyr with a crown of gold : the ele- 
phant had a harness of gold, and wore about his neck a garland, in 
shape resembling ivy leaves, but made of gold. 

There were bidian women, camels laden with cinnamon, and tusks 
of six hundred elephants. There were twenty-six white oxen from 
India, twenty-four tiiousand Indian dogsf, curious birds, a hundred 
and thirty Ethiopian, and three hundred Arabian sheep ; four lynxes, 
fourteen leopards, sixteen panthers, three brown bears, a white bear, 
one camelopardalis, and one Ethiopian rhinoceros. 

Gordian possessed, as Capitolinus informs us, sixty lions and thirty 
leopards, tamed {. 

t ThesDVflrei^ bad so immenfle a number of Indian doge, that four great towns 
in the vicinity ofBabylon were exempted from all other tax.butthatofmaintatDtng; 
them, Herodotus, Clio, CXCI. This alludes to the period of Cyrus. A note 
says* the anliealB believed these dog*, which were very celebrated, to be produced 
from a bitch and a ti^r. Ba^azet bad twelve thousand dog-keepers. See Ch. IV. 

t Mon&ncon.Vol.lll. p. 179; and Bruce's Travels. Vol.1, p, 46S. The above 



The chariots of the Romans were drawn by elephants^ they had 
sometimes two, and sometimes four; and frequently, when they had 
towers upon their backs, they at the same time drew one of those lit- 
tle chariots which were used for racing in the circus. These towers 
they genendly put upon the backs of sing^ elephants, both for war- 
bxe and traTeDing, as tiiey do at this day in Persia and India. 

The Romans were drawn by camels ; and Pliny tells us that Mark An- 
tony made use of lions. Heliogabalus did the same ; and also of boars, 
stags, wild asses, bisontes, and oryges, a sort of animal with one horn, 
which Ptolemy, according to Athensus, drew his carriage with f . 

Hdiogabalus ran a race with four chariots, each drawn by four ele- 
phants, being himself the driver: and another race, with as many 
camels. He appeared at other times drawn by four great dogs, or 
four large stags; sometimes by lions, sometimes by tigers. He had 

Ptolemy possessed two hundred millioos sterling (see Lempriere). When £gypt 
was coDqaered by Angiuttu, all the treasares of that country were tnuuferred to 
Rome. (Monteaquieu, Grandeur des Romains, Cb. XVII). Nothing could be 
eaai'er than for the Romans to procure the same kinds of animals, and in any.nutiw 
bers, with the riches of I^pt. 
t Uonlfeucon, VoLIV.;p.I3&. 



CHAP, hippopotami, a crocodile, a riiinoceros, Uttle drttgofu, and all the strange 
v.«-v^«i^ beasts of Egypt, which oonld be truisported +. 

Hippopotami were oftat exhibited. Soaurus. B.C. 58» introduced 
one with some crocodiles, for the first time; Augustus one; Commodus 
produced five; Carious many; besides HeHogabalas, GogcdiaU} and 
othera. Teeth of the hippopotamus attun the wdght of thirtem 
pounds. " Pausanius parle d'une statue de d^se dont la fiice etoit 
&ite de ces dents %" 

Elephants were first introduced into the circtu by Metdlns, (b^ore 
Christ, 251) who captured above a hundred and twenty frona the Car- 
thaginians, at the battle of Paleroio. The Boouxw. about fifty yean 
afterwards, first employed elephants in their war with Philip king of 
Macedon, at the battle of Lycus §. In order to show the Romans 
the nature of elephants, when they first began to use them in warfare, 
a consideraUe number were driven through die drcue, by a few slaves 
armad only with Uunt javeiUna %. 

t Lampridins, vide Bernard, Vol. I. p, 383. The little dragc»i, whatever it 
WUt If ftrand, raif^l be tbosglit to be of an extihct speei«g. 

t 9m Cwvier, Theorie Je la Tferre, et Owemens FbssHea. ReeiV Encyc. " HJp- 

I Iiv7.B.XXXI. 

n Gibbon, Cb. XII. The RomRus appear at lengftb to faare tamed elephants 
with at much skill as the Aiiatics. In the reign of Neroa djiitingaished RomaD 
koigbt rode along a rope upon an elephant. Suetonius, " Nero." Ch. XL 



ComeUus Scipio Nuica and C. Lentulus, were the first who intro- *^S^^' 
dnced combats between beasts and armed men. There were sixty- i^n^v-'*^ 
three lions, forty bears, and a great number of elephants let loose in 
the drcus. These were bloody battles, but the Rom&ns delighted in 
bloodshed. They thereby kept up that martial spirit, which nude 
them superior to all other nations f . 

In the year B.C. 168, there were shdwn to the people above sixty 
osttiches, uid a great number of elephants and bears X- 

In the ptocession of Antiochus Epiphanes, a chariot was drawn by 
two elephants; and thirty-six foHowed promiscuously: and there were 
eight hundred elephants' tusks. 

Besides that, Sylla bought the sufihtges of the Romans at a dear 
rate; he gratiiled them with a new and splendid show. Bocchus, 
king of Mauritania, sent him a hundred lions, and some Maurita- 
nians, who were accnstomed to fight them. It was a double pleasure 
to see them let loose upon men armed with spears, who knew how 
to avoid their attacks, and were very expert in striking them. This 
entertainment was thought afterwards to contribute as much tdfrards 
SyDa's promotion, as either Us reputation or his e^qtloits $. 

t tiry„B. XUV. Catroo, IV. p. 416. t Catroa, IV. p. 439. 

$ Catron, Vol. V. p. 316. 



Pompey brought a number of elephants from Africa, which he had 
captured in that country. He gave directions that his chariot should 
be drawn by four elephants: but the arch not being wide enough for 
them to pass abreast, he was forced to be content with horses as 

At the opening of his theatre, Pompey exhibited a variety of games, 
and battles with wild beasts : in which fire hundred lions were slain in 
five days. Eighteen elephants fought with one another, then with 
gladiators; and, lastly, with Getulian archers, who were hunters of 
wild elephants. Some were killed, when the survivors grew mad, 
and made terrible and furious efforts to break the iron grating which 
separated them from the spectators. Fear seized the assembly. It 
was soon turned into compassion for the poor animals. The elephants 
lifted up their trunks to heaven, as if to call on the Gods to wttness 
the perfidiousness of men: and the people concluded that they had 
been forced on board ship, after a promise that their lives shoidd be 
saved: for the Romans fancied that elephants had reason, and under- 
stood the language of men, though they could not answer them. This 
accident was the cause of Caesar's invention of the amphitheatre; 
which was more convenient than the circus, and not exposed to such 
dangers f. 

Julius C»sar, in his third consulship, exhibited forty elephants. 
Twenty were opposed to five hundred combatants on foot. And 

t Plutarch, "Pompey." LiTy,B.Yni. Catrou.Vol.V.p-^Sj VoI.VI. p.l27. 



twenty, witii turrets upon their backs, sixty men being allowed to CHAP, 

defend each turret* were engaged with five hundred horse and as .,^^~^.^m^ 
many foot t- 

Augustus indulged the people with the killing of thirty-six croco- 
diles, which were chased in the Flaminian circus J;. 

Augustus, when at Samos, received an embassy from Pandion and 
Porus, kings of the Indies, to conclude the treaty of alliance already 
b^[un by other Indian ambassadors, who had met the Emperor at 
Tarragon in Spain. These ambassadors had been four years oa their 
journey. They had a letter from Porus, written in Greek, in which 
he boasted of his having commanded over six hundred kings. They 
presented to Augustus pearls, jewels, elephants, tigers, (which last 
had never yet been seen by the Romans) § ; a serpent, twelve cubits 
long; a river turtle, three cubits long; vipers of a prodigious size, 
(cobra de capello?}; and a partridge larger than a vulture, (probably a 
florikin, or bustard). An Indian philosopher, who came with the am- 
bassadors, accompanied Augustus to Athens, where he was initiated 

t Kennet. p. 30S. Pliny, B. VIII. Ch. VII. 

X BioD CaBsius, B. LV. No one in modern timet would incur the expense of 
bringing large crocodiles and other animals from Egypt, aucb sports not being a 
mode of courting popularity. Augustus brought such immense treasures from 
Alexandriafthat the interest of money fell, and die price of land rose considerably; 
the expenditure was therefore not worth considering. See Suetonius, Ang. 
Cb. XLI. 

} This is a strong confirmation of there not being tigers in Africa ; and that the 
anioial named by Adamson "Tiger" in Senegal is aleopard: thehUterb^ngcalU 
ed TigerB, in Mwocco, according to Cbeuier, Vol. L p. 171. ' 



CHAP, in the mysteries of Ceres : immediately after which, he caosed a fUne- 
v.,«i-.y.ii^^ ral pile to be erected; and^ after rubbing himself with oil, he, with a 
smiling coantenance, leaped naked into the midst of the flames. His 
name was Zarmaaoch^as, he was a native of Bargosaf. 

There was a combat in which Nero's guards on horseback, shot 
with arrows four hnndred bears, and tiiree hundred lions |. 

Many persons hare seen Domilian kill a hundred wild beasts at his 
seat at Alba ; and strike his arrows into their heads, with such dexteri- 
ty, that he would, at two discharges of his bow, plant as it were, a pair 
of horns upon them. 

He also entertained the people with the chase of wild beasts and 
combats of Radiators, even in the night time, by the light of lamps §. 

" Domitian transported into Italy numbers of elephants; and a herd 
of them might be seen in the Rntnlian forest, near Lavininm, where 
Tumns, king of the Rutuli, reigned : the country was called Etni- 

Ottly on the hirth-dayg of Hadrian a thousand wild beasts were al- 
ways slain in the shows, which is mentitmed as a mai^ of his prudence 
and moderation ff . 

t Crevier, " Auguttiw." % Dion, Nero. % SuetODioi, Domitiaii. 

a'fl Juvenal. Sal. XIL Notes, 10&, 106. ft Benuud. VoLI. p. 49. 



The Roman people were exceedingly ddighted wiUi Claudius and 
with Nero, who gave them combats between single elephants and ex- 
perienced fencers. 

Etttropins, SnetiHiias, andCasBiodoros, say fire thousand (Dion Cas- 
sins asserts that nine thousand) wild beasts, of all kinds, were slaagh- 
t«red in the amphitheatre of Titus, at the dedicatiott of i t f . 

The Emperor Severns commanded a golden statue of Pertinax to 
be brought into the drcus upon a chariot drawn by elephants: 
and three golden thrones to be erected to his honour in the other 

Serems sent some offices into the islands of the red sea to fetch 
horses consecrated to the sun, and resembling tigers X- 

On the return of Severus from Arabia and Egypt, in the tenth year 
of his reign, at the games, sixty wild-boars fought with each other. 
An elephant, a crocota, bears, lions, ostriches, wild asses, and 
J^eign ivil*: in all, seven hundred beasts were killed with darts. 

Three hundred were domestic animals. Hie other four hundred 
were enclosed in a large ship, built in the amphitheatre, from which 
they weze let out all at once. This show was in the name of Cara- 
calla. Severus's triumph was celebrated at Tork. See Ch. XIII. and 
the medal, PUte I. A 12. 

t Eeyiler^ IVaveb, Letter LV. 

t Tbey were probably the Eqaas Zebra m- Qnagga, wbicb is e 
aemblance of the ti^r. 



On another occasion, tigers were shot witih dartsf. 

Heliogabalas gave the people a combat of forty bean against as 
many other beasts of Africa. During the excessive heat, they made 
use of the diribitorium for sports and combats, instead of the theatre. 
In one day five hmidred hear* were killed in a combat with as many 
other beasts from Africa %. 

Heliogabalus is said to have had six hundred ostriches slaugh- 
tered in one day, in order that he might have the brains served up 
as a dish, to pamper his appetite §. This immense number would 
appear quite incredible, did we^ not suppose that ostriches were 
formerly, as they are said to be at present, kept and bred in Africa. 

t DioD. There is a part of tbe akull with the faoroB of a foreign bull Ja the mu- 
seum of the Royal College. It was found in Britain. I am tempted to conjecture 
that SeveruB introduced tbe wild bull of the Highlands. Bulls were amoug the 
military rewardsof the Romans. Vide Encyc. Brit, "ftos." Rees'a Cyc. "Bull," and 
Ch. XIII. of this Vol. It has been said,thatthe Dorking fowls were introduced by 
the Romans. Canicalla and Geta were great cock-fighters. 

i Dion Cassius, Heliog ^The diribitorium was a building in which the soldiers 

were mustered, received their pay, &c. It waa an immense place, and bad the 
largest roof that had ever been known. 

§ This capricious monster is said, by Lampridius, to have fed bislionaand other 
wild beasts with pheasants and parrots, and his dogs with the lirers of geese. Al- 
so, that when his company was well in drink, he would lock them up, and in the 
night let in tamed lions, bears, and panthers, the claws and teeth of wbich had 
been extracted ; so that, when the guests awoke, they were sometimes struck dead 
with fright._6emard, Vol. I. p. 379. 



We know that bears were bred by the Romans. The inhabitants of CHAP. 

Dara, Lybia, Numidia, and Bomou, breed ostriches, for their flesh, as ^....^yl..^ 

foodj end for their feathers, as merchandise. It is asserted by Adan- 

soUj that, at the fectory at Podore, he had himself two ostriches that 

ran f^ter than a race-horse, each with a n^;ro upon his backf . 

Commodus, in the arena, intercepted the rapid career, and cat off 
the long bony neck of Uie ostrich with arrows, whose points were 
formed like a crescent. The dens of the amphitheatres disgorged at 
once a hundred lions, which he laid dead by his unerring shafts. The 
elephant, the scaly rhinoceros, the camelopard of Ethiopia and In- 
dia's most extraordinary animals were slain t- 

Commodus, who debased himself in every manner imaginable, ap- 
peared in the amphitheatre to please his concubine Martia, in the ha^ 
bit of an Amazon, a dress in which he most admired that &Tourite. 
He kiUed great numbers of gladiators, who were afraid to exercise all 
their dexterity or strength against the Emperor. The senate, even 
when he killed a lion or other animal, added their appUuses to those 
of the people, servilely crying out, "Thou overcomest the world: 
thou art the conqueror, O brave Amazonian!" — De Serviez, "Martia." 
Dion, Book 72. 

t Ree»'§ Encyc. " Stmthio." 
t Gibbon, Cb. IV. and note 84; nd Bernard, Vol. L p. 188. 



The pomp of Aurelian's triumph was opened by twenty elephante, 
' four royal tigers, and above two hundred of the most curious animalB 
from every climate of the North, the East, and the South. They 
were followed by sixteen hundred gladiators devoted to the cruel 
amusement of the amphiUieatre. The wetdth of Asia, the arms and 
ensigns of so many conquered nations, and the magnificent plate and 
wardrobe of Zenobia, (the captive Syrian Queen), were disposed in ex- 
act symmetry, or artful disorder* The ambassadors of Ethiopia, Ara- 
bia, Persia, Bactriana, India, and China, remarkable by tiieir rich and 
singular dresses, displayed the fame and power of the Roman Em- 
peror, who exposed his numerous presents, and a great number of 
crowns of gold. Captive Gotiis, Samutiaos, Syrians, Egyptians, and 
others, rductantly attended his triumph. Ilie title of Amazons was 
bestowed on ten martial heroines of the Gothic nation, who had been 
taken in arms. The beauteous figure of Zenobia was confined by fet- 
ters of gold: a slave supported the gold chain which encircled her 
neck; and she almost fointed under the intolerable weight of jewels. 
She preceded, on foot, the magnificent chariot in which she once 
hoped to enter the gat^ of Rome. It was followed by two other cha- 
riots still more sumptuous, of Odenathus and the Persian monarch. 
The triumphal car of Aurelian was drawn by four stags or four ele- 
phants. The festival was protracted by theatrical representations, 
the games of the circus, the hunting of wild beasts, combats of £^ia- 
torB,and naval engagements f. 

The only merit of Carinus that history could record^ was the un- 



common Bp!endoiiT with which, in his own and his hrother*8 name, he 
e^iibited the Roman games of the theatre, the circus, and the amphi- 
theatre. If we confine ouraelTes solely to the hunting of wild heasts, 
however we may censure the variety of the design, or the cruelty of the 
execution, we are obliged to confess that neither before nor since the 
time of the Romans, so much art and expense have ever been laviBhed 
for the amusement of the peoplef . 

By the order of Pn^us, a great number of large trees, torn up by 
the roots, were transplanted into the midst of the circus. The spa- 
cious and shady forest was immediatdy filled with a thonsand ostriches, 
a thousand stags, a thousand fallow-deer, and a thonsand wild-boars; 
and all this variety of game was abandoned to the riotous impetuodty 
of the multitude. The toagedy of the succeeding day consisted in 
the massacre of a hundred lions, and an equal number of lionesses, (the 
whole of which, entering the amphitheatre at once, made a roaring 
like thunder), two hundred let^pards, and three hundred bears t. 

The year that Gordian the First was sedile, he entertained the people 
of Rome, at his own expense, each month, or twelve times, with public 

t Gibbon, Ch. XII. BriUiD wm one of the gov«niments under Cariniu, with 
the fall power of Emperor, dnrtog his Other's absence in the East. Angiwtan H»- 
(orjr, Cariniu. 

t ITwse games were to celebrate the conqoests of Probns in Oermaoy, and 
over the Africans, between Upper Egypt and the Bed Sea. Aneutan Hiitorr, 
Vol. U. p. 296. 



CHAP, shows. Hehad ahundred wildbeasteof AfHcahuntedinonedsT. On 
v^,^_Y.I„^ another day a *AotManrf&fiar*f; his sixth day 18 very memorable. There 

were two hundred stout stags, hunted by Britons; thirty wild horses, 
one hundred wild sheep, ten elks, a hundred Cyprian bulls, three hun- 
dred red Barbary ostriches, thirty wild asses, one hundred and fifty 
boars, two hundred wild goats, and two hundred deer. All these he 
gave in one day to be hunted, taken, and divided among the people {. 

At the decennial games, instituted by GalHenus the First, he went 
to the capital in a procession of the senators in their robes, the sol- 
diers clad in white, the people, many slaves, and the women holding 
wax tapers and lamps. They were preceded by a hundred white oxen, 
yoked two and two, with their horns gilt, and covered with silken 
clothes of divers colours; a hundred pnre white lambs, two and two ; 
ten elephants, twelve hundred gladiators dressed in cloUi embroidered 
with gold, such as ladies wear; two hundred tamed wild beasts, of se- 
veral kinds, finely adorned; with players, mimics, and pugiHsts. Gal- 
lienus, in a triumphal gown and tuuick, was accompanied by all the 
priests in their robes. There were five hundred spears of gold borne 
on each side: standards, arois and ensigns of the temples, and all the 
legions §. 

f Collections of bones of beers have beeo foiiDd in Germany, at Gulenieutb, &«. 
Beart were bred in former times, both, for food and sport. A very few shows, such 
as this of Gordian's, would produce an immense collection of bonca: and as the. Bo* 
mans had bears from Numidia, (see Beloe's Herodotus, Melpomene, CXCI. and 
note 188), they might be of a species unknown to modem naturalisto. See also 
Dion Cassias, " Heliogabalus." 

t Augustan Hist. Vol. II. p. 38. § Augustan Hist. Vol. II. p. 117. 



The collection prepared for the youDger Crordian and his triumph, 
and which his successors exhibited in the secular games, was no less 
remarkahle hy the number than by the singularity of the animals. 
Twenty zebras displayed their elegant forms and variegated beauty to 
the eyes of the Roman people. Ten elks, and as many camelopards, 
the most harmless creatures that wander over the plains of Sarmatia 
and Ethiopia; were contrasted with thirty AMcan hyenas and ten 
Indian tigers, the most implacable savages of the torrid zonef. The 
unoffending strength with which nature has endowed the greater 
quadrupeds, was admired in the rhinoceros, the hippopotamus of the 
Nile, and a majestic troop of thirty-two depbants |. 

Gratian enclosed large parks in Gaul, one was at Paris; all of them 
plentifuUy stocked with wild beasts, where he bunted and slew them§. 

Since the first introduction of wild beasts into the circus, to the 
reign of Gratian, is six hundred and thirty-four years. After this pe- 
riod these ezpensire amusements were probably discontinued, the 
Goths having invaded the empire. A more diligent search might, not- 
withstanding the poverty of history on such subjects, produce an ac- 

t Tigers were at this time procured from India, by sbips from the Red Sea, or 
the Persian Galf. Firmiu, who assumed the purple, and kept possession of part of 
Zenobia's country, sent oAentimes sbips of merchandise into India. Bernard, 
Vol. II. p. 304. 

J Gibbon, Ch. XII. and Bernard, Vol. II. pp. 71, 296. (About A.D. 280.) 

§ Gibbon, Cb. XXVII.— A.D. 389. 



count of much greater numbers of quadrupeds and oth^ animals, but 
' the reader will probably think that the number here presented is much 
more than sufficient for the object of these researches. The following 
is a list of such animals shun in the games and sacrifices, by the Romans, 
as can be ascertained ; though there may have been many others, as no 
country was neglected, and no expense spared to procure the most 
rare and curious animals, for many centuries. 

* Ataea, wild — Bears — Bisontes — Boars — BufiUoes — Bidk, and fo- 
reign ones — Camels— Camelopards — Crocodiles— droeo//a, an ani- 
mal between a dog and a wolf. Pliny, B. Vm. Ch. XLI. — CroaUa^ 
an animal between a hyaena and a lioness. PUny, B. VIII. Ch. XXX. 
DragoTu, (tittle ones) frtmi Egypt by Heliogabalus. It is not easy to 
conjecture what this may have been. The long necked creature 
named Plesiosaurus, is perhaps the nearest resemblance to bo uncer- 
tain B name. — I>eer of sU kinds — Domestic animals of all kinds, Oxen, 
Sheep, Birds, &c. — Elephants — Elks— JJorev — Hippopotamuses — 
Morses — Hysenas — Leopards — Lions — Lynxes — Orixet, or Oryges, 
with one horn — Ostriches — /fulfon Oxen — Panthers — Rhinoceroses 
— Stags — Tigers — Ttertlea. (Augustus had a river turtle, from India, 
three cubits long.) Zebras; and probably Quaggas,by Sevems. 

Besides this list of animals, named by the Romans as having been 
exhibited, remains of others not noticed, as far as these researches go, 
have been found — ^the beaver, tapir, and mastodon, (probably by the Ro- 
mans called elephant): and they are known to have exhibited some ani- 
mals, the bones of which have not been detected, as fiu as the writer's 

knowledge extends the camelopard, zebra, ostrich — nor has tiiere 

ever occurred in this research, a single instance of the mention 

* Those in Italics are not represented in the engnriDg of the circus; nor is 
the Irish elk. 

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of camelg' bones being found, of which there must be vast numbers in CHAP. 

^ XI. 

Siberia, and some in Europe: this is a very remarkable tatct, and may v-m-v***^ 

account for many b(mes, which have puzzled those who found them, 

or have been supposed to belong to other large quadrnpeda. 


The oryx of Pliny is siud to be an antelope with two horns, slender, 
straight, and three feet long. See Bnfibn and Rees's Cyc. " Pasan." 

In all ages, and all countries, the wticom is mentioned. Timur 
killed rhinoceroses and unicorns, on the frontiers of Cashmere. Vide 
Chap. rV. of this volume. Can these assertions arise from antelopes, 
or oUier animate, sometimes shedding one horn before the other? If 
they ever do so, they may have often been seen without having been 
killed; and die sportsman not having an opportunity to examine 
diem, Uius some of the reports might arise. 

Ptolemy's carriages, according to Atheneeos, were drawn by orizes, 
with one horn. There have lately been reports of a kind of deer with 
one horn having been seen in Napaul, but there is no confirmation of the 
truth of these rumours. Mr. Bell, Journey to Pekin, Chapter II. says 
tiiat a hunter in Siberia, near the Irtish, (wMeh it due north <^ Napmd) 
told him, and that his story was confirmed by several of his neigh- 
bours, that in March, 1713, being out huntii^ he discovered the track 
of a stag, which he pursued and overtook, when he was startled by 
perceiving that it had only one horn, stuck in the middle of its fore- 
head. He killed it, and shewed it, being near his village, to the great 
admiration of the spectators. He ate the flesh, and sold the horn to a 
comb maker, in the town of Tara, for ten alteens, about fifteen pence 
sterling. I made cwefiil enquiries, says Mr. B. about this nnicom — he 

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told me that it exactly resembled a stag, and that the horn was of a 
' brownish colour, about one arsheen (or twenty-eight inches) long, and 
twisted from the root, till witiiin a finger's length of the top, where it 
was divided like a fork into two points, veiy sharp. 

Heliogabalus (Montfaucon, TV. 125), as well as Ptolemy, was drawn 
by oryges with one horn. The pasan is too small for the purpose of 
drawing a carriage. 

As the Romans and Egyptians, for their processions and spectacles, 
left no part of A&ica and Asia unexplored, and gave extravagant 
prices for curious animals, it is not impo^ible, but the unicorn may 
yet be found. It is not confounded with the rhinoceros in the above 
accounts, that animal being also mentioned in them. 

Aristotle also classes the oryx as having one horn. Oppian de- 
scribes it as a fierce animal. — See notes to Herodotus, Melpomene, 
CXCII. A Mahomedan prince is said to have sent two unicorns to 
Mecca, in the year 1799, from Africa. Rees's Cyc. "Monoceros." 

A very interesting dissertation, with a drawing on this subject, in 
Barrow's Travels in Africa, Vol.1. p.311to320, leaves scarcely a 
doubt of the existence of animals with one horn, and in sixe tmd shape 
like a horse. The countries reported to contain the unicorn are those 
which are least known. In Africa from South Lat. 30" to North Lat. 
10° or two thousand seven hundred end eighty British {miles in length, 
and two thousand miles in breadth at the equator, a space more con- 
siderable than all Europe, is to modems utterly unknown. See also 
the vast countries between Hindustan and Siberia, which are equally 
unvisited by any intelligent European. With respect to Africa, the 
Romans were acquainted with the interior as far as latitude 14° stwih, 
" Comme aujourdTiui on connoit assez bien les c6tes de I'Afrique, et 
tr^s-mal I'interieur, les anciens connoissoient assez bien I'interieur 
et tr6s-mal les c6tes " — (Esprit des Lois, Liv. XXI. Ch. X.) See 



also Ptolemy, Lib. I. Ch. VII. VIII. & IX. Tab. IV. See the an- 
cient coin found in Herefordshire, in Chap. XIII. Plate 1, of this v 
Vol. Does not this assist in proving that such an animal was known? 
The wings on the man's shoulders rather weaken that conjec- 
ture, but are not decisive against it. llie shap^ of the tail and breast 
of the unicorn, are a presumption that it is a portrait. The legend 
on this coin VLATOS ATEVLA, are words not in the Latin dic- 
tionary; and Camden could not explain them. The coin appears to 
be like the British money of the first century, and the same legend is 
found on other coins, with a horse and some other animals. Banduri 
conjectures that Atevla means Attila; but this is not probable. Per- 
haps some one well acquainted with the Greek, may be able to afford 
an elucidation, if the legend, although the characters are Boman, be 
derived from that language. 

A British officer reported, in July, 1825, that he saw an unicorn in 
the thick woods of Aracan. Vincent Le Blanc relates (see Ch. VII. 
of this Vol.) that there are unicorns and rhinoceroses in Siam, and that 
in the queen's park at Pegu there is an unicorn called Drougala, and 
the head of another, with the horn in the middle of the upper part of 
the forehead, set fast upon a fountain. Le Blanc mentions their be- 
ing remarkably timid. In addition to all these probabilities, there 
were among the remains of the animals found at Cadstadt near Stut- 
gard, " beaucoup d'os de rhinoceros, d'hysnas et d'animaux du genre 
du cheval." As Ptolemy Philadelphus possessed so many of these 
aninuls, the probability is that they exist in Africa, in those vast re- 
^ons undiscovered by modem Europeans. This conjecture is much 
strengthened, by the resemblance of this animal on the coin to that 
in Mr. Barrow's Travels. 



Remain) of Elephants and Wild Beasts foitnd in Italy France 

I^dly Spain Germany; and other Countries. 

CHAP. 3l0ST of the following extracts of tfae places, where bones have 
Vrf«Pv--'«^ ^^^^ found, in Europe, are irom the Baion Curier's great work. 


X-r Rome, in the valley of the Tiber, great numbers of fossil bones 
of elephants and various wild beasts were found. 

Note. — At Rome there were amphitheatres; and one at Fidene, 
on the banks of the Tiber, a few miles distant from Rome. By 
the sudden fall of this amphitheatre, fifty thousand persons were killed 
or hurt. 

At Verona, three leagues distant, many bones of elephants and 
other animals. 

Note. — ^At Verona there was an amphitheatre; and it is shewn, 
in Ch. X. that animals were generally kept at some distance from 

At PuxxuoU, remains of elephants. 

^Tote.— There was an amphitheatre at Puzzuoli. 



At IHtOr remains of dephanto. 

]!fote. — Pisa was an important municipiam, and, we may suppose, 
had its amphitfaeatre. 

At Orvieto, remains of elephants. 

Note. — The amphitheatre at Otriculi is near Orvieto. 

At AneOHa, remains of elephants, 

Note,-^Aaoot» is about twelve miles from Sena (now Sengaglia.) 
" Both the Roman army ^mmanded by Nero, and the Carthagin- 
ian army under the command of Asdnibal, who had elephants, encamp- 
ed near Sena." — Catrou, III. p. 415. 

At Metauro, remains of elephants. 

Note. — ^The Consul, Claudius Nero, at the battle of the Metaurus, 
defeated Asdrubal. He captured four elephants; and six were killed 
by the Ctfthaginians, being quite ungovernable, and creating much 
confusion.— Livy, B. XXVII. Ch. XLVIII. Catrou, III. 416. 

Near Turin, elephants* bones. 

Note. — Hannibal besieged and took Turin, on his descent ttom 
the Alps.— Catrou, Vol. III. p.«8. 

Piedmont: in the province of Asti, two skeletons of elephants. 

Note. — Hannibal marched ftom Turin by Chivas, north of the Po. 
It is not said whereabouts the bones were found, but the province of 
Asti commences close to Turin.. See the map in Ch. IX. 

At PlaUance, distant nine miles, and two from the Trebia, a fossil 

" If ever there was a fossil elephant, which might be consider- 
ed as one of Hannibal's, it is that found two miles from the Tre- 
bia, and nine above Plaisance ; but, as if to contradict these conjec- 
tures, the heed of a rhinoceros was found near H."— Cnvier, p. 94. 

Note. — Asdrubal besieged Haoenda, twelve years aftn Hannibal had 
been there. — Cal3rou,in. p. 411. There was an amphi&eatre (the 



CHAP. largest Id Italy, Bees's Eocyc.) at Placeotie, which may account for 
'^^^-^^^^m,^ the rhinoceros. 

Little Mount St. Bernard; at the foot of the mountaia, all the bohes 
of an elephant were dug up. 

Note. — Hannibal crossed the Alps over the little St. Bernard; and, 
twelve years afterwards, Asdrubal passed over the same route. His- 
toire du passage d'Annibal, d'apr^s Polybe par A. J. De Luc : also, 
Catrou, Vol. III. p. 65, and the notes, by Father Rouill^. — See the 
map of Hannibal's march, in Chap. IX. 

Near Florence parts of the skeletons of at least a hundred hippopo- 
tami, mixed in great abundance with the remains of elephant and 
rhinoceros, with those of horses, oxen, deer, hysBna, bear, tiger, wolf, 
mastodon, bog, tapir, and beaver. — Quarterly Beview, LVII. p. 153. 

Note.-^To what possible origin can these be attributed but an am- 
phitheatre, which there undoubtedly must have been at Florence, and 
probably at Fsesula? Two or three hundred years would produce all 
these hippopotami, which were to be had from the Roman province of 
Egypt, without much difficulty. Many of their bones are found near 
a hollow or valley, similar to that at Kirkdale, and which might easily 
be converted into a take for the hippopotami. 

In the Upper Vol d'Amo, great numbers of elephants' bones. 

At Figlene, upon the Arao, great numbers, mixed with bones of the 

Note. — " To the classical tourist, the road from Incisa (not far from 
Figlene) to Levane, presents the site where Hannibal halted his army, 
previous to an engagement at Thrasymenus, with the Roman legions 
under the Consul Flaminlus. The fossil bones <^ elephants have been 
found there, and are considered to be the remains of t^ose animals 
slain in the engagement: but it is probable thbt they are the lemquit 
of some conflict of the dements."MUdy. Morgan's Italy, Vc^ XI. 



p. 144. See the description of Hannibal's inarch in Ch. IX. and the 

At Cortolm and at Pervgia some elephants' bones. 

Note. — Cortona is about five miles on the north, and Perugia about 
six on the east side of the lake Thrasymenus. Tlie last elephant may 
have died of fatigue, or have been killed in the battle, at one of those 
places. See Ch. IX. 

The Vol de CMano, bonea of the elephant. 

Note.—Tb» Val de Chiano b about forty miles north of Rome. 
There is an amphitheatre at Otriculi, which is in the neighbourhood of 
the Yal de Chiana 

At Lake Lamporeeei, some bones of the elephant. 

N'oie. — Not found on the map, nor jn gazetteers. 

At Valde Nievole, numbers of elephants' bones. 

Note. — ^Not found. 

Near Benevento and at AvelHno, elephants' remains. 

Note. — AveUino is twelve miles from Benevento. There were 
eight elephants captured, at the terrible battle of the Taurasian fields, 
near Beneventum, by Curius, who defeated Pyrrhus. Four died, and 
four were led in triumph at Rome. — Catrou, II. 483. 

At Bologna, elephants* remains. 

Note. — Bologna was a colony and a municipium, and therefore had, 
probably, an amphitheatre. It is on the road from Placentia, from 
which place Asdnibal. with his elephants, marched to Sena. — Catron. 
III. 415. 

In Tuacaiu/, hippopotamus' and rhinoceros' bones mixed. 

Note. — ^Florence was built by Sylla, and must have had an amphi- 
theatre, and also Pisa. No one can doubt this after reading the chap- 
ter on amphitheatres. 

At Conenwt in Calabria, elephants' bones. 



CHAP. Note. — Hannibal was enctunped at Croton in further Calabria, 
^_g ~'-^> where he beat Sempronius in a second battle: the consul killed four 

thousand Carthaginians. CoserUia trembled at the consul's approach, 

aud surrendered at discretion. Livy, B. XXIX. Ch. XXXVI. Ca- 

trou. III. 501. Hannibal was about twelve years in Italy, and was 

kept constantly supplied with great numbers of elephants, by way of 

the gulph of Taranto. The fossil bones are few indeed compared with 

the vast number of elephants killed in the wars aud amphitheatres ; 

especially when it is considered, that one animal produces a cart load 

of bones, and eight grinders. Hannibal lived generally at Capua ; and, 

south of that city, many fossil bones of elephants must have been 

buried by the frequent earthquakes in Italy. 


At i^zTM, remains of the elephant, os, rein-i^er, and other fossil 
bones have been found, and, near them, trunks of trees. 

^ofe.—Gratian, Emperor of the West, brother of Theodosius thfe 
Great, made large parks in several places in Gaul, and one at Paris; 
all of which were plentifully stocked with wild beasts. He was amus- 
ing himself in slaughtering lions and bears in his park at Paris, with 
his ScytMim hunting friends from the Volga, when tJie British Em- 
peror, Maximns, invaded Gaol; and Gratian was driven away. — See 
the chapter on Britain in this volume. The trees and the rein-deer 
prove, apparently, that this was the very park alluded to. Have the re- 
mains of u>Ute bears been found? The mnp6ithetUre at Panv was on 
the aoutJi of the present university.— See Gibbon, Qi. XIX. 

At Serre St. An^ne, St. Valier, Lavottie, (J>ep. 6£ Ardeche) ; At 
Tain, diocese of Vienne, remains of elephants. 



Note. — These five places are aU near the banks of the Rhone, on the 
inarch where Hannibal passed with thirty-seven elephants, and Asdrubal v 
with a number not known: he amred in Italy with fifteen — See the 
map of Hannibal's march. 

At MontrecaxU, elephants* remains. 

Note. — I cannot find any name thus spelt; MontregatU is a few 
leagues north-east of Tain : if t^ be the right place, it is also on the 
route of the Carthaginians. 

At Mon^lier, elephants' remains. 

Note. — Hannibal and Asdrubal passed through Montpelier: and 
the amphitheatres at Nismes and Aries are not far from it. 

At Flatve de GrcTielle, remains of the elephant. 

Note. — This is not in the Gazetteer, except it be the place on the 
coast of Provence, called Grenelle. " A victory was gained by Caesar, 
in a battle with the Gauls, by a sio^e elephant.— Polysenus, B. VIII. 


Remains of elephants have been found at Palermo, and at Messina. 

Note. — At the great victory obtained by Metellus, over the Cartha- 
ginians, commanded by an officer named AsdrttbaU at Panormus, (Pa- 
lermo), many elephants were killed ; and more than a hundred were cap- 
tured. They were sent across the straits oi Messma to Rhegium. — 
Catrou, Vol II. p. 591. 

At Syracuse, elephants' bones have been found. 

Note. — At Syracuse there was an amphitheatre, another at Cata- 
nia, and one at Agrigentum. The Carthaginians possessed great 
part of Sicily. 




At the bridge of Toledo, and at the bridge of Manxmutree, remains 
of elephants have been found. 

Note. — Althea, near Toledo, was taken by assault by Hannibal He 
also gained a great victory on the banks of the Tagus, the waters of 
which were red with blood, over the Carpetani, whose capital was To- 
ledo. A number of Spaniards were trodden to death by his elephants, 
ofwhichhehad forty.— Pliny. Polybius, B. III. Ch. XIV. Livy, 
B. XXI. Ch. V. Catron, Vol. IV. pp. 40, 47. 

Asdrubal, who had numerous elephants, destroyed the country of 
the Carpetani with lire and swcnrd. Madrid is on the Manzanares, and 
is said to be the antient Mantua Carpetanorum. — Livy, B. XXIV. Ch. 
XLII. Rees Cyc. " Madrid." Two years or less afterwards, when 
' Asdrubal was defeated by the two Scipios at Munda in Granada> 
thirty-nine of his elephants were slain. 

There are the remains of an amphitheatre at Seville. 


Remains of elephants have been found in the 8u>iss valleys, near 
the Rhine, at Geneva and at Lucerne*. 

* A consul, an ancestor of Nero, having conquered the Allobro^ea and the 
Avemi, made a tour of the proTJnce mounted upon an elephant, with s body 
of soldiers attending him, in n sort of triumpha) pomp. — Suetonius, " Nero." Ch. IL 
Geneva, was the Colonin Allobrogum. — See Map of Hannibal's march. 

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Id the gretU vtdUy f^ the Rhine many bones of elephants, some at 
Cleve» (with rhinoceros' bones) and some at Zu^hen*. 

In the environs of Strashvrg some fossil elephants' bonesf . 

In TJmringia, Com. of Burgtouna, bones of elephants, rhinoceroses, 
and stags, at great depths. Two elephants at the depth of fifty feet, 
and at a little distance, in similar beds, " des bois du cerf, 6u elan fos- 
sile ." At BaUtadt, a near village, rhinoceros' teeth. 

Near Heidelberg, elephants* bones were found, and also at Manheim, 
Wvrtahurg, and Bamberg. In the valley of Kocher, near Halle in 
Swabia, tusks and bones ; near Pattau, elephants' bones ; and near Aich- 
tied, with bones of the hysena. At Krembs elephants' bones, and al- 
so "le corps (fun ntattodonte a dents etroites." At Kayter-SteinhrHch, 
Buggau, and Vag-UgeH, on the river Vag, in Hungary, elephants' 
bones. In several places of ^tin^ary and Trtnuy^rratia, some bones; 
generally in marshes. " Une tres grande machoire inferieure etoit un 
peu an dessus du retranchement des Romains, qui va de la Teiss au 
Danube, vis-a-vis Peterwaradin." 

Note. — History is too imperfect to permit of tracing all these places. 
But the wars of Hadrian in Dacia; and the Roman troops sent by 

* The Romans had a vast number of vessels always upon the Rhine, We find 
a thousand constructed at one time, (some large for engines of war), and ordered 
by Germanicus to meet at the isle of Bataria. The B^tavians were defeated, and 
the countries to the Elbe were conquered. Some of the vessels were driven to 
Britain by a tempest, and sent back by the British King Cunobeline. Tacitns, An. 
II. May it be conjectured, that elephants were conveyed about this river for ex- 
hibitions; and for amphitheatres in the camps and towns, when there was such a 
rage for those sights? The amphitheatre at Treves may account for many of the 
bones, besides Colonia Agrippina, and Colooia Trajana, now Col<^e and Kel- 
len (near Cleves). Eight legions were kept constantly on the Rhine by Augus- 
tus, and four on the Danube. 

t Julius Cfesur gained a victory at Strasburg, which Zosimus, p. 68, compares 
with that of Alexander over Darios. Sixty thousand were killed, and as many 
more drowned in the river. 



CHAP. Antoninus Pius to Olbiopolis on the Dneiper, to act against the Scy- 
s.^^'ym^ thians, prove that hirge armies went more to the East than any of 
the places where those fossil bones are found. The conquest of Dacia 
required a war office years* duration. — See Julius Capitohnus in Ber- 
nard, Vol.1, p. 100. "Probus conquered all the country near the 
Euxine." Vopiscus in Bernard, Vol. II. p. 287. (See forward.) 

Near Wo^enbuitle, a whole skeleton. At Bnauwick, at the depth 
of tweWe feet, one tusk, eleven feet long; one fourteen feet eight 
inches, curved in a half-circle * ; with nine others, and at least thirty 
grinders, twenty-two of which are like other fosnl molar teeth ; mixed 
with bones of rhinoceroses, horses, oxen, and stags, in prodigious 

At Osterode, a skeleton, with two bones of a rhinoceros. Near Steig^ 
erthal, (Hohenstein), four grinders ; (also an under jaw of a faysna, and, 
atthe distance ofa league, some bones of a rhinoceros). Between HaUe 
(in Saxony) and Querfurt, many elephants* bones, some of which were 
found in a quarry of hard stone, apparently in a cleft (" fente "). At 
Covjf/, and several places inHease, elephants bones: at Soderthaasent 
elephants' bones much calcined. At Pottditm, elephants* bones: near 
Magdeburg, elephants' bones f . 

In Bohemia, some elephants* bones in several places. 

Note — Marcus Aurelius waged war in person for about three years 
together against many nations who had confederated. The Emperor 
in person, and the principal officers, marched at the head of the troops : 
this war was very obstinate, and many of the nobility were killed. The 
nations were the Quadi, (by the Danube and the river Mark); Suevi, 
(between the Rhine and the Elbe); Sarmatse, (very undefined, Poland, 


* This curve is like that of the tiuks of the Lena elephant. Mr. Aduus nw 
a tusk at Yakoutsk, 6rteen feet loo; (Frencli). 
t See the Note**, p. 319. 



Russia, &c); Latringes, (LiTcmia> Riga); Bursi, Victovali, Sosives, Si- 
cobateSfRoxalani; (the Ukraine) ; Bastanue, (Upper Hungary); Alani, 
(the countries by the Don and the Palus Msotis); Costoborei, (this and 
sereral others are uneerttdn) ; Marcomanni, Narisei, (Bohemia and Mo- 
nria). This war was resumed, and was not finished at the Emperor's 
death. — CapitoUnus in Aug. Hist, p. 132. 

At Seelberg,(oa the otiier side of the Necker), six hundred ptces 
frcHii Oaustadt> at the depth of eighty feet, thirteen tusks, in general 
much curved, placed near each other, as if intentionally, and' several 
separately; also a number of grinders, from two inches to one foot in 
length. Bones of the horse, stag, a number of rhinoceros' teeth ; 
others supposed to be of the bear, and one attributed to the tapir. 
Kear the walls of Canttadtj a skeleton and two tusks. 

At Cemttftdt, (three miles from Stutgard), in the year 1700, a vast 
collection of bones was found, none at a greater depth than twenty 
feet " Sans aucun ordre, en gnmde partie bris^ ; quelquesuns roules. 
sans aucune proportion entre eux: des dents de cfaevauz par charet- 
t^es, et pas des os pour la dixieme partie de ces dents*: plus de soiz- 
ante defenses, une tr;^ courbee, de cinq et demi pieds, une autre de 
quatre et demi. Les os des elephans paroissent avoir et^ plus elev^, 
que la plupart des autres. Une partie etoit engag^e dans une espece 
de roc, fermee par de I'argile, du sable, des caiUeux et de I'ocre ; a^lu- 
tines ensemble, et Ton fut oblige d'employer la poudre pour !es avoir. 
Ces OS sont accompagnes dans le cabinet, de beaucoiip d'os de rhino- 
ceros, d'hyseue, et d'animaux du genre da cheval f, du cerf, du bteiif, 

* Hones, bulli, and other domettic animak, were ilBJa ia the ampbitbeatret, 
Montfaucoa, Vo). IIL Julin Canar exhibked a combat of forty elepbaate 
against fire bundred bone aad one tbonsand foot Keoaet, p. 368. Plioyt ^bL 
H»t. Lib. VIII. Cb. VII. 

t PoHibly the cebra, quagba ur orix f wbicb were at Rome not uncommoii. 
Sererus broagbt hories reaemUing tigen, fron tbe Bed Sea. Sioo Canhia. 

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du Hivre et petits carnassiers •. De tr^s grandes epiphyses de vertfe- 
I bres, ponrroient Fure soup90iuier des c^tasesf . Il-y-a aussi quelques 
fragmens kanutins. Malheureusement, on n'a pas assez distingue 
les hauteurs diff^rentes, 6u chaqne os fut trouve, pendant six mois 
que les fonilles dur^rent, ni les os qui etoient dans le retranche- 
ment mentionn^ par Reisel, de ceux qu'on trouva hors de ses 
Ihnites. On deterra, par example, aussi des morceaux de charhon 
et des fragments d'objets fabriques par I'homme, comme des vaseSj 
&c. qui assurSment n'avoient pas ete deposes en meme temps que 
les grands os %. Reisel dit qu'il y avoit des debris d'un ancien mur, 
€pais de huit pieds et de quatre vingts de tour, qui paroit avoir ete 
I'enceinte d'un fort ou d'un temple; et Ton Toit en effet encore 
quelques Testes §. Aussi Spleiss conclut-il que ces os etoient ceux 
des animaux qu'on sacrifioit; mais ils etoit pour la plupart bien 
plus profondement que les fondations de ce mur : d'ailleurs Ton en 
trouve encore plus pr^ du Necker, dans un sol naturel, et tout sem- 
blable ^ celui 6u on les deterra. 

Tout ce qu'on pourroit conclure de leur aboudance dans cette en- 
ceinte, c'est qu'ils avoient deja ^te une fois deterres et rassembl^ a cet 
endroit par quelque curieux. 

M. Autenrieth a trouve dans le voisinage une foret enti^re de 
tronc II de palmiers couches. 

* Sometimea three liundred oxen were sacrificed. Livy, B. XXII. Ch. X. 

Hares and deer Kennet, p, 276. Swine, sheep, eagles, lions, a hundred at a 

time Bernard, Vol. II. p. 86. 

t Bones of wbaleg and other sea animuls were sometimes exhibited. By Au- 
gUBtiis._See Suetonius, Ch. LXXII. By Scauras See Catron, Vol. VI. p. 96. 

X Sacrifices aud games were common for a great many centuries. 

% Sacrificial Temples were round. Kennet, p. 84. 

y These trunks uf trees are rery probably the wrecks of an amphitheatre, see 
Chap. X. The rases assist in proving a Romaa origin. 

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Note.* • — The Emperor Probus, after slaying near four hundred 
thousand of the barbarians, (and the entire submission of nine 
kingdoms), drove the rest beyond the rivers Elbe and the Necker. 
He took as much booty from them, as they had taken from the Ro- 
mans ; besides which, he planted Roman colonies and garrisons on the 
barbarian soil, and placed his soldiers upon them.^ — ^Bernard, Vol. II. 
p. 289, from Flavins Vopiscns. The great stone wall which Probus 
caused to be built by the Roman legions reached from the neighbour- 
hood of Newstadt and Ratisbon on the Danube, across hills, rallies, 
rivers, and morasses, as far as Wimpfen on the Neeker, and at length 
terminated on the banks of the Rhine, after a winding course of near 
two hundred miles. — See Gibbon, Ch. XII. As Probus had been 
much in Egypt, and possessed such vast numbers of wild beasts, (see 
Ch. XI.) there can be little doubt but that the troops, during this 
labour, and especially on the fulfilment of their arduous task, were in- 
dulged with the combats of beasts, and other amusements, which were 
usual in the camps : and that the reduced kings and their subjects 
would be conciliated by the like means. Probus transplanted a great 
number of Vemdals into Thrace. — Augustan Hist. Vol II. 293. He 
also sent some Vandals to Britain, who, it is supposed, settled near 
Cambridge, and from whom a village was named Vandalsburg. See 
Rees's Cyc. ** Vandals." The history or life of Probus is exceedingly 
imperfect, having been lost ; and there remains little more than has 
been preserved in the Augustan History, by Flavius Vopiscus, which 
see, p. 273. 

In Poland a few bones have been found. 

Note. — There is perhaps not a place mentioned where bones have 
been found, that was not visited by large Roman armies, and most of 
them even by Emperors. Trajan twice invaded Dacia, and the wars 
were long and difficult: he made it a province of the empire, and plant- 



ed it with Roman colonida. On bis return to RomSi the spectacles 
lasted for months: eleven thousand various beasts were slain; and ten 
thousand gladiators combated. — Augustan History. VoL I. p. 80. On 
the other occasion of his return from Dacia> a medal was stmok to 
celebrate his victory, upon which is represented a chariot drawn by 
four elephants. — Haym. YvA. II. p. 306. Augustus, partly in person, 
and partly by his lieutenants, conquered Pannonia, (Hungary). He 
put a stop to the inroads of the Dacians, (Transylvania, Moldavia, and 
Wallachia), by cutting off three of their generals with vast armies. 
He drove the Germans beyond the Elbe. — Suetonius, " Aug." XXI. 
Domitian invaded Germany, Poluid, and Dacia. If bones of ele~ 
phants, and such wild beasts as were slain in the Roman games, are 
found in any places, not known to be mentioned as having been fre- 
quented by the Romans, can thb same cause for their existence, in 
such places, be doubted ? May not some of those countries have adt^t- 
ed the like sports by purchasing beasts? 

In Ostrobothnie, a grinder. At Falkenburg, in Halland, two bones. 
In Iceland, a petrified grinder *. Pontoppidan mentions, from Tor*- 
foeus, a prodigious skull and tooth. 

* Such instancea ofbonei, whidi may bare been conreyed by travellenf aa 
curioaitieH, cannot be supposed to affect the general question. — The late perioda 
of the conquests in the abore countries bare been selected in preference to those 
of Ctesar and others, in comeqiience of the Romans having subdued Egypt, and 
then possessing such numbers of wild beasts. — All the elephants and wild beastSi 
shown from the earliest times as curiosities, must hare produced many of the re* 
mains of single animals, which have been found. 

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Sketch of the History of Roman Britain, ending A. D. 427. 

Julius Ctesar, Claudius. Elephants^ Britain is vi- 
sited by many Emperors. York, the Head Quarters of the 

Roman Empire for three years* -Mines. Wealth. 

Teu^les. Baths. Amphitheatres. ■■ — — British Empe- 
rors. Carausius; his powerful jleet; he sails to Africa. 

Conquest of Gaul and l^ain by Maximm; he passes the Alps. 

Invasion of Gaul, Spain, and Italy, by Constantine. 

Sudden ruin and destruction of Colonies, Tozens, Temples, and 

JdRITAIN, to any one who is searching for tnith> or real history, 
furnishes no materials which are worthy to occupy his time or atten- 
tion, until that island attracted the notice of the Romans : and even 
then, for nearly a century, we are confined to the picture which Csesax 
has drawn in his Commentaries. Rude as is his description of the Bri- 
tons, he failed with hb immense army to subdue them. The inter- 
course which this event caused between Britain and Italy, appears to 
have had a favourable effect on the savage manners and customs of 
the natives. 

The residence of Agricola may he considered as the foundation of 



a rapid approach to a degree of civilization, and even grandeur, seldom 
granted to their own island, in those ages, by the generality of the 
English in modern times. 

The invasion by Csesar is described in so many bookfi, that it will 
be merely glanced at in this chapter, in order to dwell at greater length 
on that part of history, which is more to the purpose of this essay; 
and much less known to most readers. 

From the first invasion of Britain, by Julius Csesar, about fifty-four 
years before Christ, to the abandoning of the island, is four hundred 
and eighty-one years. Of this number there are no less than three 
hundred and twenty years in which Britain is not noticed by any 
known author*. In the rest of that long period, war is almost the 
only topic which engages the attention of the Romans, when Britain 
is mentioned. 

The manners and customs of the Britons, and of the resident Ro- 
mans, while the island was under their domination, can only be known 
by the few incidental remarks that can be collected, and the very 
numerous vestiges which have been discovered and described by An- 

Ceesar invaded Britain two successive years; the first time with two, 
and the second, with five legions f, and about two thousand cavalry, in 
eight hundred vessels. On the approach of the Romans to the 

* Horsleyi Britannia Romana. Chronolo^cal table. 

t A legion, without auxiliaries, was about aix tfaouaand foot, and with auxilia- 
ries, double (he number. The auxiliariea were levies from the conquered coun- 
tries. In the reigns of Dioclesian and Maximian a legion consisted of six thousand 
six hundred and six^-six. Bernard, Vol. II, p. 348. 

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Thames, which they meant to cross, (at Oatlands), CaBsireUumus, with CHAP, 
his army of Tritons, were there to dispute the passage, which was forti- v.«i-y-^>. 
fied with sharp stakes. Cssar ordered the cavahy to ride into the 
water, and the foot to follow: the ford was ahout five feet deep. C»- 
sar had with him a vastly large elephant, covered with an iron coat of 
mail, bearing a large turret upon his bac^ filled with bow-men and 
dingers. The cavalry and foot attacked the army with vigour*. At 
the approach of the elephant, the Britons, with their horse and cha- 
riots, dismayed at the sight of such a monstrous beast, fled; and the 
rest of the Romans crossed without oppositionf . 

The. many adoantageg gained by the Romans, according to their 
commander's Commentaries, ended in a treaty, by which the Britons 
engaged to pay a moderate tribute : and they gave hostages for the 
performance of their engagement. Ceesar departed with his whole ar- 
my; and, "on his return to Rome, at ffjrom a gloriotu enterprite,he 
offered to Venus, the patroness of his family, a corslet of British 
pearls J." 

Augustus, according to Dion Cassius, set out for the conquest of 
the island, but the Britons sued for peace, and obtained it while he 
was in Gaul. There are British coins with the head of Augustus, and 
the word, tascia, and several with that word and the head of Cunobe- 
line: it is therefore highly probable that tribute was paid, and that 

* Ctesar'B CommeDtarieB. 

t Polyienus's SlretageiDB, B, VIII. Neither Ctesar nor any Romaa baa bad tbe 
candour to mentioD this sh-atagem. 

t Milton, Htstorical Works, Tol. II. p. 19, from Pliny. Snetonius, Ch. XXVIl. 
says, *' Ibey report tbat Ctesar invaded Britain, in hopes of finding pearU, the big- 
ness of which he would compare together, and examine tbe weight by poising 
them in his band." " The British pearls, however, proved of little ralae, on ac- 
count of their dark and livid colour." Gibbon, Cb. I. Note 6. 

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Horace alludes tA that cireumstancef. Iik tbe reign ofTiberius^ stnne 
' slrips belonging to Genuanicus wer«, in « furious stonnl driven to Bri- 
tain, and were sent.back by Cunobelhi^. ^he marinersKOJ) th^ re- 

* "jbo earth a |>resent ^fCMyBhall Cxaatr reign, 


Sfncfl world-divided BriniD owBa his sway." 
V \ Fratici^t Horace, B, III, Ode V. 

-Mikon, ID bisHistofyvdeBies that tribute w^uli^iL See Camden, 'Vt>LJt4i--IXTiii. 


j^ I CCOIN8 OB ANCffiN^ BUl'LSH KUiGS.) ( 

L Cutiobeliiw. The Rbver^e reprflsent^^coiaiog. (This coii^as foo^d at 
~~ ' St. Albans.) Re-was kin^ of the -T^iD'obaniea, and resided ^it'Cai^ladu- 

num (Colchester). He died about A. D. 41. x"^ : 

i 7^ tame, — Reverse, Apollo. (Fonnil at St. Albans). / 

8. 7%e same. — Reverse, a horse. (Founa at St. Albans), British bocanB were 
. then much jtnzed. , . ■ \ ' 

•-A-3Sre saffle.^-Revefse^.E^asus. (Founit «tJEi»g«cote, Gtoucestecahin); 

5 Jtt)* Jttiowa.-^Rever8e, Vernlam.' (Found at St. Albans). 

6 Caractacus, Son of Cunsbeltna. He was king of the Silures. His capital 

wt^-i^gcgu&Kf^ ia MontDonthshire. (Found at Stv^lbans). . 
^ 6 A The tame. /His snaaU brass coio/is a great curiosity, haj^ing A head of 

< this renowned Brifon. ' It is not will execufied. The reTerse^CAItlCt shows 

V that Carictakas Avas tha proper way of' s)ielling his name: it js from Tac - 

~~ tus that thecomfnob' spelling is denwd.. .(in the possesion of tEe Earl of 

Wih<)hdwn.) Haym. Vol. I. p. 145. 

7 Arpiragut. Sqii of Cunobeline. Hels called the youngest ssh, by Sbakes- 
' pear. He was tiTing and celebrated as a monarcli of importance in the 

reign orDJmitian,by Juvenal, Sat\^IV.;i37. (Found at K'ngscote). 

^JMn of BoadieeU^^Qaeea of tho Icem; ^li^epapital was Castei;, (Ncirwich). 
Tho strange figure on the reverse has been conjectured to mean a borae 
worn out by hard labour. (Found at St. Albans). 

9 ifot ascertained. Sererse an elephant. (Found in Buckitigi^iisbire), 

The head bears resembluice to Arriragus. / . 

n. {fix itoowii. ^verke an unicorn. (Found in Herefordshire.) Cateden 
could not explain the legend. He does not conjecture <tbnt it may be de- 
rived froffl the Greeks See Cb. XI. lBEitHote,OD theUofwra. 


Coins of Ancient British Bires. 


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tiirD> recoanted wonders, uncommon birds, and sea monsters of ambi- 
guous forms between man and beast: strange sights, (says Tacitus, '. 
Annal. II.), or the effects of imagination and fear*. 

Not any thing more material is known till Adminius, son of Cuno- 
belinus, having incurred his father's displeasure, fled to Rome, and 
persuaded Caligula, (A. D. 40), to send an army for the conquest of 
Britain. A considerable force was collected on the coast of Belgic 
Gaul. While- the army was embarking, Caligula went on board a gal- 
ley, and was rowed towards Britain: but being told that the enemy 
were in force upon their coast, waiting the attack, he speedily return- 
ed, and harangued his army, as if the Britons were in view. The 
charge was sounded, and the troops, by their Emperor's command — 

* These were not the first report! about (rightful aaimali, probably seals. 
The ocean wild that roars, 
With moDBter-'beariDg wares, ronnd Britain's rocky shores." 

Horace, B. TV. OdeXlV. 

The words Tascio,Tascia,Ta8cie, are said to be derived from Taxatio, and 
mean tribute money. For further inforaiation, see P^^'s Essay ; Cam- 
den's Britannia; and H. Moll's Description of England. 

11 & 12 'Are Saxon, (Sancii Petri Monela,) coined at Eboracum. 

a A. The head CanicalU. The rererae represents a ship built in an amphi- 
theatreatBome; from which 400 wild beasts were let out at once. Seeuotea 
on Sevn-us in this Cht and Cb. XI. The medal is in A. Morellins, 8fo. 
Lipsife, 1695. Specimen Unirersae Rei Nummarin, &c. 

13 A. Two sides of an Altar for sacrificing, and the implements: it was found at 

Bibcbester, nenr Preston ; (where many curious Roman antiquities faa?e 
been dug op). 

14 A. The bottom of a broken sacrificing cup. (Found at Ribchester). 

16 A. Maximian. This Emperor's history is imperfectly known. He had a tri- 
umph for exploits in Britain: and the Roman fleet commanded by bint 
was overpowered by that uf the British Emperor Carausins, off Ibe Isle of 



filled their helmets with cockle-shells, and returned to Rome. Tfani 
ridiculous tyrant wrote to the senate to decree him a triumph. 

Cunobelinus, whose capital was Camelodunum, (Colchester), had, 
it is said, been brought up at the Court of Augustus *. At his death > 
his son AdminiuB, who had possessed regal powerf. was in buiish- 
ment: and he was succeeded by his other sons^ Togodumnus and Ca- 
ractacufl ; but it is not known if they were equal in power. 

Bericus, a fugitive Briton, with some of his party, went to Rome, 
and persuaded Claudius to invade the island |. The Britons demanded 
the fugitive, and prohibited intercourse with Rome §. The £mi>aor 
resolved on the conquest of the island. 

The Roman soldiers, aware of the reception Julius Caesar had met 
with, expressed their aversion to wage war at the extremity of the 
world, and refused to embark. This caused the Britons not to make 
the necessary preparations for their defence. The Roman troops were, 
however, brought to a sense of their duty; and, under the conunand 
of Aulus Plautius, Vespasian, (afterwards Eniperor), and his brother 
Sabinus, four legions, with their auxiliaries, amounting to about fifty 
A.D. 48. thousand troops, safely landed, without opposition [|. 

Plautius first marched in quest of the two kings, and defeated them, 
one after the other. He then reduced part of Oxfordshire and Glou- 
cestershire, (the Dobuni), and left a Roman garrison to keep them in 
awe. After this, his German soldiers swam across a river, surprised 

* HilloB, 8T0.edit. p. 6S. See Sbakespear, Cymbeline, Act III. Scene I. 

" Thou art welcome, Caius, 

Thy Casar knighted me: my youth I spent 
Much under him} of him I gathered honour." 

t See Medal 29, Plate 3. 

X No further particulars are known about Bericua. 

% Suetonius, in Claudius, Cb. XVII. U Rapin, Vol. I. p. 35, Note 2. 



the Britons, And, accarding to orders, fell on ^eir horses which drew 
the war chariots. Another body of troops joining the Germans, the < 
Britons were pat to flight, a 

'The next day the Britons fought the Romans with great bravery, 
on the banks of the Severn, it is supposed ; and, after a conflict which 
was long doubtful, the Romans were victorious, and the Britons fled to 
the mouth of ihe Thames. They were closely pursued by the Ro- 
mans, who, being unacquainted with the flats and shallows, were often 
in danger. The Germans, as before, swimming the river, and the 
Romans crossing by a bridge higher up, the Britons were surrounded, 
and great numbers of them were cut to pieces. Many of the Romans, 
too ei^;er in the pursuit, were lost in the marshes. In one of these 
battles Togodumnus was killed. 

The Britons were not disheartened, but were eager to revenge the 
death of their king ; and Plautius, who was at one time thought to have 
been slain or captured, contented himself witb placing garrisons in 
his conquests *. 

" Plautius, fiearing the worst, and gUd that he could hold what he 
possessed, as was enjoined him, sends to Qaudius. He, who waited 
ready with a huge preparation, as if not safe enough amidst the flower 
of his Romans, tike a great eastern king, with armed elephants f . 
marches through Crallia (to Boulogne). So full of peril was this enter- 
prise esteemed, as not without all this equipage, and stranger terrors 
than Roman armies, to meet naked and native British valour. Joined 
with Plautius, he crosses the Thames, llie Britons scrupled not 
to afircmt, in open field, almost the whole force of the Roman Em- 

• SeeEnc. Brit. " Engtaod." Milton, Sro. edit. p. ff4. 

f The elephants of Claudim are never mentioned by the Romans as used in 
battle against the Britons. This stndied silence is creditable rather to the island- 
ers, than to their enemies. 

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^Ynf ' P^'^*-" Claudius, bieing viKtorious, encamped at Camelodiuum, the 
^^if-^-m^ royal seat, with three legions. A large well-built town was immedi- 
ately erected, with temples, theatres, &c. 

Togodumnus behig killed, it was at this period that Arriragiu, ano- 
ther son of Cunobeline, is supposed to have been placed on the throne 
at Camelodunumf. 

After six months' absence, the Emperor returned to Rome: he had 
been but sixteen days in Britain. The senate decreed him a triumph, 
and to him, and to his son, the surname of Britannicus. The pub- 
lic rejoicings lasted many days. Claudius presided in his general's 
cloak, and represented, in the field of Mars, the sacking of a town, and 
the surrender of the British kings];. 

The Britons, having been left in possession of their goods, erected 
a temple to the Emperor at Camelodunum, and paid him divine 

Plautius, Vespasian, and his son Titus, (then a military tribune) car- 
ried on the war with great reputation. Vespasian, whom Claudius 
had associated in the direction of this conquest, captured some chieft, 
gained near thirty battles in the southern provinces ; and conquered 
the Isle of Wight In one of the conflicts, Vespasian was surrounded, 
and in danger of being killed, but was valiantly rescued by Ti- 

» Millon,Vol.Ii. p.Sl. 

t The beginning of the reigo of Claudius being a part of Tacitut which is loit, 
hae created uncertainty with respect to the period orArviragiu. Hector Boethiua 
(an author or little reputation) relates that he was placed on the throne by Clandina. 
Shakespear, in his playofCymbeline, (spelt Kymbeline by Milton in his Histo- 
ry), calls him the youngestson of Cunobeline. Juvenal, Sat.lV. 127, proves that 
he was living in Domitian's reign. Claudius invaded the island in the year 43. 
Domitian began his reign in the yearSl. Therefore the above account of him is pos- 
sibly the truth, but cannot be depended oa. — See Camden; and Dr. Pegge, p. 78. 

t Suetonias,Ch.XXI. 


tuB *. Great dignities and honours were granted to Vespasian, at 
Rome, for his victories f. v 

On the return of Plautius to Italy, the Emperor met him without 
the gate of Rome, and in his carriage gave him the right hand seat, 
ai they entered, in token of his high applause : an ovation also was 
granted to this meritorious officer, who had, among his other exploits, 
gained a victory over Caractacus. A.D- 47. 

Ostorios Scapula succeeded Ptautius as propraetor, (A. D.50.) — 
He found Britain in great combustion aud uproar. Since a peace 
made by restraint, is never sincere, and could not insure repose, he 
determined to deprive of their arms all those whom he suspected, 
and to confine them between the rivers Avon and Severn : a determi- 
nation at first thwarted by the Icenians, a powerful people, who had of 
their own accord confederated with the Romans, and who were not 
weakened by the assaults of war : the bordering nations joined them, 
and an army was formed. 

The place they chose was defended by a ditch, and the approach to 
it was not passable by cavalry. The Roman general, without the 
support of the legions, ranged his cohorts, dismounted the horse, 
forced the diteb, and broke the enemy, who performed many feats of 
bravery. Marcus Ostorius, the general's son, having, in this battle, 
saved the life of a Roman citizen, acquired the civic crown. The 
overthrow of the Icenians calmed those unsettled spirits, who were 
before wavering between peace and war, says Tacitus, and the Ro- 

* Dion CaMius, ** Claudius." 

t O dioa, to wbtHH tbe unfreqoented sea 
Reserved the hononr of discovery I 
fVben Caledonia's waves tby vessel bore. 
Those waves tfaat FfaTygJa** race disdain'd before. 

Faleritu Flacats to Fetpasian. Camden, Yol. I. p. xli. 



mans were led against the Cangians, (Cheshire and Lancashire), vriiofe 
' territories were ravaged. 

The Roman army having reached the shore opposite Ireland, the 
general was informed that commotions had begun among the Brigantes, 
and he returned thither. A few who had raised the revolt were exB- 
cuted, and the rest were pardoned: but no rigour or mercy couM re- 
claim the Situres, (South Wales), who were to be reduced only by the 
legions. To facilitate this design, a colony, powerful in the number 
of vet^'ans, was conveyed to Camelodunum, to inure their allies to the 
Roman laws and jurisdiction. To the British Ung Co^unus cer- 
tain communities were given: a prince who very long remained faith- 
ful to the Romans. 

From Camelodunum the Roman army marched agiunst the Silures, 
a people resolute and fierce by nature; and, moreover, confiding in the 
valour of Caractacus *, renowned for disasters, and surpassing all the 
other British commanders. In the advantages and situation of the coun- 
try he was more expert than the Romans, and therefore translated the 
seat of war into the territory of the Ordovices, (North Wales): tatd 
being joined by those who feared an unequal peace with their oppo- 
nents, he ventured to ixy the decision of the sword. 

He chose a place every way incommodious to Uie Romans f . It 
was on the ridges of steep mountains: and where the sides were iq>- 
proachable, he reared walls of stone as ramparts. At the foot of the 
mountain flowed a river, daugerous to be forded; and a host of men 
guarded his entrenchments, llie leaders of the confederate nations 
were busy, from quarter to quarter, exhorting and animating their 

* Caerftuent in Monmoathahire, was his capital, 

t Caer Caradoc, two railn south of Clan, and three from Coxa), in Shropshire. 
The ranparts are still visible, in the nineteMith oentniy. 



followers: Caractacus flew through the whole anny and proclaimed CHAP. 
" That from this battle they must date their liberty rescued ; or their v.^-v'^ik^ 
servitude eternally established." He invoked those of their ancestors 
who bad exterminated Ctesar the Dictator ; " men by whose valour 
they yet lived from tribute, and the Roman axes, — yet preserved from 
prostitution the persons of their children and wives." 

This loud alacrity of the Britons, amazed the Roman general. The 
river, the ramparts, the declivities, and the hosts of the enemy were 
terrible difficulties. But the soldiers and the tribunes were ardent 
for the attack. Thus animated, Ostorius led them on ; and, without 
much difficulty, gained the opposite bank. In approaching the bul- 
wark, while the encounter was with flights of darts, more of the 
Romans than of the Britons T^re wounded, and many began to 
&11 : but after they had formed themselves into the testudo, or mili- 
tary shell, demolished the huge and shapeless structure of stones, and 
encountered hand to hand upon even ground, the barbarians, says 
Tacitus, betook themselves to the ridges of the mountains, and were 
pursued by the light and heavy armed Romans, who fought in close 
order, while the Britons only discharged their arrows; and, as they 
do not wear armour, their ranks were broken. Whero they resisted 
the auxiliaries, they were slaughtered by the swords and javelins of the 
^Idiers of the legions ; and by the great sabres and pikes of the auxi- 
liaries, where they &ced those of the legions. Signal was this victory. 
The wife and daughter of Caractacus were taken prisoners and his 
brother surrendered to mercy *. 

The British king, after nine years' opposition to the Romans, fled 
for protection to his stepmother, Cartismandua, queen of the Drigan- 
tesf; but adversity, says the Roman historian, has no friends: she 

* Tacilus, Ad. XII. f Yorkshire, Lancuhire, Wettrooreland, &c. , 




CHAP, knded him with irons, and deiiveied him up to the ccmqueror: he, 


^^^-y^m^ with hifl familf , was sent to Rome. The Emperor was proud of bis 
captive ; and the curiosity of the Romans was eager to behead a hero 
whose fiune had become celebrated even in Italy, from having so h>i^ 
withstood the Roman arms. At the solemn procesgion of the British 
captives into Rome, the military accoutrements, the golden chains 
and rich collars, which the king had gained in various battles, were 
displayed with pomp. All the prisoners descended to abject supplicar 
tions, unworthy of tjieir quality, says Tacitus, except Caractacua, who, 
with dignity and unshaken fortitude, addressed the tribunal, on the 
nobility of his birth, his former power, his actions, and his present fate. 
" If you are bent on vengeance," said he, " execute your purpose, and 
the bloody scene will soon be at an end. Preserve my life, and I shall 
remain a mtmument of Roman clemency." Claudius was charmed 
with the heroic boldness of his prisoner, and pardoned him and his 
tnnily. The captives were all unbound, and submissively returned 
thanks to tlie Emperor, and his Empress Agrippina, who were seated 
in state, in the midst of the cohorts. When the aenaie was assembled, 
many and pompous encomiums were pronounced on the taking of Car 
ractacus, as an event no leas illustrious than the c^ture of Syphax by 
Publius Scipio, P^ses by Lucius Paulus, or any other conquered 
kings, which the great captains had presented to the Roman people*. 

* Caractacua was one of the bods of Cunobeline, whose ftmily appears to hare 
been the moat powerful in Britaio. Sincetbe mitof JuUiuC»ur,gi«nt[»ogTea8 - 
had been made in civilization. Always shewing brarery, but not poliahed, the 
Britons do not appear to have bad justice done them. How could Tacitus Fentare 
to compare tfais capture as equal in fame to those of the sovereigns of Africa and 
Mncedos, if they were the barbariatu that they are in general in English histo- 
ry represented to have beeni Probably, most readers form their opinion of the Bri- 
tons from the account of them in Ceesar's Commentaries, without taking into consi- 
deration die great change that was quickly effected by their intercourse widi the 



The tTiiimphal ornaments yren decreed to Ostorius. The brare Bri- 
tish king, when conducted tbrough Rome to survey its grandeur — > 
" Why are you Romans," said he, " who live in sudi magnificence, so 
desirous to possess our country?" 

The Romans, perhaps, thought that the capture of Caractacus had 
finished the war: hut the Britons, burning for revenge at the loss of 
so great a king, by surprise assailed the camp-marshal and legiim- 
ary cohorts left to raise fortresses in the country of the Silures; and, 
but for sudden succours from the circumjacent garrisons, " our troops* 
says Tacitus, "had been cut in pieces; as it was, the marshal himself 
and eight centurions were there slain, with the most resolute soldiers." 
Soon after, the foragers, and even the Roman troops sent to guard 
them, were entirely routed. Ostorius despatched to their relief some 
cohorts lightly armed, hut they were not able to stay the flight, so 
that the kgions were drawn out to restore the battle ; which, by their 
strength, instantly became equal. The Britons fled ; but, as the night 
approached, with slight loss. Frequent encounters continued in woods 
and morasses; sometimes by command of their officers, and often 
without their knowledge. 

Of all others, the Silnres. were the most implacable : they were in- 
censed by a saying of the Roman general, current amongst them, 
*' that their name must be utteriy extinguished, as was that of the 
Sugambrians, who had be,en partly cut ofi^, and the rest transphinted 
into Gaul." Thus animated, they surprised and carried off two auxili- 
ary cohorts, who were plundering the country to satiate the avarice 

RomanB. Th« term, Barbarians, wasapplied,bytheRoin&iui,toallnattODa«]:cept 
the Greeks; ta it was by the Egyptians to all who did not speak tbeir langnage. 
SeeHerodotua, Clio,Ch.1. Note2; Euterpe, Cb. CLVIU. The subseqaeot 
ftteof Caractacus is not known. SeePlateL Com A6. foralikeioess ofthis 
celebrated person. 

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CHAP, of their officers; and the Britons by distrihuting the spoil and cap- 

^..•••v-'^-' ^ives among the neighbouring nations, were drawing them also into 

the revolt, when Ostorius, sinking under the weight of his anxieties^ 

A. D.63. expired; to the great joy of the enemy, that so considerable a captain 

had perished in the wan 

The Emperor Claudius immediately sent over Aulus Bidius; but« 
before he could arrive, the legion commanded by Manlius Yalens had 
suffered a defeat. Didius now attacked and repulsed the Britom. 
Their ablest warrior, since the capture of Caractacus, was Yenusius, 
of the city of the Jugantes ; a man long faithful to the Romans, and 
protected by their arms, during his marriage with Csrtismandua, Queen 
of the Brigantes; but being divorced from her, and opposing her in 
war, he likewise began hostilities against the Romans. The queen 
having, by stratagem, possessed herself of the brother and other kin- 
dred of Venusius, he was exasperated ; and, scorning the infamy of fall- 
ing under the dominion of a woman, assembled all the ablest and most 
warlike youth, and invaded her territories. The Romans perceivmg 
this, had sent some cohorts to the queen's aid ; and, after a fierce bat- 
tle, she was victorius. Didius, unwieldy with age, and satiated with 
honours, acted by his lieutenants ; and the legion commanded by Ce- 
sius Nasica was successful against the Britons*. 

The Bmperor Claudius was poisoned, A. D. 64-f. 

Avitus had succeeded Aulus Didius. At this time the Romans 

suffered great loss in Britain; and Avitus could but just maintain his 

A.D. 67. conquests. He was replaced by Teranius, who ravaged some part of 

the country of the Silures, but was intercepted by death. He flattered 

* Tacitus, An. XII. 

f When Claudius was sick, Nero presented the people wiUi a bunting of wild 
beasts, for his health. Suetonius, Nero, Cb. Vll. This iras probably by tbe or- 
der of Agnppina. 



Nero in bis will, and added, " that if lus life had been prolonged for two 
years longer, he should have completely subjected that province to ~ 
his obedieoce." Suetonius Paulinus was appointed to the command. 
He invaded Mona, (Anglesea), the common refuge of revolters and fu- 
^tives, and where the entires were sacrificed in the consecrated 

On the shores of the island, where the Britons were drawn up, the 
Romans were amazed at the sight of womm, with their hair disheveled, 
and fire-brands in their hands, frantic and furious, surrounded by Dru- 
ids, with uplifted hands, and pouring out bitter and direful impreca- 
tions on the invaders. The astonished and dismayed Romans paused 
and stood motionless with terror. Exhorted repeatedly by their ge- 
neral, they at length fell on the enemy, sword in hand, and conquered 
Mona. In the mean while, Prasatugua, long renowned for hisopulence 
and grandeur, king of the Icenians, died, and left Nero co-heir, with 
his two daughters, of his great treasures: but the Emperor's officers 
seized the whole m the name of their master f . The widow, Boadi- 
cea, remonstrating against this injustice, underwent the ignominious 
violence of stripes, and her daughters were brutally dishonoured. In- 
dignant at this infamous conduct, all the Britons subjected to the Ro- 
mans, (except London), revolted. The Trinobantes were particularly 
exasperated by the Roman veterans having turned them out of their 
houses, and debased them by the vile titles of captives and slaves. 

Catus Decianus, the procurator, regardless of law or justice, confis- 
cated the property guarantied by the decree of Claudius. Seneca, 
the moralitt and philosopher, having lent the Britons about three 

* TaciliM, An. XIV. 

X The country of the Iceni iras Norfolk, Suffolk, and Canibridge«hire. Venln 
Icenoram (now Coster, near Norwich,) was their capita). 



hundred thousand poonds on uaorions interest, exacted rigorowly, oa 
' 8 sudden, the repajrment. (A. D. 61^ 

At this period, says Tacitus, the statue of victory at CaneU)dunum 
tumbled down, with her ikce tamed round; some womoi were tran»- 
ported with oracular fury, and chaunted destruction to be at hand. In 
the places of public business the accent and tumultuous murmurs of 
strangers were heard: th^r theatre echoed with dismal howlings; and 
in the lakes, formed by the tides resisting the Thames, a representa- 
tion was seen of a colony overthrown. The sea was dyed wiUi blood, 
and phantoms of human bodies appeared left behind on the strand. 
These omens filled the Britons with joy and hope: the Romans were 
cast down with fear and despondency*. They sought succours from 
the procurator of the province, who sent them only two hundred mai; 
and there was but a small number in Uie colony itself. 

The Britons rose; and every thing at Camelodunum yielded to in-' 
stant violence, and was razed or burnt f. The temple stood a siege of 
two days, all the soldiers having retired thither; and was then taken 
by storuL Petilius Cerialis, commander of the ninth legim, as he ad- 
vanced to relieve his friend, was met and encountered by the victo- 
rious Britons : his legion was routed, and all his infimtry were slain. 
Cerialis, with the horse, escaped to the camp, and there defended him- 
self in his entrenchments. 

The terrified procurator, universally hated by the province, driven 
thus into hostility, by his rapacious avarice, fled into Gaul j;. 

Suetonius bravely marched through the heart of the insurrection 
quite to London, "a city, in truth, not distinguished with the title of a 
cf^ony, but highly famed for the vast conflux of traders, and her abun- 

• See DioD Cassiiu, Vol. 1, p. 846. 
t Th« town, Pliny relates, vbb quickly restored. t Tacitos, An. XIV, 



dant commerce and ploity. Suetonins feared to make London his bead- 
quarters, in consequence of the small number of his troops. Many of s 
tjie inhabitnits left L<aidon vith him : whoever staid behind, whether 
ftom tlie weakneu of their sex, the decrepitude of age, or the charms 
of the place, fell, without exception; and London wasreduced to ashes. 
The like slaughter hekl the mmiicipal city of Yerulamium, (St. Al- 
bans). It appearwl that seventy thousand Romans or confederates of 
Rome, for the Britons neither made, nor sold, nor exchanged prison- 
era, were gibbeted, burnt, or crucified, with the desperation of men 
iriio were sure «f undergoing a terriUe doom, and who resolved, by 
aatiinpatioD, to spiH the blood of others before their own was 

In the battle that followed, Suetonins had ten thousand men only, 
while the queen's army w said by Dion Cassiue, to have consisted of 
two hundred and thirty thousand, confident in their courage and 
mtmbers. Suetonius chose a place which stretched out before into a 

* A short time previous to the massacre, the Emperor, says Tacitus, issued an 
edict, " That no procurator, or any other magistrate, who bad obtained a charge 
IB any proriaoe, sbould exhiUt a apedade of gladiators or vnid beoitt, nor of any 
other popular entertainment whatsoerer; for, before this, they had, by such acts of 
miiDificence, no less afflicted those under their jurisdiction, than by plundering 
them of their money, whilst, under the tD8nenc« of such court to the maltitude, 
they sheltered their arbitrary delinquencies and rapine." Claudius sent his army 
to Britain, A. D. 43. Nero succeeded Claudius in tiie year 54. The massacre 
was in the ypar 61. This remarkable edict was issued not long before the massa- 
cre, which happened when the Romans bad been in the possession of Britain 
for fifleen or sixteen years, and had very probably been entertaining the natives 
with the novel and extraordinary shows, and battles of wild beasts, at exorbitant 
charges. Seneca's loans ere a proof ihat no one was scrupulous of profiting by a 
newly conquered and rich country. Tadtiu remarks, {Life of Afpricola), that Bri- 
tain bad sufficient gold and silver amply to reward all t4e toils and dangers of its 
conquerors, besides its great wealth in mines. 

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CHAP, hollow and narrow vale, with steep sides, and was behind girt in wHh 

\.„^"y,-^^ wood. 

The heroine, with her daughters at her side, in Uie diariot, rode 
among the several nations, animating them to revenge the wnHigs tiiey 
suffered, from the lust of their oppressors : besides, added she, " yon 
pay a tax for your very bodies ; my resolution Is, to vanquish or die : 
as for the men, they may, if they please, live and be slaves." At the 
end of her speech, she let loose a hare, whic& she had concealed in her 
bosom, as a good omen of victory. 

The Britons were slain to the number of eighty thousand; while the 
Romans had but eight hundred killed and wounded: so superior is 
discipline to numbers and the most desperate courage. The unhappy 
queen poisoned herself. 

Poenius Postnmus, camp-marshal to the second legion, on the tid- 
ings of the exploits and success of the fourteenth and twentieth legions ; 
as he had defrauded his own of equal honour, and, contrary to the laws 
of military duty, had disobeyed the orders of his general, pierced 
himself through with his sword- 
Suetonius received strong reinforcements from Germany*, while 
the Britons were dying in numbers by famine ; having neglected to 
cultivate the ground f. 
Besides that, this people, by nature wonderfully stubborn, saysTaci- 

* On the loeing of Britain and Armenia, Nero thougbt that he had run through 
all the misfortunes the Fates had decreed liim. Suetonius, Ch. XL. 

t About this period, or later, a Roman senator married a British lady named 
Claudia Rufina, an accomplished beauty. Rapin, (Vol. I. p. 14,) supposes this 
lady to be one of the Saints mentioned by St. Paul. See Milton's 8ro edit. p. 93. 

" From painted Britons bon* was Claudia bonif 

The feir barbarian how do arts adorn?. 

When Roman charms a Grecian soul commend, 

Athens and Rome may for the dame contend." Martial. 

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tas, were become more arerse to peace, firom the behaviour of Julius 
Classicianus, who had arrired as successor to Catus ; and, being at 
Taiiance with Suetonius, he obstructed the public good, to gratify pri- 
Tate pique; every where publishing, that another governor was ex- 
pected, who was free Irom the arrogance of a conqueror. He trans* 
mitted advice to Rome of the necessity of a change, chu-ging all the 
recoit disasters to the bad conduct of Suetonius. Nero despatched to 
Britain Polycletus. one of the imperial freedmen, conceiving mighty 
hopes, that, by the authority of his domestic, private amity between 
the governor and procurator would not only be effected, but that the 
hostile spirit of the Britons would be reconciled to peace. Polycletus 
travelled through Italy and Graul, and oppressed both with his enor- 
mous train; and thence crossing the Channel, he marched in such 
-awAil state, that he became a terror even to the Roman soldiers. To 
the Britons he proved an object of derision: for, as amongst them po- 
pular liberty even then reigned, they were hitherto utter strangers to 
the power of manumitted bondsmen. They were amazed, that a gene- 
ral and aimy who had finished so formidable a war, should be subser- 
vient to slaves. From the report of Polycletus, Suetonius was 
continued in the government; but having loet a few gallies and thdr 
rowers, he was ordered to resign his army to Petronius Turpilianus, 
who had just finished his consulship ; a commander, who, on his stupid 
inaction, bestowed the appellation of peace*. His successor, Tre- 
bdlius Maximus, fled out of Britain, scared by the fury and me- 
naces of the soldiers, and was succeeded by VetUus Bolanusf, in the 
reign of YitelUus. 

Petilius Cerealis, of consular dignity, was sent by Vespasiao, as go- 
vernor, to Britain. 

• TacitiH. . t Tadtw, History, B. n. 




In that island tiie a&ction for Vespawui was great. He had com^ 
' manded the second legion there in the reign of Claudius, and acqidt- 
ed himself irith great glory. 

The troops in that conntry acceded to his parly; but not without 
opposition firom the other legions ; in which many centurions> and 
many soldiers had been promoted b;f Vitellius, and were brought with 
re^et to diange a prince of whom the; had already had smne experi- 
A.]). 69. From these contests and reports of civil war in Italy, the Britons, 
swayed by Venusius, who hated the Roman uame, and was at personal 
enmity with Cartismandua, tiie queen of the Brigantes, resumed ho»> 
tihties. This lady was illustrious in her race, and her power had be^i 
greatly augmented since the merit she enjoyed of haTing given up Ca- 
ractactts to the Romans. Hence her opulence and wild riot in pros- 
perity. Rejecting her husband Venusius, she conferred her person 
and crown on Vellocatus, his armour-bearer. By this reproachful ac- 
tion the queen wrought the present ruin of her house. The Brigantes 
revolted in &Tour of Venustos. Cartismandua, by the Roman squad- 
rons and cohorts, was rescued fr<Hn impending danger: but the king- 
dom remained to Venusius, uid the war to the Romans*. 

CereaUs defeated the Brigantes in several battles, some of which 

A.D. 74. were very bloody, Vespasian had lent off to Italy many British recruits, 

during his war with Yitctiins. Jtdius Fnmtinus was now governor t 

he in his torn had to sustain this mighty task t and utteriy subdued 

tiic powerftil Silures. 

Such was now the condition of Britain. Who were the first in- 
habituits of the island, cannot be known, says Tacitus^ among a people 
so barbarous. In their looks and persons, th^ vary. The red hair 

• TaoitiM, History, B. IIL Cb. XLIII. 



and large limbs of the Cakdonitiu testiiy their desrant to be from 
Crermany. The swarthy complexion of tiie Silures, and their hair. ' 
which is g^ierally curled, with their situation, opposite the coast of 
Spain, furnish ground to betiere that they are descendants from the 
ancient Iberians. They who Htb next to Gaul, are Hke the Gauls: 
their sacred rights and superstitions are the same; their speech does 
not much vuy; in daring dangers they are prompted by the like bold- 
ness, and with the like affHght aroid them when they approach. In 
the Britons, however, superior ferocity and defiance is found, as in a 
people not yet softeued by a long peace; for we learn from hiatwy 
that the Gauls, too, flourished in warlike prowess and renown; but 
that with peace and idleness, effeminacy altered ; and thus, with the 
loss of their liberty, they lost their spirit and magnanimity. The same 
happened to those of die Britons who were conquered long ago. The 
rest continue such as the Gauls once were. 

Their principal force consists in their foot. Some nations among 
them make war in chariots. The more homonrable person alw^ 
drives, and under his leading, his followers ^it. They werefi»meriy 
subject to kings. They are now swayed by several chiefs, and xcnt 
into factions and parties. Against nations thus powerful, nou^t 
avails the Romans so mudi as that they consult not in a body. 

The sky of the island is dull and heavy; but there is not exceasnre 
cold. The soil is such, that except the cdive and the vine, it readily 
bears all fruits and grain, end is very fertile; it pvoducea tpatMf, hub 
from the extreme humidity, its productions ripen slowly. 

Britain yields gold, silver, and other metals, all of which prove 
the prize and reward of the conqnercmi. Hk sea breeds pearis, 
but of a dark and livid hue, a defect ascribed by some to the unskilfiil- 
ness of those who gather them: for myself, continues the Roman his- 




CHAP, torian, I am much apter to believe that nature has not fldren these 


v.^-v'-^ pearls perfection, than that we &il in avarice. 

The Britons themselves cheerfully comply with the levies of meni 
the imposition of taxes, and all the duties enjoined by government; 
provided they receive no illegal treatment and insults from their go- 
vernors: those they bear with impatience. Nor have the Romans any 
&rther subdued them, than only to obey just laws, but never to sub- 
mit to be slaves. Even the deified Julius Ciesar, the first of all ihe 
Romans who entered Britain with an army, though, by gaining a bat- 
tle, he frightened the natives, and became master of the coast; yet he 
may he thought to have rather presented posterity with a view of the 
country, than to have conveyed down the possession. The civil wars 
ensuing, Britain was long forgott^i, and continued to be so even dur- 
ing peace. This was what Augustus called Reasons of State, but 
what Tiberius stiled the Ordmanee of Augustus*. 
A.D. 78. Towards the end of Vespasian's reign-f-, (A. D. 78), Julius Agricola, 
who in his youth had been trained up in the British wars, succeeded 
tothe command; a generalof the highest reputation. He entirely de- 
feated the Ordovices, (North Wales), who had surprised and killed a 
whole squadron of Roman horse. 

Mona required again to be invaded. Agricola, by his sudden attack, 
his prud^ice and justice, conciliated that island. Such was his discre- 
tion that he did not apply this his good fortune and success to any pur- 
pose of vun glory : nor would he so much as with the bare honour of the 

* TacitoB, Life of Agricola. 
t Referriog to this period, Josep bus w rites, " As for tbose who place so mucb 
confidence in the walla of Jerusalem, they would do well to consider the walls of 
foitain, where the inhabitants are surrounded by the sea in a kind of a new world, 
not much inferior to tlie other. They have made tbemselres masters of ibis vast 
island too, and assigned only four legions as a g;uard upon it" Wars of the Jews, 
B. n. Cb. XVI. Sir Roger L'Estrange'a £d. 



lanrd distn^pusfa these exploits. Men considered how vast must be 
his future views, when he thus smothered in silence deeds so noble*. < 
Being acquainted with the temper of the Britons, he determined to 
cut off all the causes of war. Beginning with himself, he checked and 
regulated his own household; a task whibh to many is not less diffi- 
cult than goTeming a province. He did not permit any thing which 
concerned the public to be transacted by a domestic, bond or firee. 

He ndsed the soldiers to a superior class, being convinced that the 
best are ever the most faithful. For small offences he was often satis- 
fied with the remorse of the culprit: for such as were great he exer- 
cised proportionable severity. Though the imposition of tribute and 
grain had been augmented, he caused it to be adjusted with equality. 
The inhabitants had been forced to bear the mockery of attending at 
their own bams, locked up by the publicans, and of purchasing their own 
com of the monopolists ; they had moreover been enjoined to carry 
grain across the countries to great distances. By suppressing these 
grievances, Agricola gained a high character ; for, till then, a state of 
peace had been no less dreaded than that of war. 

By his wise and mild conduct, several communities, which till now 
had kept their independence, ceased hostility, gave hostages, and were 
b^rt with garrisons and fortresses, erected with such just contriv- 
ance, that no part of Britain hitherto known, escaped thenceforward 
from being annoyed by them. The following winter Agricola pri- 
vately exhorted, then publicly assisted, the Britons to build temples 
and houses and places of assembling. He was taking care to have the 
sons of their chie& taught the liberal sciences, already preferring the 

* Tacitus. We tuny perceire and admire (he aflectiunate partiality of this ce- 
lebrated liistomo for bis father id law, throughout his life of Agricola. Ilisper- 
baps requisite to keep this in mind, when trusting to the authority of Tacitua con- 
centing Agricola. 

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natnnl caapBcity of the firitoiu to the i^died scquirement of the 
/ Crsuh; and such was hi* succeBs. that thff^ who had so lately scorned 
to learn the language, were become fimd of acquiring the Roman eto* 
quence. They began to honour the apparel, and the use of the Ro- 
man gown grew frequent among them. By degrees, they proceeded to 
the incitemente and charms of vice and dissoluteness, to magnificent 
galleries, sumptuousi bagnios, and all tiie stimnlationa and el^ance of 
banquetting. In the third year of his command, Agrioola discovered 
new people, and continued his enterprises qnite to the mouth of the 
Tay. Terror seized the inhabitants, and they dared not attack tiie 
Romans, though they were annoyed and shaken by terrible tempests. 
The Romans secured possession, by erecting forts, and no place of 
strength was founded by Agricola, that was erer taken by violence: 
they were supplied with provisions for a year; and each fortress de- 
fended itself through the winter: which reduced the Caledonians to 
despair. Agricola never arrogated to himself the glory of exploits per- 
formed by others : were he a centurion or the commander of a legion, in 
his genera) he found a sincere witness of his Achievements. By some, 
he is said to have been over sharp in his reproof^, but from hu anger 
no spleen remained. 

Vespasian having died, Titus continued Agrioola in the command ; 
this Emperor* expired <m the 13th of September, 81; and Agric<^ 
remuned as governor under Domitian f . Agricola built a chain of 

* Titus was saluted Emperor no less than fifteen times for Agricola's successes. 
Csmden, Vol. I. p. xiii. 
t Arvingus was living in Domitiao's reig^n. 

" A great omen 
You have of a great and illustrious triumph; 
You will take some king, or from a British chariot 
Arviragus will fall." MadatCt Juvenal, Sat. IV. 127. 



fortresses from the Clyde to the Frith of Forth ; and fnmisbed them CHAP. 

with garnBons, to secure his conquests from the inroads of the northern 's^i-v^^ 


" In the fifth year of the war, AgricoU passed the Frith of Forth. 
iBmself being in' the first ship that reached the laud. Here he sub- 
dued natitms. till that time not known; and placed garriaons on the 
coast of Britain, which feces Ireland ; which in soil and climate, as 
abo in the temper and manners of the natives, varies little from 
Britain ; its ports and landings are better known, through the frequen- 
cy of commerce and merchants. A petty king of that country, who 
had been expelled by domestic dissension, was protected by Agri- 

He coasted and explored the large commnnities beyond the Frith. 
His fleet by sea, and his army by land, made a glorious appearance. 
The same camp often contained the foot, the horse, and the marines; 
all intermixed, and severally magnifying their own feats and hazards 
amidst dismal forests, steep mountains, and tempestuous seas. The 
sight of the fleet Edrack the Britons with dismay. The last refuge of 
the vanquidied was now invaded. 

The intrepid Caledonians attacked the forts, and defied the invaders. 
Agricola divided his army into three parts, to prevent the enrany from 
Burrounding him. The Caledonians, availing themselves of the op- 
portunity thus offered, assaulted the ninth l^on in the night, slew 
the guards, and entered the trenches: they were pursuing the fight in 
the camp itself f, in the gates of which a bloody encounter ensued. 
The Caledonians were routed, and fled to the woods and marshes. 

• TaciiDi. 
t Supposed to be at Lochore, two milea Ax»n LochlereD, where there u a 
Soman camp. 

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The Romans were elated at this succras and tite renown thns gained 
, hy their valour. 

The spirit of the Caledonians was imsubdned, they armed their 
yonng men, and placed their wives and chOdren in secure towns. 

The summer having commenced, Galgacns, the hravest and noblest 
commander of the Caledonians, encamped on the Grampian Hills, 
with thirty thousand men in arms. The youths, and such of the elder- 
ly men as were still hale, and had distinguished themselves in war, 
continued to flock in. Agricola arrived with his army. 

On the approach of the two armies, Galgacus addressed his troops: 
" When I contemplate," said he, " the necessity to which we are re- 
duced, great is my confidence that this union of yours, will this day 
prove the beginning of universal liberty to Britun. Bondage is what 
we have never borne. Beyond ua is no land, and the Roman fleet is 
upon OUT co€ist. Arms are therefore the safest refuge, even for 
cowards. The other Britons have had various success, and their re- 
m^ing hope is in us, the noblest, and, thence, placed in its innermost 
regions. This remote tract, unknown even to common fame, is the 
last that enjoys liberty. Against the domineering plunderers of the 
earth and sea, humility will prove no refuge. To conunit spoil and 
butchery, they call government; and where they have spread desola- 
tion, they call it peace. If our wives and sisters escape their violence, 
they are debauched by their pretended hospitality. Our fortunes 
are exhausted for tribute, our grain for their provision. We are 
doomed, under blows, to fell forests and to drain bogs. Remember 
that the Brigantes under a woman stormed the Roman entrenchments; 
but success degenerated into sloth. There are Britons in the enemy's 
army, with shame I mention it, but they are only held by terror, frail 
bondage of endearment ! 

" Whatever the Romans beh(^d around them, strikes, them witb 



dread: the air, the sky, the woods, the sea; all is wild and strange, CHAP. 
so that the Gods have, in some sort, delivered them inclosed and iJEJJILj 
bound into our hands. Be not dismayed with a glare of gold and 
silver, which can neither wound nor save. In the host of the enemy 
we shall find that the Britons will espouse their genuine cause; the 
Gauls will recollect their former liberty; the Germans will abandon 
the Romans. The Romans have no wives to hearten and ni^ them ; 
no &thers and mothers to upbraid them for flying. 

" The Roman colonies are full of dissensions — ^here you see a gene* 
ral, here an army. Th&te you may behold tributes, and the mines, 
with an other corses, ever pursuing men enslaved. 

" Whether these things are to be for ever imposed; or whether we, 
forthwith, avenge ourselves for the attempt, this very field must deter- 
mine. Therefore, as you advance to battle, look back on your ances- 
tors; look forward to your posterity!" 

This speech, says Tacitus, was received joy^illy, with chantings, 
terrible din, and dissonant shouts, after the manner of barbarians. 
Already their bands moved, and the glittering of their arms appeared ; 
the most resolute were running to their front, and the army forming 
in battle array : when Agricola, though seeing his soldiers full of ala- 
crity, and hardly to be restrained by express cautions, chose to Address 
tbem : " It is now the eighth year, my follow soldiera, since you have 
been pursuing the conquest of Britain. In the many battles you have 
fought, you have had cimstant occasion either to be exerting your bra- 
very against the foe, or your patience against the obstacles of nature. 
We now possess the extremity of Britain with our camps and ar- 
mies. In the midst of fatigue, while passing morasses, rivers, and 
mountains, I have been wont to hear those who are remarimbly brave 
ask, — When shall we see the enemy, when be led to battle f Already, 
roused from their festnesses and lurking holes, they are come. Now, 



CHAP, all is projntious, if you coDquer ; all is disaster, if yon be vanquidied. 
\.^,^>^.^ Safety, there is none, in turning oar backs on the foe ; neither 
would it be a &te void of glory to fall in this, the utmost verge of iht 
earth and of nature. These are the enemy you utterly discomfited 
last year, by the terror of your shouting ; when, by stealth, they at- 
tacked a single legion in the dark. These are they, who, of all tiie 
Britons, are the most abandoned to fear and flight, and thence h^pen 
to survive the rest,- a crowd, fearful and effeminate, and stand in yonder 
field, benumbed and bereft of spirit. Here close a stmggle of fifty 
years ; so that there may not be imputed to the army either the procras- 
tination of the war, or any cause for reriving it." 

The centre of the Roman army was composed of a stroi^; band of 
«ght thousand auxiliary foot. The wings were environed with three 
thousand horse. The legions, without advancing, stood embattled 
j ust without the entrenchments : for mighty would be the glory of the 
victory, were it gained without spilling Roman blood. 

The Bntiah host was ranged upon the rising ground, both for show 
and terror: the first band standi]]^ upon the plain, and the rest rising 
successively behind. Their cavalry and chariots of war filled the in- 
teijacentfi^ with great tumults and bounding to and fro. 

Agricola, fearing he might be beset at once in frcmt, and on each 
flank, extended his troths. Many advised him to bring on the legions, 
but, ever firm, he dismounted, and advanced on foot before the 
burners. In the beginning, the conflict was nuuntained at a distance. 
The Britons*, brave and ^ilfhl, armed with their huge swords and 
small bucklers, quite eluded the missive weapons, or beat them off; 
whilst, of their own, they poured a torrent upon the Romans ; till Agri- 
- cola encouraged three Batavian and two Tungrian cohorts to dose 

* IWcitiut OBM ibe lerint Bntons and Caledonniu promiMnwdy. 

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with the enemy, hand to hand, a famihar practice with those veterans, CHAP, 
but embanasBing to the Caledonians, who were armed wi^ little tar- ^^^^^sf^ 
gets, and swords of aiormoos aise, round at the end, and unfit for grap* 
pifaig. The Batavians thickened their blows, wounding the foe with 
the iron bosses of their bn<&Iers, and mangling their faces: they wer» 
bearing down all those who were upon the plain, when the rest of the 
cohorts joined them, and made havoc (^ aU tfa^ encoimtered. The 
British cavahy fled. The chariots of war miaglsd with the foot: and 
now, losing their riders, the horses ran wild and affrighted, and beat 
down the troops of their own side. While the B<onians were urging 
their victory, the Britons upon the hills, who were yet fresh, lotted 
with scorn on the enemy, and endeavoured imperceptibly to surround 
their rear. Agricda, who had apprdiended this very design, des- 
patched four squadrons of horse to engage them: they charge in 
front, wheeled about, assailed, and utterly routed the Britons. The 
^lectacle was tragical; and the present captives weK always slaugh- 
tered as often as others wcae tab«i. 

Some of the vanquished fled in large troops, wUh all tiieir anns, be- 
fore a small force: <^hers. unarmed, Tushed desperately into peril and 
instant death. Some of the ooAqucsed exerted notable wtath and bca>- 
very. When near the woods, they joined, and dmumvcntad the fore- 
most puTsuns, who had ra^ly ventured too &r. Agrioola, fieaiuig 
some disaster firom this want of eaution, kept his ranks close, and con- 
tinued the pursuit, till a satiety ctfj^aughter, and n^t. ended the battle. 

Of the Britons, ten thousand were slain. There fell of the Romans 
three hundred and forty; amongst these was Aulus Atticus, command- 
er of a cohort, who, by his own youthful heat, and a fiery horse, was 
fannied into the nddstof the enemy*. 

* This great batde, accordiuir to Mr. Gordeo, was foofht in StralberD, half a 



It was a night of great joy to the conquerors, both from the vidory 
' and the spoil. The Britons wuidered in despair. Sometimes, on be^ 
holding their dearest pledges of nature, their spirits became utterly 
stmk and dejected: some by the same sight were roused into resolu- 
tion and fury. It is certain, that some murdered their wires and 
children, as an act of compassion and tenderness. 

The next day produced profound silence, solitary hills, thick smoke 
arising from the houses on fire, and not a living soul to be found by the 

The summer being nearly spent, Agricola conducted his army to the 
borders of the Horestians, where he received hostages, and ordered 
the admiral of the fleet to sail round Britain. Quitting the Frith erf* 
Tay, the fleet passed round the north of the idand, and, with great 
fame, arrived at the port of Sandwich, whence they had originally de- 

Titus had admired and rewarded Agricola, but bis brother, Do^ 
mitian, received the news of this great victory with feigned joy*: 
but it was dreadful above all things to him, that the name of a private 
man should be exalted above that of the Emperor. Agricc^ was re- 
called. Domitian, conscious of the derision inevitable on account of 
his mock triumph over the Germans, for which he had purchased a 
number of slaves, and dressed them to resemble captives, was stung 
at the thoughte of the unfavorable comparison; and, notwithstanding 
the modesty and prudence of Agricola after he returned to Italy, 

mile ftoai the Kirk of Conterie, wbere there is a remarkable encampmetit.— 

* In DomiliftB's reigo, the Britooa were net ioferior, id way of life and improre- 
ment, to the other prorinces. —Camden, Vol. I. p. xlvii. Also Juvenal, Sal. 
XV. Ill, wye— 

" And learned Ganl tbe Britbh hwyen forms.'* 



trhete he lived in Tetirement, there is little douht of the jealous and 
cruel tyrant having poisoned him* (A. D. 93, aged 56). 

Britain, south of Agricola's forts, in which he placed strong garri- 
sons, was now become a Roman province; and the natives, adopting 
the Roman costoms and manners, made but Sunt attempts to recover 
their liberty. Nothing occurred, that has been noticed by historians, 
except that in Tnyan's reign Britain revolted and was subdued, till the 
reign of Adrian, when the northern people demolished some of Agri- 
cola's fortresses, and made irruptions into the Roman province. Ju- 
lius Severus, a general of renown, governed the island ; but having been 
sent to suppress the Jews, who were in tumult, Adrian himself ar- 
rived in Britain. Hearing, at York, from some old soldiers who had j 
accompanied Agricola in his expedition, what kind of country he had 
to invade, he resolved on abandoning the territory north of the Tyne 
and Solway Frithf . He dug a deep ditch, and made a lofty and spacious 
ranq>art firom sea to sea, above sixty miles in length, and garrisoned 
eighteen thousand Roman troops in forts and stations, at proper 
distances. WhUe in Britain, Adrian received news of the death of 

* Domitiaii pot to death SallostiusLacallDS, Lieateaant of Britain, forsuffering 
fome lances of a new iDTention to be called JJuculUan Soetonius, Cb. X. 

t " Adrian, careless of repoee, marched, bare-headed, over the sultry plains of 

Upper Egypt, and the snows of Caledonia." Gibbon, Cb. I. It does not, how. 

ever, appear, that he iitvaded Caledonia, while he was id Britain : Floras write* — 

" Cttsar, I eoTy not thy tmde. 
Among the Britons to parade. 
And midst the Scottish frosts be laid." 

To which Adrian replies, 

" Floras, I enry not thy sphere. 
Taverns to haunt in qoeat of cheer; 
To lounge in every eating-bouse. 
And there in brimmen to o 

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Plotiua, the widow of Tr^an, U> whom he chiefly owed his deration. 
His grief was so immoderate, as to be attributed to love for that em- 
press *. Adrian returned to Rome, and was honoured with medab— To 
the Restorer of Britain: he left Prisons Licinius as governor. 

In the reign of Antoninus Pius, on tiie removal of some of the 
Roman troops, Adrian's rampart was in several places destroyed, and 
tiie country rav^fed by the Caledoniana. Lollius Urbicus was B«it to 
Britoin as governor. He subdued the revolted Brigantes, and con- 
A.D. 144. ^cd the northern tribes again within tbe line, where Agricola's taeU 
had he&a, by a broad and deep ditdi, and a rampart iqion a foundation 
of stone, and feced wit^ atone, defended by e^hteen garrisons, at two 
miles' distance ^m each other, with watch towen between ea^ 
It was called Antoninua's wall. The Roman navy in Brittdn was now 
commanded by Seins Satuminus. 
A.D. 162. MarcuB AureUus sent Calphumius Agrioola, as goremor, to Britain. 
He checked the insolence of the Caledonians, and strengthened the Ro- 
man power. In this nign, Lndus, a British king, b said to have on- 
braced the Cteistian rdigion. At the termination of the Marcomanic 
war/the Emperor sent eight thousand Scythians (Jazyges) into Britainf . 

In the reign of Gommodus, there were greatdisturbwices in the island. 
The Romans had neglected to keep up the discipline of their army; and 
a Roman general, with his troops, had been defeated, and cut to pieces. 
The ErapiCYor yrs& Manned at this, and aesit over Ulpius MarcellBst> 
a general of high reputation, who restored peace and discipline: for 
which he was rewarded with hatred and envy. 

• Life of Sabina, wife of Adriao, by De Seiriez. 

t Reea's Cyc. " Sarmalia." 

t While tbia governor whb m Brittin, in •fitt to keep kmiself vigilaot by ab- 
stemiousnese, he had bis bread fttmi Rome, and atcit elrie, that he mig^bt not be 
induced to any exceaa by freA brsRd..^GHBMkB. 

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On the Tecal of Hanellus, the rapacious and ambitious Perennis, ^^^f- 
the Emperor's iaTourite^ removed the veterui officers in Britain, to v^v^v-^b^ 
replace them with oUiers ef his own nominatitm. A deputation of 
fifteen hundred troops marched to Rome, demanded justice, and in- ^■^- ^^' 
formed the Emperor of the intrigues that were hatching agfdnst him. 
CmmnoduB, who was ahvady jealous of Perennis, delivered him up at 
once to the mutineers, who executed him instantly: his wife, his sis- 
ter, and his two childroi, shared his fate: his son, who conunanded the 
troops in llljria, was entrapped by a friendly letter from Commodus, 
to proceed to Rome; but as soon as he set his foot in Italy, he also 
was despatched, still being ignorant of his Other's fate *. 

Pertinax (afterwards Emperor) was deputed to Britain to restore 
order; but commendng with too much severity in military disci- 
^ine, the ninth legion mutinied : and being desirous to have a new Em- 
poror, they oflfered that dignity to Pertinax, who, in one of these revolts, 
was wounded and left for dead among the slain: he however recovered, A.D. 189. 
and subdued all obstacles; hut being accused of having contributed to 
the death of Arrius Antoninus, and not being beloved by the soldiers, 
he requested his lecaL 

: ClodiuB Albiniu, a general of great reputation, was now selected 
by Commodus for the important command of Britain; and the Em- 
peror wrote him a letter, fearing the revolt of Sevems and Nonius 
Murcus, to desire him, if he found the necessity, to assnme the title 
and dignity of Caesar, with permission, should he do so, to make use of 
the requisite sums of money to distribnte among the soldiers. But 
Albinus, fearing some tragical event might befal Commodus, and cause 
his own ruin, did not avail himself of this offer. 

On Pertinax succeeding to the empire, (A. D. 192), he confirmed 



CHAP. Clodius AlbiDus goTemor of Britain: and he was continued in that 

v.«»-v~«o^ post the next jear by the new Emperor, Didius Julianus. He gain- 
ed the affection of the soldiers to so great a degree, that, on the exe- 
cution of Didius, after Severus arrived in Italy *, they proclaimed him 
Emperor. He contested the throne with Septimius Sevenis, but was 

A. D. 197. defeated near Lyons in a great battle, immediately after which Albinus 
destroyed himselC 

Severus divided Britain into two governments: the northern half 
was governed by Virius Lupusf: Die relate that he purchased 
peace of the Caledonians. After a quiet period of several years, and 
great relaxation and negligence among the Roman troops, the Cale- 
donians began to be so troublesome, that Severus himself, though 
afflicted with the gout, and above sixty years old, resolved in person 
to conquer the northern part of the island. He set out for Britain 
(A. B. 208), at the head of a numerous army, and accompanied by 
the Empress Julia Domna with her sister Mesa, and his sons Carar 
calla and Creta, both of whom had been raised to the rank of Augus- 
tus: and Rome, for the first time, had three Emperors J. The Cale- 
donians sent ambassadors to treat on honourable terms. Severus re- 
quired them to submit to his mercy; which they refused. The Em- 
peror then leaving Geta in the command at London, attended by his 
whole court, and his formidable army, marched to the north with hia 
eldest son Caracalls. 

* When Didius had intelligvnce of tbe inarch of Sevenis, nothing^ vaa to be 
teen at Rome bat soldien, ekphantg, and horse*, traioiDg for war Dion Caaaiiw. 

t An altar dedicated to the goddess Fortune, inacribed to Virius Lupus, on (be 
occasion of hia repairing a bath for tbe Tfaracian cohorts in garrison with tbe 
Romans' at I.eratriie, (Bowen, Bicfamondshire), has been dag up at that [dace. 

$. Gibbon, Ch. VI. Caracalla was elevated in tbe year 198; Oeta at about tbe 
year of this expedition. Some writers date tbe arriral in Britain in 207. 

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Romans wiiowerein !BiiiTAir». 

''J're Description. J 



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~-~- fiseiMcox^fras the capital 0f the jnortbera dinsipn. Sevenis, with 
his Urge army, ai^d his whole cimrt. arrived at the coital., " It was 


IS JfuHut CcBiar.—^Tene, Aa^ujIuB. (Foaad at Ujututahle). 
' 14 Claudius, — A j^olonial oteda). (Found at Liltleborongh, NottinghaiDBhire). : 

15 yegpaaianaxd.Titus. — Hayni, t>el Teaoro Britannico, Vo}. II. Plate V. (Id 

(be possetslon oftfae Diike of Devonshire). 

16 BadriaK.~(¥inni at LKtIeborough). 

17 PerttKO*.— HaydKVoK I. p. 258. (Sir Robert Abdy). 

18 Chdiua ^/iiatM.— Blasted Emptor by the troofM in Britain. (Found at 

id AsvertH.— He died at York. (Found ia Leioealenhire). 
SO CoracaZ/a.— Haym. VM. II. Plate XV. (Duke of Deronshire). 
21 Qeta. — (Found in I^ces(enhire). , . , 

S2 Julia JTomna.— B^erse, t'enus LuciQa. Haym. .Vol. II. Plate XIV. — fF'tii 
'of Severus and motb^ of Garacalla and Gna. Suppiped to have been 

coined in Lydn. (Duke of DeYonsbire). I ; 

23 Julia Meta.- — RevVr^*' •'opi(^'>Dd Jnno, deities W tb« Amastriaus, croH^ned , 
^ with the signs )»(^tbe Zodiac Sister of Julia^omna; grandmotber M^ 

-^. _Heli(%aba]u8 and Atexaader-Sererua. Haym. Vol: tl. Plate XVIII. 
(Duke of Devonshire). 

24 0)Mslan(iua, /CA/orviJ.— He died at York. (Fouoit in Rutlaodahire). For 

the head of his empress, Helena, see Plate III, 'Mu. 90, / 

,25 Couatantine, (The CfrealJ:~Hje wds proclaimetj'at York. (Found at Cfaes- 

terton in Warwickshire). , 

^ Coiutantine, (The tiiungtr) .—tLeyene, PLON. Apined at Londoa He boifl 

. a won round Londba, or fio&hed the one said Ui_liav0 been built by hU 

father or Helena. (Found in Kutlandiihire). 
27 Tkeodotiut. — He served in Britain under bis father, and vitb bis futnre r^, 
' Iftaximus. (Fonif'd at Dunstable). i 

\ '« DDD \ ' 



^'^n^' ^^ ^^^ period that Tork shone in fbll lustre. Briiamuci orbit Howia 
Vi^-v^./ Altera, JPalatitim Curi^, et Preetorittm C^garia, are titles it might 
justly laj claim to. The prodigious concourse ci toihutarjr kings^ 
foreign ambassadors and others, which crowded the courts of the 
sovereigns of the world, when the Ronum empire was in its prime, 
must hare produced the height of sahluniry grandeur: aadthis, with- 
out mentioning the Emperor's own magnificeace, bis nnmarooB »• 
tinue, the noUemen of Rome, or the officers of the army, which must 
ftU, necessarily, attend bim. In th^e days, and before, no doubt, the 
temple of Bqllona stood here. Whatever was done at Rome, we may 
presume was executed at Tork. The palace ai; Tort: must have be^ 
very magnificent. (The one built by tliis Emperor was noble and ex- 
tensive). It wa* here that 8everu» tritmtphed Jbr one <^ the greatest 
conquests (over the Parthkms and Arabians), Rome eter gmned, and 
which, with the building of the waD, Spartian expressly c^Is the 
greatest glories of his reign*." 

Severus, fVom his infirraitiesr and then having the gout, was carried 
all over the island in a litter f; he, with infinite toil, penetrated to 
the utmost bounds of the north, cutting down forests, and draining 
morasses, or filling them with bavins. All this while no enemy's 
soldiers appeared: they hung unseen on the rear and flanks of the 
Romans, and harassed them perpetually. 

This campaign, from the extreme severi^ of the labour, and ex- 

* Drake's York, p. 10 to 1^ Thsre had also been a triumph at Rome for the 
eutem TictorraB, in the tenth year of Severus's reign, but he, haring the gout, 
would not permit it in hU own name, being too ill to be present at it; Caracalla 
therefore enjojed the honor, for bia niccesa against the Jaws; and this triiunpb, at 
Ywk, WW to celchrata the conquests of Severus. He received from the senate the 
title of the conqueror of the Britons, while he was at York. See Spartian, and Ber- 
tianl. Vol. I. p. 246 ; aUo Medal, PUte 1. A. 13. 

■f Dion Cassius, " Severus." 

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posure to cold ra the momitams and bogs, is said to hare cost the 
BomftDS fiftf thoiutand men *. The Caledonians* faoweTer, at length 

The Emperor, findii^ that he could not keep the country in sub- 
jection without a cwuiderable army on the spot; resolved to depend 
on the project of Adrian, by oonfiniii^ the Caledonians within a more 
secure bairier. This great undertaking was saperintended by Can- 
cdla. The positioB was a few paces north of Adrian's rampart; and 
the length, from the mouA of the Tyne to Boulness on the Solway 
Frith, sixty-eight Ei^;liah miles. To the north of the wall was a 
broad uid deep ditch : the wall itself, on the brink of the ditch, was 
built of s(rffid stones strongly cemented with the best mortar. The 
haght wna twelve feet, besides the parapet; and its breadth eight 

There were eighteen stations fortified with deep ditches and strong 
walls, the great wall itself forming the nwth wall of each station. 
The smallest station contained a cohort, or six hondred men. With- 
out the walls of each station, was a town inhabited by labourers, both 
R<Hnans and Britons, who chose to dwell there* under the protection 
of these fortresses. 

There were between the stations eighty-one castella, or castles, ex- 
act squares of sixty-six feet every way; fortified on each side with 
thick and lofty walk; in wUch guards were constantly kept The 
towers, or turrets, formed each a square of twelve feet standing out 
of the wall on its south side. 

The troops allotted to guard the wall, consisted of twelve cohorts 
of foot, one cohort of mariners in the station at Boulness, one detach- 

* It is very probabto that great oamben i^ cattle, tneo, and other reitigei of 
tbisinvauoo ^re alill io the manlMs of Scotlaad: now perhapa dried up. 



CHAP, ment of Moors •, probably equal to a cohort, and four al», or wings^ 

v.«a*>^^-^ of horse, at the lowest computatioo, of four hundred each- In all, ten 

For the convenience of marching ftom one part of the wall to 
another, there were annexed to it two military ways, paved with 
square stones, in the most solid and beautiful manner; cme larger and 
one smaller, from castle to caatle, &c. to reUeve guards and sentinels. 
(This wall proved an impenetrable barrier to the Roman territories 
for near two hundred years. In subsequent times, it was the common 
quarry, for more than a thousand years, ibr building all the towns and 
Tillages around f). The restless Caledonians, on the retiring of the 
Roman legions, resuming hostilities, Severus was provoked to send 
another army iato their country, under the command of Caracalla, 
with the most bloody orders: not to subdue, but toexterminatethem; 
even to the child unborn. They were saved by the Emperor's death 
at York, A. D. 211, aged 66. His corpse was burnt with great pomp 
at a place without the walls of York {. 

* Tbe Emperor $«veraB was au African, born at Leptis (Napoli di Barbaria, in 
tbegoTerment of Tripoli). Bernard, Tol. I. p. ^7. 

t See Henry, Hist. Eng. II. 477. Rees's Cyc. " Wall." " When Mr. Roger 
Gale and I rode the whole length of Severus's Wall, in August, 1725, near House- 
steeds, (Borcovius), fragments of pillars lay scattered orer the whole place; whence 
we conclude, here was a temple. By a large part of a capital that remained, we 
concluded that it was of the Doric order, suitable to a military atalion. In the 
meadow there was such a scene of Romano British Antiquities as we had never 
beheld; we might have loaded waggons with .many most carious and beeutifol 
large altars. There were scores of fine basso relieros nearly as big as tbe life* one 
of them an admirable image of victory; and three female figures sitting together, 
with globes in their hands. There was a wall, composed of dry Roman stones, 
and fragments of carved work, as a sorry fence to a pasture. Who can express 
the indignation we conceived at the miserable havoc of these most valuable monu- 
mentsf" Stukeiey, Medallic History of Caraosius, Vol. II. p. 161. 

{ This place is said still to bear the name of Serer'i^boe, At funerals, it was 

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The signs forenmniag the death of Severus, were these : He 
dreamed that he was carried up to Heaven in a chariot drawn bjr four v. 
eagles, and was callfed by Jupiter, and placed among the Antoninuses. 
One day, wltile the gaanes of the circus were celebrating, as there were 
three figures of Victory, with palms in their hands, placed, according 
to custom, upon the platform where the Emperor's throne is ; that in 
the middle, hearing a globe, on which was inscribed the name of Seve- 
riis, was blown down upon the ground by a gust of wind*. The one 
with the name of Geta fell, and was broken to pieces: but that which 
was inscribed with the name of Bassianus (Caracalla) stood, but lost 
the palm branch by the wind- 
After he had finished his wall, and was returning to the next garri- 
son Tictorious, having hereby assured the peace of Britain for ever; 
while he was meditating about what sort of omen he should meet with 
npon it, a black Moor, one of his soldiers, and a famous droll, presents 
himself before him, with a crown in his hand made of cypress. Seve- 
rus in anger commanded bim immediately to retire out of his sight, 
being sensibly touched with the double ill omen of his colour, and the 
tree of which his crown was composed. In the mean time, said the 
man, " your Majesty hath been all things, and conquered all things, 
now he a God." 

Having afterwards returned to York, and going to discharge his de- 
votion, the Emperor was conducted, by a mistake of an augur, into a 
Temple of Bellona; and the beasts which were presented to him to 
sacrifice were black : but he, refusing to sacrifice in that colour, retir- 

ctuloinary to kill oxen, &c, and to throw tbem upon (he pile. Sevenu ttnick 
money at York, and stiled hinuelf Britaimicus. He alto issued a decree r^ard- 
ing slaves, and still in the Roman Code, dated Ebomcnm, the third of the doom of 
Mny, in the consulate of Fauslinus and Rufus. (A. D. 309). 
* Spartian. See Bernard, Vol. I. p. 263. 



ed to the palace, and the same black Tictims being left neglected by 
f the priests, went after him as &r as to the gates of the palace*." 

SeveruB had been near four years in Britunf , where he got a prodi- 
gious mass of wealth |. The cruel temper of Caracalla, whose chief 
glory was in killing wild beasts, had clouded all the Emperor's lattCT 
years. The ambition of this monster had prompted him to endeavour 
openly to slay, or privately to poison his father. 

Caracalla had produced discontent among the troops, and one of his 
party had murmured that their victorious career was retarded by a gouty 
old man. The empress was suspected of being au accomplice in this 
conspiracy. Severus caused himself to be carried to the tribunal j and, 
in the midst of the army, condemned some of Caracalla's party to 
death. The criminals, falling prostrate, implored the Emperor's mer- 
cy: for some time Severus was inflexible; but, at length, pardon- 
ing them, he placed his hand upon his head : " Now," said he, " are you 
satisfied that it is the head that rules, and not the feet ? " Caracalla, in- 
stead of bemg checked by this, became more fbrious. Severus and he 
being sometime afterwards on horseback, holding a conference with the 
Caledonians, in presence of both armies, Caracalla drew his sword 
with intention to plunge it through his father's back. Those who 
were near, suddenly shrieked, which caused the Emperor to turn his 
head, when he was shocked by the sight of the naked sword. The 
unhappy parent had sufficient command of himself not to say a single 
word. "When he arrived at his tent, he threw himself upon his bed. 

* Spartian. Augustan Hist, The person of Sererus is described by Spnr- 
tiaii as handsome and stout; be wore a loDg beard, and bis hair curled oatDrally; 
be bad an awful countenance, and a sweet voice, bat with aometbing: of tbe Afncan 
tune. He ate liule, often quite abstained from flesb, and was partial to the peas, 
beans, and pulse of bb native country. He aometinies drank pretty freely. 

t Henry, Vol. 11. } Bion Cassius, •* 8670™*" 



and sent for CaiEcalla. In the preience of Papiiuns, the captain of ^^^^ 
ike guards, and Castor, a Ireed man, the Emperor reproached his son v.#«-v'*i^ 
with great codness. " If jon want to kill me," said he. " take this 
•word and execute your desire here, and not in the presence of two 
armies: or if shame withholds your hand, request Papinius to rid you 
of me.* 

The Roman ewiwre was now in the hands of Caracalla and Geta^ 
w^ equal power : and the senate acknowledged them both, as lawful 
and independent Emperors. They left Britain and the Caledonians 
in peace. On their arrira! at Rome, a negotiaticm was attempted to 
divide the Empire into East and West: but it could not be brought 
about On the 37th of February, A. D. 212, Caracalla, assisted by 
other assassins, murdered his brother Geta, while his mother, the Em- 
press JnUa Domna, was endearonring to protect him in her arms: she \, d. 19S. 
hersdf being wounded in the hand, and corered with the blood of the 
onfiMtimate Geta. 

Julia, the wife (^ Sevems, was one of the most accomplished, beauti- 
ful, dissolote, and unfortunate of die Roman empresses. Juha Mesa, 
her sister, was a Ii^ of great merit, and virtuous beyond the reach of 
malice; she was prudent and pditic; it was principally by her man- 
agement tiiat her grandsons, Heliogabalns, and Alexander Sevems, 
were devatcd to the throng of the Empire. These sisters were bom 
at Emessa in Phcenicia, and were daughters of Bassios, Priest of the 
Sun. Julia Domna was about twenty years of age when she married 
Scverus; amd when he became Emperor the two sisters generally ac- 
companied him in bis expeditions, JuKa Mesa having becoou a wi- 
dow. They were both In Britain during the whole time of the rest' 
dence of the three Emperors. 

Julia Domna is described as extmnety beautiAil . and as having a 
just way of thinking, a peculiar grace in her speech, and an elegant 



manner of writing: she had studied geometry, and other sciences^ be- 
sides the vain art of judicial astrology; and was the patroness of every 
art, and the friend of every man of genius. She was prodigiously 
fond of sports and shows, where she always appeared full of life uid 
high spirits, and where her beauty, which remained to ah advanced 
age, could not fail to procure her a crowd of admirers. Such wias her 
ascendency over Severus, notwithstanding her notoriously flagitious 
conduct, that she could calm him in the midst of his fiiry, andman^e 
him as she thought proper. 

Julia accompanied Severus on his ezpeditimi in Caledonia, and re- 
ceived from the inhabitants, with whom she had any intercourse, all 
the honours it was in their power to pay to her exalted rank. Not 
finding the politeness of the Roman ladies in the manners of the na- 
tives of Caledonia, the Empress frequently rallied them with much vi< 
vacity, and in a very provoking stile;. no one daring to offend tiie 
dignity of the Empress by a repartee. It happened, however, that a 
Caledonian of distinction, named ArgentQcox, had a wife* who was 
very witty and spirited on such occasions. One day, when she went 
to pay het respects to the Empress, the conversation taking a turn on 
the customs and manners of the country, Julia was rather satirical 
on the galantries of the Caledonian ladies, the little fidelity they had to 
their husbands, and the publicity of their intrigues : on which the 
Dther replied with great resolution, " It is true, that we Caledonians 
do not manage so cunningly as the Soman ladies, we have not* their 
policy to impose on our husbands by intrigues carried on under an 
appearance of modesty, with the most abject persons; we have the 
mncerity without disguise to enjoy the society of the bravest men in 

* The wife's nnme (Dion, Vol. II. p. 307,) was Argeloxa. 



the world." The empress, at this replj, felt much confused^ and never CHAP, 
xenewed the sobject. ^_^^-^j^ 

Aiter the death of Severus, his bodj was burnt, with the usual cere- A.'D.2ll, 
monies, and the ashes were deposited in a costly urn, which Julia had 
carried with h«r to Rome. 

When Caracallft was assassinated in Mesopotamia, Julia, her nieces 
Soemia and Mamea, and their mother Mesa, were all at Antioch. On 
the nevra reaching the unfortunate empress, she gave herself up to 
grief, inflicted blows on henelf, although she was suffering ftma a 
cancer, whidi she mni^ iniamed; and refused all nourishmait. A 
letter from Macrinus, now En^ror, full of expressions of respect and 
esteem^ and continaing all the prerogatives and honours she had ever 
enjoyed, mitigated her affiictions and sorrows. But Macrinus, dread- 
ing her influence and abilities, changed his conduct, and commands 
faer to quit Antioch. Julia, finding no remedy for her midbrtunes, 
and tortured by her cruel disease, abstained from food, and died in 
tiie-year 217, at the age of about sixty-three, after having enjoyed 
the highest dignities attainable, and being afflicted with the most 
dreadful mental and bodily uiguish that a hunuut bdng can sup- 

Britain, enjoying anintenrupted tranquillity, is scarcely noticed by 
any historian for about eevsHiy^Jlve years. 

A governor who had been sent to Britain by the Emperor Probus 
assumed the Imperial purple, but was shortly afterwards pat to daath 
by Victorinos, a Moor, one of Probus's ministers, by whom the govern 

* LUe of Jalis Domm, by De Serriez. AagustaD Hialwy, "Sereraa." Gib- 
bon, Cl>, VL Spartian repcnla, that Julia married faer son Caracalla, whicb other 
aathora deny ; dot ia il in tbe least probable: she was fifty-seven years of age, 
wben Serenu died. He also asserts that Caracalla vaa her step-soD. 



CHAP, nor had been promoted*. Bodosub, another of the revolters against Pro- 
s«ia-V"«^ bus, was a Briton by birth. His father was a Spaniard, and either s 
professor of rhetoric or a grammarian, and died while Bonosus was 
young: his mother was a Gaulese, and a woman of wit. Bonosus ser- 
ved first in the infantry, then in the cavalry ; and when he became 
a general, he had charge of the frontier of Rhsetia. No man ever 
drank like him. The Emperor Anrelian esteemed htm for his mili- 
tary talents, and, as he could drink like a neve, he appointed him to 
entertain the ambassadors fVom all nations, that be might discover 
their secrets; he himself remaining perfectly undtstarbed by any 
quantity of wine. 
A.D. 883. The Germans having burnt the Roman shipping on the Rhine, and 
Bonosus fearing that he should be punished for his neglect, boldly 
claimed Britain, Gaul, and Spain, and assumed the purple. He en- 
gaged Probus in a severe battle, but being overpowered, he hanged 
himself. On which occasion, it was said of him, " here hmtge a ioK- 
kardt not a mtm." Probus gave his wife a pension, and forgave his 
two sons. His wife's name was Hunila, of the royal blood of the 
Goths. She was a woman of singular merft, and bad been selected by 
Aurelian, in order that through her means Bonosus might become 
well acquainted with the af&ira of the Goths. Aurelian commanded 
that the marriage should be at the public charge, and that Hunila 
should be presented with silk gowns of a violet colour, and one of silk 
embroidered with gold, one hundred golden Philips, a thousand Anto- 
nines in silver, ten thousand sesterces in brass, and all such things as 
were proper for a lady of quality f. 

Probus was the first Emperor who permitted the Britons to plant 
vines, as well as the Crauls and Spaniards. He sent over to . Britain 
many Vandals and Burgundians to settle in the island. 
* ZoeimiiB, p. 82. f Flavitu Vopiscu*. Aug. Hist. 

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Emperors of Bbitai?}. 

^^1,VIU5^ ^^1,ECTir.o 

/UM'J . ■<*™'. //. /I 

Digitized by njOOQIC 


"WhSie the Enperor Cams was in Persia, be left Britain amd 
provinces under the govermentof his son Cjbinn^*. 


i " In the beginning of the reign of .Dioclesian, an^ his associate M^xi- ^^' ^* 
Ximta with the'title of Augustus, udGalerlus and 6!^itetanthtB Chlor^ 

with the inferior tiltes of Caesar, Cat«mias a Menapiaii,^mean origin^~ - ' 

commanded the Roman fleet stationed at Boulogne. He had secured 

to himself immense spoil, taken from the French and German pirates. 

His great wealth being evidence of h 

/ thai be^ should be potv^D dea;th- Can 

/ to attach.ihe flee^ to his ftnteacsi an 

1 ^ Emperor, lie sailed' over to ^^n. ; 

snxftisr}e0> who gn^^ed that'isiand, i 

m«s»-shipB, and boldh^^lBSUiaed the I 

Augustusf. (A. D. 287). 

* Aasrostan Rutarr. " Cnrtntts," No Roman laTUbcd m much art and expence 

the senate had decreed Ihe surname firitannicus. AdmiDiiu or £timiniiu 

was uoa of Cunobeliae king of Britain, His Aither gave bim part of bis 

^■^vagAqfn. Coins ,baT« been found at Colchester,- with Ibft inacr^j^oo, 

Mitr/'^n'oXic'i^V'vwBiHnX&iic. He was ej^lled, and fled tot'^igiila. 

JAiiVWorlb. h Etiiainius." (This medal maa found at .Lii(iebcui»ugJ|). 

Jt i» Kighly pbobable that Claudius espousid bis^cacuB..- ~' ! , ' ■ 



The Romans deplored the loss of an island so valuable for its rich 
mines, temperate climate, corn, abundant pastures, wealth, and con- 
venient harbours. Carausius supported his rebellion with ability. 
The British Emperor invited from the continent skilful artists in great 

80 Antoninut Pius.— (Found at Littleborougb). 

81 TTiesame. — (Found in LeicestenhJre). Tbe two, by Ibedate8,ftre for different 

3Sl ComtKodus. — (Found at Littleborougfa). 


S3 CsraKitv* (Silver). — Reverse, Temple at Granta. R.S. R.Reipublicse Sectirita* 
Restituta. Haytn. Vol. II. Plate XXVIt. Carausius was assassinated in 
the Temple of Bellona at York. (In the possession of the Duke of Devon- 
shire), lu tbis Emperor's reign there were struck in Britaia about tbree 
hundred diff^erent coins and medals. 

84 ITie same, (Silver) .—Reverse, a lion. LEG fill. Tbe fourth legion was ap- 
pointed to go to Syria, but joined tberebe). Caraasinabrougfatliotw with 
him from Africa. M. S, R. Moneta Signata Rigoduni. Coined at Rible- 
Chester, or Richmond, Yorkshire. Haym. Vol. 11. Plate XXVII. (Mr. 

36 7%eaame. — Rererse, a ram. LEG VIII. Tbe eighth legion joined CaraHsius. 
M. L. Moneta Londinensis. Haytn. Vol. 1. p. 289. (Lord Winchelsea). 

36 Sylvius. — ^Tbe bead, is his father Carausius, with whom be was co-emperor, 

See Haym. Vol. I, p. SS7, who eonfwtttres that thb reverse represents a 
son or nephew, not being acquainted with the fact of Carausius having ason. 
(Lord Winchelsea). 

37 Ailectvs. (Silver).— (Found in London). Very rare. Haym. Vol. II. Plate 

XXVII. (Duke of Devonshire.) 

88 The same. — Q. L. Quinti Liberlus vel Liberia. Ainstvortb. This would 
not accord with Allectus, if the history be correct, which assigns him two 
or three years only. (Found at Chesterton). 

39 Helena. — I at first imagined this to be a coin of the wife of the British Em- 
peror, Maximns; but Camden says it is of Helena, Empress of Constantius 
Chlorus, and mother of Constantine the Great: she is by some said to have 
been a Briton: as the other Helena certainly was, that circumstance may 
have given rise to the error. (Found at Chesterton). 
It is to be observed, that, on some of the medal8,the words are not rightly spelt. 
As they are copied from engravings, it is possibly the &ult of tbe first 
publisher: even the Romans are not corrects uniform in tbis respect. 

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numbers: he displayed his taste and his opul«ice in a great variety of 9^^^- 
elegant coins, rtiU extant Bom in Brabant, he courted the Franks, \.«-v^ 
imitated their dress and manners, and enlisted their bravest youths in 
his army and navy. Corausius kept possession of Boulogne and the 
adjacent country. His fleets commanded the mouths of the Seine and 
the Bhine, and ravaged the coasts of the ocean. The Romans had pre- 
pared a new armam^t, which was commanded by Maximian*; but 
the superior power and skill of Carausius, in a sea-fight .off the Isle of 
Wight, ba£aed it; and Dioclesian and his colleague reluctantly re- 
signed to Carausius the sovereignty of Britain. 

The British Emperor returned by way of Sorbiodunum, (Old Sarum), 
to ZiOndon, which he entered in an ovation, or lesser triumph, and, on 
the 25th of December, celebrated the horse-races to Mithras. He 
declared his son Sylvius Princep» Jutxntmtis, and President of the Tro- 
jan games ; and the next year, (390), named him Ctesar. He proceed- 
ed to York and Catterick, subdued the Scoto and Picts, repaired the 
Frsetentura of Antoninus in Scotland, and built seven castles there. 
He also built a triumphal arch, and a circular house of stone, on the 
banks of the Carron. . 

In the year 291, Carausius constituted a senate in Britain ; and, on 
the 27th May, he celebrated the LII. Capitoline Agonf . 

The Ceangi were defeated in a battle near Bath: Carausius was ac- 
companied by his Empress Orivna, and his son Sylvius, who was soon 
afterwards created Augustus, and partner in the empire. 

In the year 292, the city of Granta, on the north side of Cambridge, 
was built, and in it a Temple " Romte ^tenue." Many Roman roads 

* Maximian had had some saccess in Britain, for which he bad a triumph.— 
Bernard, Vol. 11. p. 346. 

t This feast wag for poets, orators, hiBtorians,cDniedians,niusician8,athlete,&c. 
— See Rees's Cyc " Capitoline." 

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were made, leading from the city. Od the 7tli of September, the Em> 
/ peror celebrated the Quinqueimalia*. (the origin of Sturbech 
or Sturbridge &ir). In October, the temple at Granta was de> 
dicated, and many coins on that occasion were struck. (In this Em- 
peror's reign, there were struck in Britain about three hundred dff^ 
JireTtt medals and coins.) In this month there were &ira at York and 
Boroughbridge ,- at the latter, the com boats arrived by the rivers and 
artificial canals. 

Carausius sailed, with a powerful fleet, into the Mediterranean, to 
excite the AAicans in his favor, and gained the advantage, while at sea. 
over the fleet commanded by Constantine Chlorus ; he returned on 
the 19th of October, celebrated the Secular gamesf; and having 
brought lions with him fi-om Africa, he exhibited them among his 
other magnificent shows. On May-day, 295. the Emperor celebrated 
the Floral games in the temple of Rome at Granta X- Afterwards, 
the Lin. Capitoline Agon were celebrated in the Temple of Bellona, 
at York §. 

Constantias was preparing a large fleet, and assumed the conduct of 
the war. He raised a stupendous mole across the entrance of the 
harbour and town of Boulogne ; and a considerable number of ves- 

* la honour of di« deified Emperors. 

f These games continued three days and three nigbta: the people lacrificed to 
Japiter, Juno, Diana, Ceres, &c. Tbey marked out a place which served for a 
theatre, which was illumiDated with an immense number of firea and fiambeaua. 
Hynos were aung to Jupiter in Greek and Latin. Theatrical shows wers exhi- 
bited, with combats and sports in the circus.' — Keonet's Roman Antiquities, 
p, 399. Rees's Cyc. " Secular Games." 

X At the celebraliou of the ^mea in honour of the Goddess Flora, Galba enter- 
tained the people with a new sight of elepbanla walking upon ropes. — SaetooHu, 
Ch, VL It ifl said that Carinus also exhibited elephants dancing on ropes oa 

these occasions. See Reea's Cyc " Florales Ludi," 

§ Stukely. History of Carausius, Vol. IL p. 170. 



■els suTTendered: he also detached the Franks from the interests <tf 

The Britisfa Emperor was murdered, in the temple of Bellona, at 
York, hy his first minister, AUectus, in whom he had placed the most 
implicit confidence*. The assassin usurped the power of hia master, 
bat was of very inferior abilities. 

AVhen Constantios bad faily prepared the very large army and 
fl«et which he had oollected upon the opposite coast, he divided his 
force: it was so considerable, that he had required three years to per- 
fect it. The principal squadron, imder the command of the prsefect 
Asclepiodotus, captain of the prctorian guards, ventured to sul, on a 
stormy day, and with a side wind, from the mouth of the Seine. The 
fleet of Allectus was stationed off the Isle of Wight, to receive the 
enemy: bat, under cover of a thick fog, Asclepiodotus succeeded in 
landing the imperial troops on the western coast, and immediately 
reduced his fleet to ashes. 

Allectus had posted himself near London, to await the attack of 
Constantius; but, on receivingthis unwelcome intelligence, afterapre- 
cipitate and long march, be encountered the pnefect's wh<^ force, with 
a small body of &tigued and disheartened troops ; many of whcnn were 
foreign hirelings, ctdefiy Franks. Throwing off his purple robe, that 
it might not betray him, Allectns rushed desperately into the battle, 
and was quickly slain, with small loss to the Romans, but great 
slan^ter among the soldiers of the usurper. 

The body of Allectus was fomid in the field of battle, almpst naked. 
Those Franks who had survived, fled to London, in order to pillage 
that city, and then make their escape by sea; hut a part of the Ro- 
man army, whi(A had been divided frwn the rest by « mist at sea, ar- 

* Aureliiw Victor* 

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*^inTT*' "^°f^ opportunely, pursued the Franks through the streets^ aod killed 
'— ■«--,r-*-^ a great number of them •. 

When Constantius landed upon the shores of Kent, he found them 
covered with obedient subjects, who rejoiced to be restored to the Ro- 
man empire, after a separation of ten years. Asel^iodotus is said to 
have usurped the purple, and to have been killed in a battle, leaving 
Cdnstantius master of Britain. " O, invincible Csesarl" exclaims the 
historian, " Britain, and the glory of the naval power of Rome, are re- 
stored." (A. D. 397+). 


A.D. S07. Constantius administered the affairs of his department, Gaul, 
Spain, and Britain, with moderation, clemency, and ability; winning 
the hearts of his subjects in those three provinces |. Dioclesian and 
Maximian, having both resigned the purple on the same day, (May. 1,) 
Constantius and Galerius assumed the title of Augustus, (A J). 304). 
Some commotions in Britain required the presence of the Emperor; 
and he crossed the sea, accompanied by his son Coustantine, then 
thirty years of age, and proceeded to York. An easy victory over the 
Caledonians was the last exploit of this Emperor, who ended his life at 
York, the 25th of July, 300. Constantius died in the imperial palace; 
wbftre, on his royal bed, he took leave of his children. The fiineral rites 
of the deceased monarch were performed with the utmost magnificence. 

• See Augustan History, Vol. 11. p.S43; Stow. Vol. I. p. 6; MiltCH),8vo. p.l06. 

t See Henry, Hist, Eng. Vol. II. p. 277; Dr. Slukeley; Gibbon, Ch. XIII. 
Bernard, Vol. II. p. 346; and Rapin. Tbore is nwdi (xmtrviety in the dates dat- 
ing this defection, fiy the Chronology of the Augustan History, Carausius re- 
Tolted in S86, and was killed in 293; and Britain was regained by Constantius 

{ Constantius generally resided in Britain. „ Zosimns, p. 40. 



An infinite numbor of people, assisting with dances, songs, and loud CHAP« 
acclamations, congratulated his ascension to the Gods. k,^^./^^ 

The flower of the western armies hadfoIlowedConstantiusinto Bri- 
tain; and the lutional troops were reinforced by a numerous body of 
AUenunni. Constantihe was, hy the legions, saluted Augustus and 
Emperor. While he remained at York, the British soldiers, in Ro- 
man pay, presetted the new Emperor with a golden ball, as an em- 
blem of his sovereignty over Britun. On his conversion to Christian- 
ity, Constantino placed a cross upon it : and it has become the sign 
of majesty* After four year^ absence this monarch revisited A.D.3IJ. 
Britain -f. 

During the reign -of Constantine the Great, Britun enjoyed pro- 
found tranquillity ; it was subject to the pnefect of Gaul, and was go- 
remed by a deputy under him. Isca (Caerleon) was now, by a new ar- 
rangement of Britain, made a third capital, and became a great and im- 
portant city; splendid pidaces with gilded roofs, a temple, a theatre 
an amphitheatre, and other stately edifices, made it emulate the gnut- 
deurof RomeJ. 

In the latter period of the Emperor's reign, his son Constantine was 
governor c^ Gaul, Spun, and Britain. He built a wall round London. 
(See Medal, No. 26 $). 

• ©mke'B " York," pp. 48. 46. Gibbon, Ch. XIV. 

t Conslantine raised a& army aaion|r the Germana aod Cetia, wliicb, with the 
forces he drew from Brilain, amouDted to ninety thousand foot, and eight thousand 

J Rees'a Cyc. " Caerleon." 

§ Camden says, that be erected some structures at London. Gongh, in a note, 
says, tbat the coin is ^nerally referred to ibe Castra Preetoria at Rome; but this 
i^pears very improbable. After the massacre in tbe reign of Nero, a wall of stone 
and brick had been bnitt round London, which, in above two centariea, probably 
teqnired improving. There was not an efficient wall to keep the Franks from en^ 
Cering and pillaging Lo&don when Allectus was defeated,,if they »t««d no) by 



ConstantiQe the Great died in the year S37, leaving three wms, Coi»< 
> stantine, Constana, and Constantius. The first was kilted in a battfo 
against the second, in 340, when ^e western diviuon was in the govem- 
ment of Constans, who, acoompanied by Constantius, risited Britain* 
and landed at Suidwich*. Constans was murdered in his bed b^ 
Magneo^us, goremor of Rbsetia, at Anton, in Gaul ; and, at his deatl^ 
the whole empire was possessed hj Constantius. He soti to Briiain 
one Paulas, a notary, who conunitted numerous extortions. Msr^ 
nus, the governor, remonstrated agwnst such ui^ust proeeediogp.. 
I^uhts replied, that his opposing the execution of the Emperor's or* 
ders, could proceed only from a spirit of rebellion : he even accused 
Martimis of haTing been concerned in the revolt of Uagn^itiaB. The 
indignant and enraged gtnemor struck at Paolus with Ins sword, but^ 
missing his blvw, he plunged it into his own breast. The merdless 
Paulss now eondosmed to dei^, banishment, or iu^risonment, att 
who resisted 1^ will, without ever being restrained by the Empermr. 
A, D. 960. He was afterwards burnt alive. 

The Western Empire, Britain included, was now under JoMan, (tb« 
' apostate): he sent a body of tro^is under the c<Hnmand of Li^ciliuB 
A J). 863. to oppose the ravages of the Scots i»d Picts. On his arrival in Lon- 
don he was recalled; the enemy having submitted. 

In the reign of Valentiniaa the First, the Attacotti, (a tribe of Cale- 
donians, accused of del^jjhting m the taste of human flesh*}, the Ficts, 

■tratagem. Stow aaya, (p. 7), that the Emprea* Helena bailt the wall, A. D. 306k 
There i» every probability that it was fiaished by Cmutantioe, janior. 

• See Miltga, 8vo. pu 107, 

t " The ^ttiKOUik ijM-etMnie^ aBdafteEwords the soldien of ValcntiniaD, an 
accowd by Jenun* tn, eye-nitoan^ (whose veracity i find no reasoD to queation), 
of ddighting in the taste of humati flesh. When lliey bnated the woods foe prey, 
itia aaid,. that tbej attacked tiie ahepherd rather than his flock; aad that th«y 
oirioiuiy aaUclad the moai d«Ucat« aad bnurny parts, both of males and feanles^ 



fkxA», Fnmks, and SaKom, all, eithet hy accident or common league, u- 
vaded the Roman province by sea and land at once, and made great < 
nvages. Every prodaction of art and nature, every object of con- 
T^ienee or lnxnry> was accumulated in the rich and fruitful province 
«f Britain. Severus and Jovinns successively endeavoured in vain to 
atop the fury of these inroads. At length, Tal6ntinian sent Theodo- 
rtns to oommand in Britain. The two military commanders of the 
province had been surprised and cut off by the barbarians: and every 
messenger that escaped to the continent, conveyed the most alarming 
tidings. A penon named Yalenttnian had been banished to Britain, 
and endeavoured to render himself absolute shout this period, but was 
aoon deprived of his hopes and his life *. 

The nomination of so great a general as Theodonns, (the &ther of a 
line of Emperors), was deemed by the army and the province, a sure 
presage of ^proaching victory : the new governor landed at Sandwich, A.D. 867. 

which ifaey prepared for tbeir horrid repasts. If in the neif^hbourboodoftbecwn- 
mercial and literary town of Glasgow, a race of cannibals has really existed, we 
may contemplate, in the period of the Scotlisfa bistory, the extremes of savage and 
civiliiad life^ Socb refiectima tend to enlarge the circle of our ideas; and to eb> 
courage the pleasing hope, that New Zealand may produce, in some futare age, 
the Hume oftbe Southern hemisphere. The bands of Attacotti which Jerom had 
seen m Gaul, were afterwards stationed in Italy and Illyricam." Gibbon, Ch. 

XXV. Ammiauus BlarcelliDns mmtions the Attacottr, but does not aay any 

thing about their being cannibals. Could such a remarkable fact hare existed 
and not hare been noticed by Tacitus, or any other Roman bistoriani Agricola'i 
line of forts, and the ramparts of Antoninus, were in the neighbourhood of dw- 
gow; and Soman garrisons, of numbers of troops, were stationed there: that 
neighbourhood was, consequently, well known, and it is quite incredible that 
such a horrid ca8t<«n could hare escaped especial and notorious remark. Tlin 
cbai^ against the Attacotti had scarcely been worth notice, were it not sanctioned 
1^ sudi authority as Gibbon: but as it stands solely on the assertion of a bigoled 
passionate controTersialist, it is not worthy of belief. 
• Zoaimtu, p. 100. 



auid marched to London, (A.D. 367), with his numerous and Veteraa 
J bands: the citizens threw open their gates. 

The desultory warfare of the barbarians who infested the land and 
sea, deprived Theodosius of a signal victory : but his consummate art 
and prudence, displayed in two campaigns, rescued the province from 
the cruel and rapacious enemy. Theodosius entered London in 
triumph. The spl^idout of London and of the other cities, and the 
security tA the fortifications, were restored. 

The Caledonians were confined to their northern r^on, above the 
Frith of Forth; and the territory south of that, down to the Tyne,, 
was named Valentta, to perpetuate the glories of the reign of Valen- 
tinian: and to the city of London was given the name of Augusta. 

Theodosius returned to the continent with the highest reputation 
for prudence, justice, vigour, and clemency; and his great merit was 
rewarded by the Emperor with applause and without envy. 

Britain was now divided into five provinces, and a governor was 
appointed to each of them. 

In the reign of Gratian and Valentinian U. on the Picts and Scots 
beginning to threaten hostility, Maximus, a Spaniard of disUnction, 
was invested with the command in Britwn *. He designed to subject 
the whole island to the "dominion of the Romans ; but finding the 
union of the Scots and Picts a great obstacle to the execution of his 
project, he feigned to be exasperated against the Scots, as the sole 
cause of the troubles in Britain ; and persuaded the Picts to join their 
forces to his, on the promise of giving them the lands of the Scots. 
His artifice succeeded. The Scots being thus overpowered, were 
forced to fly to Ireland and the adjacent isles. Maximus permitted 

* Gibbon does not allow that Maximus was either gorernor, or a general. 
See Bapin, and Gibbon, Ch. XXVII. and Milton, 8ro, [I. III. 



ihe RctB to take possession of the new conquests; when i^irs of ^^^' 
higher importance to himself diverted his attention. •w«-v^«.. 

The two Emperors associated as a third, Theodosius, the son of the 
general who had oommanded with such distinguished renown in 
Britain. Maximus, highly jealous and affronted at not having been 
preferred to Theodosius, resolved to assume the imperial dignitj. I'o 
forward his project, he intended to gain the friendship and confidence 
ofthePicts; and, leaving the island in peace, to wage war against 
the three Emperors. In the mean time, the Scots, assisted by the Irish, 
invaded the north, and Maximus was obliged to head his troops against 
them. They were defeated and driven back to Ireland: and on Maid- 
mus threatening to invade that country, and punish the Irish, the fear 
they had of the presence of a Roman army, induced them to grant 
Maximus his own terms, which, in order to conciliate all parties, were 

Masimus had long resided in Britain, and is sud to have married 
Helena, daughter of Eudda, a wealthy nobleman of Caersegont, (Caer- 
narvon)*. He was a person of acknowledged abilities and integrity ; 
bom in Spain, the countryman, fellow-soldier in Britain, and rival of 


The legions in Britain had long been famous for a spirit of presump- 
tion and arrogance. Both the soldiers and provincials proclaimed 
Maximus Emperor. (A.D. S82). 

Gratian, Emperor of the West had degraded himself in the eyes of 

• See PeDDanfs Tour in Wales, Vol. 11. Carte's Hist, of Eng. Vol. I. 



CHAP, the RoHiajas by ne^ectiog tiie daties of a soTereign and a genorat 

v,«»^v-^ The skill which he had attained in the maaagenent of a horse, and 

A.D; 3^. the dexterity wkh which he could dart a javelin and draw a bow, had 

inspired him with an ardent passion for the chace. Large parks were 

enclosed for the imperial [deasnies, and plentifully stocked with ever^ 

tpecietqfwildheeuU. A body of the Alana waa reoeired into the 

d<Haae«tic and military service of the palace, and tiie admirable skiH 

which they had been accustomed to display iif the unbounded plains 

of Scythia, was exercised in the parks and enclosttres of Ganl. 

Gratian, in admiration of the talents and customs of these fiiTorite 
guards, assumed the fur dress, Uie bow, aod the qmrer, of a Scythian 
warrior. Even the Germans affected U> disdain die strange appear- 
ance of these savages of the north, who had wand«%d from the re> 
gions of the Volga to Uie banla of the Seine *. The unworthy specta- 
cle of a Roman prince, who had renounced the dress of his country, 
filled the legions with grief and indignation. 

Maximus could not hope to reign by confining his ambition to Bri- 
tain. The youth of the island crowded to his standard ; and he in- 
vaded Ganl with a fleet and army, which were long afterwards remem- 
bered as a considerable part of the British nation f. 

The Emperor was, in his peaceful residence of Paris, idly wasting 
his darts on lions and bears. The armies of Gaul received Maximus 

* GibboD'8 Roman Empire. Cb. XXVII. Zosimiu, B. IV. 

t According to Archbishop Uaber. the whole emigratioD consisted of thirty 
thousand soldiers, and one hundred thousand plebeians, who settled in Bretagne. 
Tbeir deatioed brides, St, Ursula, with eleren thoasand noble, and sixty tfaousBiid 
plebeian virgins, mistook their way, und arrived at Goitre, where they were mur- 
dered by the Huns.— Gibbon, Ch. XXVII. Lady M.W. Montague writes to La- 
dy Rich from Cologne, August 16tb, 1716; " I was very well satis6ed to see, 
piled up to the honour of our nation, the skulls of eleven thonsaod nrgius." — 
Ed. 1803, Vol II. p. ia 



with \ojit and joy^ acckmations. The Msuritwian cavalry werd CHAP. 
Ae feat who saluted him Augustas: and the troops of the palace \^^>~y-^ 
abandoaed ike standard of Gratlan. the first time it was displayed, id -^•^' ^^ 
t^ neighbourhood oi Paris^ 

The Emperor of the West fled, wHh thvee hundred horse, towards 
Lyons. All the cities upon the road shut their gates against him ; but 
he might have reached the doattinions <tf his brother Valentinian, had 
he not been deceired by the perfidious gorcmo* oi the Lyonese pro- 
Tince, who aaused him with protestations of doabtfol fiddity, till the 
aniral of Andragathins, general of the cavalry of Maximus, who exo< 
euted, without remone, the intentions of the British osurper. Crr»* 
tian, as he rose from anpper, was deliTored into the hands of the assa»* 
an, (August 39th> 383). His death was Mlowed by that of his power- 
ful general, Mellobaudes, the king of the Franka. After these execor 
tion8» the power of Mazimus was acknowle^ed by all the provinces 
of the west. 

The Britkb Emperor sent his principal chamberlain to the East- - 
eraEmiperDT; and the choice of a vener^e old man, for an office whidt 
was usually exercised by evnuchs, announced to ^e court of Con- 
stanlinople, the gravity and temperance of the British usurper, llie 
ambassador condescended to justify or excnse -the conduct of his mas- 
ter, and protested, in specious language, that the murder of Gratian 
had been perpetrated withent his consent, by the precipitate zeal of 
the soldieiB. The speech of the ambassador concluded with a spirited 
declaratiflo, thai though: Maxtmus, as a Roman, and as a father of his 
peopTe, would chuse rather to employ bis forces in the common de- 
fiance of therepuUic; he was prepared, if his friendship should be re- 
jected, to dispute, in a field of battle, the Enqinv of the World. An 
immediate and peremptory answer was required. 

The imperioos voice of lunotir and gratitude called aloud for re- 



CHAP. Tenge; but the most weighty considerations engaged Theodoslua to 

v.M'^v''^-^ dissemble his resentment; and he accepted the i^iance of Maximus. 
He stipulated that Valentinian, the brother of Gratian, should be con- 
firmed in the sovereignty of Italy, Africa, and western lUyricum ; and 
that Maximus should content himself with the countries beyond the 

A,D. 387. xhe aspiring Maximus, who might have reigned in peace over the 
empire of Britain, Graul, and Spain ; having employed the wealth which 
be had extorted from those three provinces in raising and maintain- 
ing a formidable army, collected from the fiercest nations of Germany, 
passed the Alps, invaded Italy, and seized Milan. Yalentinian and 
his mother, the Empress Justina, a lady of extraordinary beauty, 
with her daughter, Galla, embarked with precipitation on board a 
vessel, and reached a port in Thessalonica. 

TheodosiuB equipped a powerful fleet in the harbours of Greece and 
Epirus; while he himself marched at the head of a brave and disci- 
plined army, to encounter his unworthy rival; who, after the siege of 
^mona, had fixed hia camp near Siscia, a city of Pannonia, strongly 
fortified by the broad and rapid stream of the Save*. 

Theodosiua possessed the advantage of a numerous cavalry. The 
Huns, the Alani, and the Goths, were formed into squadrons of 

* Zosimus, who was bigoted to the ancient Pagan religion, and bated Tbeodo- 
sitis, who was a Christian, wishes to make it appear that he would hare divided 
the empire with Maximus; but ihat Justina, to urge Theodosius to revenge the 
death of her son Gratian, introduced into his presence her daughter Galla, who was 
remarkably beautiful, and was in tears for the loss of her brother. Justina soon 
p^rceired the effect of Galla's beauty on the Emperor, who gave them liivorable 
hopes. In n few days, "nieodosius requested Justina to grant him her daughter, 
(his wife Platilla was dead), but she refused, unless he would make war on Maxi- 
mus. Being thus excited by bis passion for Galla, he not only conciliated the 
soldiers by niigmenting their pay, but he was thus roused from his negligence in 
other affairs that would require attention after his departure. — ^Zosimua, p. 181. 

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archers; who fought on horseback, and confounded the steady valour of ^,Sfj^* 
the Germans and Gauls, by the rapid motions of a Tartar war. They \,,^-yr-'^ 
spurred their foaming horses into the Save, swam across in face of the A.D. 388. 
enemy upon the opposite bank, charged and routed them. Marcelli- 
nus, the brother of Maximus, with the select strength of the anny, the 
next morning renewed the contest; but after a sharp conflict, the re- 
maining brave troops of Maximus threw down their arms at the feet 
of the conqueror. 

Theodosius pursued his vanquished foe, in order to finish the war 
by the death or captivity of his rival, who fled before him; and on the 
evening of the first day, such was his incredible speed, he had passed 
the Julian Alps, and reached Aquileia; Maximus having scarcely time 
to shut the gates of the city. They were quickly forced, and the 
wretched Emperor, rudely stripped of his Imperial robe, diadem, and 
purple slippers, was dra^;ed to the camp and presenceof Theodosius; 
who was inclined to pity and forgive his fallen rival: but public jus- 
tice and the memory of Gratian, induced him to abandon the victim 
to the soldiers,. who drew him away from the Imperial presence, and 
instantly beheaded him, Victor, the son of Maximus, on whom the 
title of Augustus had been bestowed, was also put to death by the 
order of Arbogastes. Maximus had learnt that Theodosius had sent 
Justina with Valentinian and Galla toRcone, by sea; knowing that 
Romans would receive them with pleasure, because they were disaf- 
fected to Maximus. The British Emperor collected a number of swift 
sailing ships, and sent them to cruise in every direction ; but the com- 
mander, Adragathius, &iled of his purpose, they having crossed the 
Ionian sea. When the intelligence of the death of Maximus reached 
Adragathius, he instantly drowued himself. 




Theodosius passed the winter at Milan^ restoring the mischief 
caused hy the ciril warj and in the spring made his triumphal entry 
into the ancient capital of the Roman empire *. 

During the life of Theodosius, Britain remained in peace. This 
great Emperor died of a dropsy at Milan, January 17th, 895> after 
having, on the morning of that day, made a painful effort to contribute 
to the public joy, by his pres^ce at a splendid ediibition of the 
games and spectacles of the circus, to welcome the arrival of Hono- 
rius, who, with his brother Arcadius, succeeded to the Empire. 
AJ). 895. Honorius was very young, and the fiunoos Stilico was appointed 
by Theodosius regent during the minority. Stilico's first care was, 
to send a governor with a legion, into Britain, to curb the insolence of 
the Picts, who began to make inroads into the Roman province. 
Stilico for this purpose made choice of Yictorinus, a person of a fierce 
and arrogant temper. He confined the Picts strictly within their li- 
mits, treated them as subjects of the empire, and even forbade them to 
crown another king in the room of Hungust, who had just died. The 
Picts finding their liberty in danger, regretted the loss of the assists 
ance of the Scots, as on former occasions ; they therefore resolved to 
recal them: to which end they sent an honourable embassy to Per- 
gnsf , a prince of tiie blood royal of Scotland, who had retired to Den- 
mark; and invited him to come and take possession of the country. 

• ZoBimiu, 6. IV. 

t Fergus tbe Second ; he died in 404. 



Fergus accepted the offer, and made his intentions known^ that he was 
ready to lead back the fugithre Scots. v 

In the mean trme, the troubles which existed in the Roman empire 
had obliged Stilico to recal Victorinus and his legions. At this junc- 
ture the Scots entered the island, under the comxoand of Fergus, who 
was unanimously chosen their king. 

Fergus, at the head of the Scots and Picts, after taking the fortresses 
built by TheodosiuB, (the father of the Emperor), adranced to Severus's 
wall, whidi was weakly defended; entered the Roman j^rioce, and 
laid waste the country. 

Since the subjection of Britain to Rome so many Roman and foreign 
&miBes had settled there, and were now so mixed with the netires, 
that they made but one peo^, and fnmi this period the term Britons 
is applied to this mixed nation, all havbig a common interest. 


The Nitons, despairii^ of any effectual assistance ttom Rome, re- A.D. 408. 
sdved to elect an Emperor whose interest it should be to protect 
them. Tlieir choice fell <hi an officer named Marcus, a person modi 
esteemed by them. But Marcus not having the good fortune to 
please all the world, was soon slain, and another, named Gratian, was 
presented with a diadem and a purple robe. Four months after his 
Section, Gratian, being of a cruel and bloody disposition, met the 
same fate. 

The next who was rused to die imperial dignity, was a CMnmm 
soldier, in consequence of the good fortune supposed to be attached 
to his name, which was Constantine. Bemg a man of courage, and of 



a genius far above his former coodition, Constantine drove back the 
/ Northern invaders, and concluded a treaty of peace with them. 

From this success, the fortunate soldier's ambition was inflamed 
with the desire to become master of the Roman Empire. He formed 
an army of the islanders; and the remaining Romans passed over the 
sea, landed at Boulogne ; and his title was acknowledged by those ci- 
ties in Craul which were still free. 

While Constantine was preparing his army at Orleans, where he re- 
sided, he sent ambassadors to Honorius, who was st that jancture at- 
tacked by Alaric, king of the Goths, to acquaint him of his being 
chosen Cmperor by Britain, and to excuse his acceptation of that dig- 
nity without the knowledge of Honorius. The Emperor, being so 
pressed by the Gotfas, was forced to acknowledge Constantine as his 
associate in the Empire. This condescension on the part of Hono- 
rius, so &r from satisfying, served only to inspire this new Emperor 
with still higher views. He sent for his son, Constans, who was in a 
monastery at Winchester; and associating him in power with the 
title of Cffisar, and leaving him in the command of an army to 
maintain hw authority, Constantine marched towards the Alps, in or- 
der to invade Italy and dethrone Honorius. On his arrival at the Py- 
renees, Constantine was opposed by four brothers, kinsmen of Hono- 
Tius, who, from a spirit of family zeal and interest, nobly attempted, 
with levies hastily collected, at their own expense, to check the in- 
vader ; but they were utterly defeated by a corps called Honorians, 
who, for rewards and honours, entered into the service of Constan- 
tine. They consisted of about five thousand Scots, Gallicimi, Moors, 
and Marcomanni. Two of the brothers escaped by sea, and the other 
two, who with their wives had been captured, after a short suspense, 
were executed at Aries. Sp«n submitted. 
The title of Constantine was now acknowledged, from the frontier of 



Sootland to the Pillars of Hercules. Bjrmeansof a secret correspond- 
ence with the court of Honorins, Constantiae extorted a ratification 
of his claims, engaging himself, by a solemn promise, to delirer Italy 
firom the Goths. He had secured the passes of the Cottian, the Pen- 
Jiine, and the Maritime Alps; and he advanced as fiir as the Po, but 
hastily returned to Aries to celetnftte, with ostentation and luxury, hk 
vain triumph. 

Constans, bis son, who was now invested with the imperial purple, 
commanded in Spain, and during his absence had appointed his brav- 
est general, Gerontius, to govern that province. It was by the able 
condact of this officer that Gaul and Spain were subdued. The un- 
grateful Constantine, jealous of his general's fune, sent orders for his 
removal from his post. 

Gerontius rebelled; hut, for some reason not known, he placed the 
diadnn upon the head of a friend, named Maximus, who resided at 
Tarragona; while he pressed forward through the Pyrenees to sur- 
prise the two Emperors, before they could prepare for their d^cnee. 
The unfortunate Ccwstans was surrounded at Vienne, whence he sal- 
lied forth, and rushed upon death; having had scarcely time to deplore 
his fatal elevation, and the deserting of his peaceful monastic sedusion 
at -Winchester. 

The fother defended Aries against Gerontius; and that city nmat 
have fallen, had not an army from Italy suddenly approached. Both 
the besieged and the besiegers were ccmfounded. Gerontius, aban- 
doned by his troops, escaped towards Spain. In the night, a great 
body of his own soldiers, who had been awed by a proclamation, in 
the nune of Honorius, their lawful Emperor, surrounded uid attacked 
his house, which he had barricadoed. His wife, a valiant friend of the 
nation of the Alani, and some slaves, were witii him; and a Ivge 



m^taEiDef^dorts and arrows were used, witli such reeolutioB, that three 
t hundred of the assaikints lost their lires. 

The missile weapons being spent, the slaves deaerted at the dawn of 
day. The defence was ccmtinued; wad the soldiers, prorokod hj such 
ohstiuacy, set foe to the house on all sides. In this fatal efictremi^, 
Cferpnthis complied with the request of his barlurian Ariead, and cut 
off his head. His wife, Nonnichia, whom he loved, conjured him not 
to abandon her to despair and disgrace, and eagerly presented her neck 
to his sword. The tragedy was closed by the unfortunate Gerontius 
sheathing a digger in his own heart *. His frieod Abximos, after en- 
joying the phuitom of authority a short while, was resigned to the 
justice of HoDorins, and, after being shewn at Rarenna and Rome, was 
publicly executed. 

In the mean while, the British Empwor was besieged in Aries, by 
the general Constantius: but he had su6ficieat time to negotiate wiA 
-t^ Franks and Atemanni; and his ambassador, Edobic, a Frank by 
extraction, but a native of Britain, returned at the head ui an anny, 
and attacked the heslegevB ; his troops, by a stratagem, were sud- 
denly surrounded, but their leader esoqred from the field of battfe tb 
the houseof a&ithless friend, who too clearly understood how accept- 
able a present the head of his obnoxious guest would be to the impe- 
rial commuider. Constantius tnmed with horror from the assassin 
of Edobic; and sternly gave his orda-s, that the camp should no 
k»nger be polluted by the presence of a wretch, who had thus treated 
a friend, who, in his distress, had claimed his protecttMi. 

llJis conduct inspired Constantine, who from the walls of Ades 
had beheld tiw destruction of his last hope, w^ confidence in so 

* Genwiim wm a ^iton Zosnus, p. ITS. 

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gtBeroua ecoqnetor. HeobtiiBedasoleBUi pnimise forlis seedHty, CHAP, 
and submitted. v.^-v^^ 

The abdicated soTereign^ his brother Sebastian, and his son JuKan, A JX 4t I. 
vera MDt, unda a stroig guard, into Italy ; and, before they raacbed 
tlM palace at Ravouia, they met the ministere of death. (Noiwmber 
26,411). Thus fell this British Emperor, who, like so many othera, 
proved Uiat arabitien and modnation can never exist in the same per- 

During the absence <^ Constantine, the Scots and Picta seized the 
opportunity to break through the barrier, and ravage the country; oq 
which the Britons assembled in arms, and repelled the invaders. Re- 
joicing in the discovery of ibeir own stre^h, they expelled the 
magistrates who acted under the authority of Constantine, and estab- 
li^ed a free govnnment. The independence of Britain was confirm- 
ed by HonoriuB. 

In the reign of Valentinian III. a Roman legion was sent to the 
assistance of the Britons, and the northern invaders were confined 
within the barrier; bat necessity caused the recal of this legion • 

to Italy. Gallio, the commander, before he departed, assisted the 
Britons to repair the wall of Severua; and recommended them to 
inure themselves to arms. 

The Romans had been masters of the island near four centuries, 
and had never suffered the Bntons to be disciplined to the use of 
arms. It being their policy to employ foreign troops in th^ir con- 
quests, the soldiers levied in Britain were sent into other provinces, 
and firom whence they never returned. These levies were so nume- 
rous, that twelve considerable bodies oi British soldiers were di^ereed 
throughout the empire, and were always rsoniited from Britain. If 
there be added the immense armies, and their followers, svho succes- 
sively accompanied the Britidi emperors Maximus and Constantine, 



to contest the throne with the masters of the world, the weiUc oon- 
' dition of the island is accounted for. The Romans now bade a final 
forewel •. 

Britain became a scene of jealousies, tumults, and contentitm 
for power among the nobles, who sought to destroy their rivals. 
This anarchj and confusion prodaced their necessarjr consequence, 
famine and desolation. Yortigem, the last of these kings or chie&, 
fearing the fate of his predecessors, proposed, in a general assemUy, 
to call in the aid of the Saitons, to repel the Scots and Picts, His 
proposal was accepted with joy. (A. D. 440). 

Hengist the Saxon carried devastation into the moat remote comers 
of the island: he spared neither age nor sex, nor condition. Temples, 
palaces, and private edifices were reduced to ashes: priests were 
slaughtered on the altars; the bishops and the nobility shared the 
same &te. . The people, flying to the mountuns, were butchered in 
heaps; and many took shelter and settled in Armorica with their 
countrymen. Thus were the towns, colonies, and public buildings 
suddenly reduced to heaps of ruins, and the whole island desolated by 
the idolatrous and savage Saxons f . 


The private manners and public amusements which prevailed in 
Roman Britain, are unknown: it is only from oecasitmal allusions 

* See Camden, Henry, Rapin, Gibbon, Zosimus, Milton. 
t See Hume; end Milton, 8to, p. 131. 



to that couMrjr by a few Roman yniiets, tbat aaj tUi^ is to be eol^ 
lected; and then only in times of war. The high value and import- < 
ance of that island may be estimated by the number of Emperors, or 
•ther eminent persons who became £mp»ors, who visited or. reigned 
in Britain *. 

In a short time after the Romans had carried their arms tiirougk 
Britain, tfaey began to apply with vigour to the working of the mines. 
At first the ore of lead ofiFered itself on tbe surface, and in such quaa- 
titms, that in Pliny's time (who died A. D. 79), there was a law, (as itf 
modem times with respect to black lead), limiting the annual produce. 
Many of the works that we suspect to have been Roman, are very sbt^ 
low. in form of trenches, through which they pursued the veins. Af* 
terwards, they went as deep as the then known art would per- 
mit. " We descend into the very bowels of the eu1^,and seek riches 
even in the seat of departed spirits." (Pliny). We find that great fixes 
were used, the rock intently heated, and cracks formed, by the sud- 
den infusion of water: Pliny says of vinegar. The sttHie or ore was 
then forced out by the wedge or pick-axe. Miners often discover 
the marks of fire in ancient mines. 

A little wedge, in the possessicm of Pennant, was discovcared in a 
deep fissnre of Dahur Goch rock, five inches and a quarter long, almost 
entirely en<arusted with lead ore. Pick-axes of an uncommon bulk, 
and very clumsy, have been discovered in the bottom of the mineral 
trenches, like the Fractaria, which the Romans used in the gold mines, 

• They w«re Julius Cteear. — Clendiaa. — Veqtamn. — Titos. — Adrian. — Per- 
tinax. — Clodius Albinus, elected in Britaio. — Severus, who died at York. — 
Caracalla. — Geta. — Mazimian. — Carauaina and Silviiu, co.«inperora of Britain. — 
AUactus, Emperor of Britain. — Cooatantios, who died at York. — Conrtantine 
the Great, proclaimed at York. — Conatans. — Constantine Junior. — Theodosiua the 
Great. — Maximue. — Harcna. — Gratian. — Constantine. The four last were Em- 
perors of Britain. 




ia SfMitt. Bodcsta <rf lii^uktr ooutructioa, and oAer tUagi of mei 
nnknown ftt preient, bare been found among the tacient miacs. 

The tebouren worked by stems, night and 4ky, by the light of 
IftiiApflT they drove levels, sank shafts, proppmg ibe gnnind as thfff 
went on, and pursued the veins by forming drifts; and, finally, they 
had pumps which flung op the water from the greatest depths. 

The ore was cleansed according to the modem method, smdted is 
a Ainoce, and cast into forms nearly resembling the common pigs i^ 
lead. One has been dag up in Hints coouion, in Staffordshire, 
twenty-two and a half inches long, and one hundred and fifty poonds 
weighti Harked IMP. x VESP x vll x T x IMP. x V x COS, 
which answers to the year 75. tn 1781, two of the same kmd wer« 
discovered on Hayshaw moor, near Ripley, in Torkshire, cast In the 
year 87, inscribed Impeftttore Ceesare Domitiano, &c. and the word 
Brig, signifying that it came from the country of the Brigantes. 

Twenty similar pieces were found near Halton in Cheshire, marked 
IMP DOMXT AUG. C. DE CEANO. ftc. some of them oertainly 
from the Cangi of Derbyshire. A mass of lead was found near Wokey 
Hole, in Somersetshire, inscribed to Claudius, about the year SO. 

The Romans appear to have been well versed in metdlurgy; and 
to have bad regular smelting houses, llie Britons, before their cmi- 
qnest by the Romans, had a very simple hut eflfectaal process; for the 
most metal that can now be procured from a tcm of their sli^, is but 
about one hundi'ed and fifty pounds *. 

The Romans formed, in the tin province, camps and roads still visi- 
ble. Yases, urns, sepulchres, and coins, exhibit daily proofs of their 
having been a stationary people in Cornwall f. Tlie tin was melted* 
purified, east inbo rows of cubes, carried to the Isle of Wight, (lotis), 

• Pennaot's Tour in Wales, Vol. I. p. 61. f Borlace, Antiq. p. 278. 



«iported to Ganl, and cameA a journey of tiiitty days nprni hiines' '^^' 
toAa, to the mouth of the Rlume ; and tlien to &e MaasOtans (Mar" v^t-^ *' 
eeilles) and the townof Narboima. With the tin tiie Rmnans fimoed 
admHB. fined their bimai ntennb, made pewter, and, by the comlMBa- 
tion of other metals, a enbafance wludi imitated silTer. 

Hie Romans had foimderies of copper in Britain ; a mass, in shape 
ilfte a cake of bees' wax, was found at ConoTJum, (Caer^ben, four mUes 
«boTe Conway) deeply impressed wit^ the words " SOCIO BOMMT 
and across it " NaSst^,* weight, forty-two ponndi. 

Remains of brasi founderies are dbcovered; whidi prore that Ca- 
lamine. YflaA abonnds in the island, was known to the Romans, it 
was imported firom Sweden before EUsabeth's reign, whett mines of It 
were t^tdndigcoTered in the Mendip hiDs. 

Beds of iron cinders, tlu reliques of the Romans, are fomid in the 
ibrestof Dean; othoB in Monmouthshire; another near MiAin, be- 
neath which was a com of Antoninns Pins, and a piece of earthen- 
ware ; others in Yorkshire, aoeompanied witii coins. The beds of ci»- 
ders are supposed to be almost inexhaastible, and are now worked 
over agafai; they yidd a more kindly metal than the ore. 

Gold and SiWer are enumerated, by Strabo, among the products of 
Britain. The Britons coined gold and rilver before the arrival of the 
Romans. There ue ooins of^GassrrdsBMu; and thir^nine dilfereat 
-<mes, of Cnnobeline, whose capital was Colchester. This British ting 
had been at Rome. After their acquaintance with the Karaans, the 
Britons engraved letters, elephant* and gryphons, on their coins. Seve- 
ral rings, instruments of sacrifice, buttons, forceps, and ornaments of 
dress, of gold, sUrer, and brass, with numerous fragments of others, 
have been found near Flint*. 

• See Pennant*! Togr in Wales, Vi^. I. 
HHH a 



The revenues in Britain were sii6Sciettt to support tlwee gcnetab 
' who assiinied the impmal dignity, widiout any other income. . If Idp- 
siuB's caleulation be jnst> ihej amounted to two millions sterling*. The 
Emperor Julian, having, on t&e biuiks at tike Rhine, built eight haa- 
dred small resscte, sent them to Britain fw com (A. D. 361). Thej 
Teturoed to the Rhine; and the corn was sent up that river for the 
winter support, and for sowing their lands in Bpriagf. This was. so 
often repeated, that the supply was abondant. 

The route firom Italy to Britain was up the Rhone, as fiu* affit 
was navigable: thence, over land to the Seine, and across the Chann^ 
The general trade from the continent into Britain was carried on, 
chiefly, frmn the mouths of tibe Rhine, Loire, Garonne, and Sane; 
where merchants and agents resided. Bull-dogs, fior bailing of btdb, 
mastif&i and beagles, were exported to Rome|, 

Under the protection of the Romans, ninety-two conraderaUe towns 
-had arisen in the several parts of Britain, thirty-three of which were 
■distinguished, above the rest, by superior privileges a>d importance §. 
Every Roman colony, (of which there were nine), and Iree dty, was 
a little Rome, adorned with temples, palaces, halb, hasiUcks, fiaths, and 
many fine buildings, both for nse and ornament. This mqp^ficence 
charmed and engaged the i»nquered to imitate the pleasures and vices 
iof the Romans, 'llie Britons became |uch esxdlent architects and 
.artificers, that Constantius sent woi^men finm Britun to rebuild Ao- 
tun in GftuIlU 

• Dr. Heaiy, Vol. 1. 859. t Zemmm, p. 70. 

$ Henry, Vol. 11. p. 224. — Oysters were exported to Italy. 

He (Montaniu) coulJ tell 

At the first re'iab, if his oysters fed 

At the Rutupian (Ricbboroagb) or the Lacrine bed. 

■ Jmenat, Sat. IV. 
$ Gibtwn, Vol. III. p. 275. |) Dr. Henry, Vol. U. p. 121. 



' . f Qor ormore aaphitbeatres are still dl800T«labie. Two noble ones . CHAP, 
at Dorchester and Silchester. A good one at Caerleoh, which was a ^,JLJ^ 
'apleiidid and consideTable place; andatRichborouglia Castrensianam- 
phi t heatreof tor^ for Uie divewion of the garrison. There must also 
hare heen'a circus or amphitheatre at Tork. (See page 318). 

There are other remains of buildings in various parts, that probably 
served for the same purpose as the amphitheatres*. 

Two large baths were discovered at Chester ; one of them sup- 
ported by thirty-two piUan/two feet ten inches high; the other more 
ektensivef. Chester and Colchester fiimish very numerous Roman 
remains. There are more in and about Colchester than any where in 
&nlli Britain. Westward of the town, there are strong intrench- 
nents, the supposed remains of the castra, castella, and prxeidia, 
formed about this place, according to Tacitost. The tessellated 
pavements are generally three to four feet under the sur&ce. A large 
hath was discovered at Lincoln, in lliO, at the depth of thirteen feet. 
The very numerous and beautiful tessellated pavements found all over 
Rigland, attest the sumptuous and elegant stile in which the Romans 
lived. " It may seem strange that there are not many nobler testimo- 
nies of Roman grandeur to be seen at York; no ruins of temples, am- 
phitheatres, palaces, public baths, &c. whose ediflcea must have made 
that city shine as bright almost as Rome itself The wonder will 
cease, when the reader sees, in the sequel, such terrible burnings, 
devaatotions, and horrid destruction of every thing sacred or pro- 

There are four principal Roman ways in England. I. Watling- 
street II, leading from Dover to London, Dunstable, Towcester, At- 

• S« Chap, on Amphitheatres. t Pennant's Wales, Vol. I. p. 1 16. 

: Motant's Essex. | Drake's York, p. 65. 

II So named from Vitellianns, who projected it, and «hoae name was pro. 

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tent<Ai, and the Severn, near the Widdn in Slunpshire, end ext«nd- 
ing as for u An^eieft m Wales. 

II. Ikoteld-street, leading fVom Sonthampton, over the river Isis at 
Newbridge, thence b^ Campden and Litchfield, then passes the Der< 
went near Derby, so to Bolsover castle, and ends at Tininoutib 

III. On6 called Fosse-way, (be£juise in some places it was never 
perfected, but lies as a huge ditch), leads from Cornwall through Da- 
vwishire, by Tetbury near Stow in the Wolds, and on the side ol Co- 
ventry to Leicester, Newark, and po to Linodn. 

IV. Erminage^treet, stretdiea from St. David's in West Waiea to 

There were numerous olker provincid roads: from Ymk, in parti- 
cular, there was a road to Whkby, another to Stockton, one to Flamfao*- 
roug^, near Bridlington Bay, «ne to Prinaria, (by Sontii Cave), a Ro- 
man station ; one to Aldborongh, (die capital of tiw Brigantes), to 
Bernard-castle* mi other places f. 

DouDced by the Britons OwctaliQ.-^mdM, VoL 1. p. Klvii. Muy i 
stones bare beeo found near these roads. 
• Rees's Cyclop. *• "Way." t MapbyBowen, Gei^rrapbertothe King. 



Remains of Elephants and Wild Beasts, found in England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland. 

In OrayB-tan Lane, LcmdeB, a toik of an el«pliant, at tiie depUi of CHAP. 
tfr^TO feet. In gtavei. ^.^ti^v-^ 

Note. — ^nib place was not a mile fipom X<onctiniuai. Desarti in- 
trenchments are 0till vildble at the bottcoa of this lane, and the place 
is called BoMfe bridge. (Stukeley, Itln. Car. Vol. 11. p. 6). Cssar.we 
Ea?e secfi, had at least (me large el^hmt when he crossed the Thames. 

" In 1689, ID a gravel pit, not &r from the sign of Sir John Old- 
castle, Mr. Conyera, a great antiqnary, discovered the carcass oi an 
elephant. I saw part of it dug out, and what remained he bought 
of tfle workmen. This he was ef opinion had bot lain tiiere 
ever since the flood, but since the Romans; for in the time of 
Claudius, as mentioned bj the learned Selden in Drayton's Polyolbion, 
near this place a battle was fought between the Britons and Romans; 
for in the same pit he found the head of a British spear made of flint" 
Seletflione fh>m^;U^:Oent's. Mt^. Vol. I. p. 429. 



" Dr. Woodward, (in fais letter to Sir Christopher Wren), ac- 
quaints us, that he had in his coHection tasks of boars, horns of oxen 
and of stags, as also the representation of deer, and even of Diana her- 
self, upon the sacrificing vesseb dug up near St. Paul's church, and 
likewise a Bmall image of that goddess, found at no great distuioe. 
From ancient writers, it appears Aat not only stags, but oxen, were 
sacrificed to Diana. An ancient MS. in the Cotton library, informs 
us, that in the time of Melitus, the first bishop of London, Ethelbert, 
king of Kent, built a church to the honour of St. Paul, on the ^te 
where before stood a temple of Diana : and there were also certain ce- 
remonies performed at this church on the day of St, Paul's conreision, 
by the multitude, which evideoidy alluded to the worship of Duyia: 
and manors were held by the service of offering a doe, or buck and 
doe, at the high altar of the eburcb; on tht> aboTe-mentioued day. A 
ceremcmy of this kind wm continued to th« time of queen Elizabeth* 
Jortin's Life of Erasmus, Rees's Encyc. " Diana." 

At Romford, twelve miles east firom London, a cartload of el^hants* 
and rhinoceros's bones were dug up in a fidd. 

Note. — ^This was the Roman military station of DuroUtum, and Is 
on the Roman highway. Dr. Stukeley. 

' At lUbrd, (seven miles east pf London), a very large skeleton of a 


noth, or etephant, was found fonrteen feet deep in tenacious ck]^; 
and many other tusks and bones." Morning Herald, Hay 7th, 1824. « 

At Kew, seven miles west of I^ondon, bones of the elephant and 
stag, and a great immier of the hippopotamus. 

Note. — It may be observed ihat these remuns are found, like others, 
at the usual distance from cities. Romford was a military post. The 
Emperor Geta resided in London the three years the Emperors Se- 
Terus aoA Caracalla were liviag at YwV. Severus was particularly ci^ 
lious is procuring f<veign anjmals. (See Chap. XI.) Wild 'beasts 
vere no doubt ediibited for private gain in greater numbers by the 
Romans than in modem times; bat the public games must have been 
exhibited in Britain for duree centuries. 

At Mersey island, Essex, about five mUes from Colchester, an entire 
skeleton of an elephant was found. Selections, Gait's Mag. Vol. II. 
p. 462. 

At Harwich, a very beautifiil fossil turtle, embedded in a solid 
block of cranent stone. Another lai^ stone of about five hundred 
weight, when broken, was found to contain nearly the whole of a human 
skeleton. See Common Sense Newspaper, No. 60. 

At Walton, five miles south 6f Harwich, bones of the elephant, stag, 
hippopotamus^ rhinoceros, and Irish fossil elk* have been found. Par- 
kinson, VoL III. p. 366. 

" Ralph of Coggleshall relates, that giants* teeth were found at the 
Ness, near Harwich, three hundred and fifty years ago; so large, that 

• Bemarlu on the Irish elk will be seen in Cb. XVllI. 



thejr would nuke two fanadred teeth <tf the present ipedci of bwb.'^ 
Camden, Vol. IL p. 46. 

Note. — Harwich is the port leading to the Roman colony of Came- 
lodunum, (distant twelve miles), where Qauditu encamped with three 
legions; and which place became a Romm city of the first importance. 
" Cunobeline, the British king, who resided hare, had visited the conrt 
of Augustus at Rome: thirty-nine of his d^ermt coins ct gold, silvo*, 
ftc haye been found. Stnne of the British ccrfas have dtpkant* od 
tJhoa" See Pennant's Wales. Vol. I. p. 99 ,* and the plate of coins in 
Ch. XIII. Chuidtus remained but sixteen days in Britaio ; and it is 
aot probable ihat there wexe exhibitions during that short period. Ha 
was, however, so fond of the conAats of beasts in the amphitheatres, that 
he would pass whole days at those amusements. See Suet<Hiins, Ch. 
XXXIV. We find among these remains at Harwich the African hip- 
popotamus, the Irish elk, and it is possible that the elephant or rhino- 
oeroB may have been of Asiatic origin. 

At fiurion, Suuex, in ike park, (1740), at the depth of nme feet, 
two large and two small tusks, a tUgh bene, knee-pan, sod grinder, 
were found. SelectienSk Gent's Hag. IL 4ttK 

In the tttvsel uodar Kemp^wn, Bi^^n, bones of the honM ahd 
^pbant. A rihi it^pesed to be of mi de^umt, was found on the 
bank of Sboreham harbour. Phil. Mag. December, 1824. 


OXrOltDSIflltB.— KENT.— OXWICH BAY. 4f1 

At WsdiDgton park, OxfordiliiTe, at the depth of J|^ or nstlyfmt, ^^^^' 
were found many whole oaks, one upright, and one nprij^t rerened, '..^,*^' 
hazel nuts, a stag's head and antlers, sound, not discoloured ; and on the 
same spot, two Roman urns. Dr. Plottfs Hist. Ozfl p. 161. 

' ** In 1608, at Chartfaun, Kent, at the deptb of Beventeai fc«t, a ipKi- 
eel of monstrous bones, and four teeth, were dug up, which agree wMi 
a late deicriptioB of the grinders of the elephant. Some Ate of 
opinirai that they are bones of elephants, iabnndahce of which v4i« 
brought orer bj the Eoqieror Chradius, who landed at Sandwidi.* 
Hasted's Kent, UI. 15& 
JTotej— Chartham is on the road to Loadon. 

At Bowden Farva, Northamptonshire, two tusks of an dephant. 
Selections, Gent.'s Mag. II. 462. • * • 

At Paviland, near Oxwich bay. South Wales, bones of the rhinoc^ 
ro8, bysena, deer, ox, dephant. bear, wol^ fox, hors^ water lat, mao^ 
birds, and modem bones of sheep, &c. Professor Buckland. 

Note. — At Neath, fourteen miles north-east, there is a Boman en- 
campment of great extent, and several small intrenchments: further 
on, above thirty miles, is Caerleon, where there was a Roman amphithe* 
atre.— See Rees's Kncyc. " Neath." 

At Chester, were found marks of Roman sacrifices, heads, horns, Ac 



CHAP, of the ^x, roebuck, &c: and with tliem two coins of Veipanan and 
N^i^v-iO Coustontias. — Pennant's Wales, VoL L 

At Newnham, near Rugby, three tusks, curved outwards, like those 
of Siberia, and other elephants' bones, stags' bones, and two rhinoceros* 
skulls. At Lawford, near Rugby, bones of a hynna, elephant, and rhi- 

Note. — Newnham is one mile east of the Roman fosse way, and fire 
miles west of the Roman highway. Lawford is a mile and a half east 
of the fosse wi^, and five and a half west of the highway: and not a 
mile to the south of Newnham Regis. " Rugby is ^stant about three 
miles, and is the Tripontio of the Romans." — See Horsley, Brit. 
Rom. p. 486. 

" A farmer at Bossens, in the parish of Erth, at the depth of 
eighteen feet, found a Roman patera, and, six feet deeper, a jug; and, 
digging further, they found another patera intermixed with sacrificial 
fragments of horns, bones of several sizes, half burnt sticks, and frag- 
ments of worn out shoes. In the field near, there are remains of a 
fort, one hundred uid fifty-two feet long, one hundred and thirty-six 
broad; the fbsse, outside, is still discoverable." — Boriace's Cornwall, 

p: 916. 

At Oreston, near Plymouth, bones of bears, rhinoceroses, and deer. 
All this quarry had been worked by blasting through the solid rock : 
here and there are a few small caverns similar to that where the bones 



vnre discovered ; but none of l^em bad tbe ^pearanoe of conneeUcm ^^^* 
inth the surface, or with each other.— Pbil. Trans. 1821, p. 134. v^i-y-L^ 
And of tbe horse, ox, hjsna, wolf, deer, and tiger. — Professor Back- 
land, Second EklitioD, p. 72. 

Note. — Plymouth is the Tamari Ostea of tbe Romans, whose cus- 
tom it was to blast the rocks in the mines. — Pennant's Wales, I; p. 56, 

At Hutton, Mendip hills, bones of horses, stags, oxen, fox, hog. 

At Sandford, deer, elephant, and other bones. 

Ten miles from Bristol, an immensely lai^ stag's horn. 

A gentleman was digging upon a high hill, near Mendip, for ochre 
and ore: at the depth of fifty-two iathoms, he found four grinders and 
two thigh bones of an elephant, well preserved in a bed of ochre. — : 
Selections from Gent.'s Mag. II. 460, &c. 

" At Banwell, near the wMt extremity of the Mendip hills, some 
miners, in sinkmg a shaft in search of Calamine, intersected a steep 
and narrow fissure, which, after descending eighty fieet, opened into 
a spacious cavern a hundred and fifty feet long, thirty wide, and 
twCTty to thirty hi^. From the difficulty of descending by this 
fissure, it was judged desirable to make an opening in the side of the 
hill, a little below, in a line which might lead directly into the interioK 
of the cave. This gallery had been conducted but a few feet, when 
the workmen suddenly penetrated another cavern of inferior dimen- 
sions to that which they were in search of, and found its floor to be 
covered, (to a depth which has not yet been ascertained), with a bed of 
sand, mud, and fragments of limestone, through which were dispersed 
an enormous quantity of bones, horns, and teeth. The thickness of 
this mass has been ascertained in one place to be nearly forty feet. 


chiefly of the ox, and deer tnbett of the latter, there are several varied 
' ties, including the elk, a few portions of the skeleton of a wolf, and of 
a gigantic hear. 

The bones are in a state of preservation equal to that of common 
grove bones; although it is clear, from the &ct of some of them 
belonging to the great extinct bear species, that they are of antedilu- 
vian origin*. In the roof of the cave, there is a large chimney-like 
opening, which appears to have communicated formerly with the sur- 
face, but which is choked up with fragments of limestone, interspers- 
ed with mud and sand, and adhering together imperfectly by a sta- 
lagmitic incrustation. Through this aperture it is probable the ani- 
mals fell into the cave and perished, in the period preceding the inun- 
dation by which it was filled up. In Uiis maimer cattle are continually 
lost by falling into similar apertures in the limestone hills of Derby^ 
shire. There is nothing to induce a belief that it was a den inhabited 
by hyaenas, like the cave at Kirkdale, or by bean, like those in Cfer- 
many: its leading circumstances are similar to those of the ossiferous 
cavities in the limestone rock atOreston, near IHymouth." — Phil. Ma^. 
December, 1824. 

Note.— ~ A Roman road runs through Bomium (Axbridge) to BristoL 
(HoTsIey, p. 464). Of the fore-mentioned places, Hutton is within six 
miles, Sandford within one, and Banwell within two and a half miles 
of the Roman Road. This last-mentioned collection at Banwell, is 
probably in a Roman mine. " Calamine," says Pennant, " the Cadmia 
of Pliny, (Lib. XXXIY. Ch. X.), and the stone Cadmia of Strabo, 
abounds in the mineral part of Uiis island. The Romans knew its uses 
in the making of brass ; therefore Uiey cannot be supposed to have over- 

* See the remarks on antmals deemed extinct, Ch. XVIH. The Boroana had 
Xumidian bears; which are probably not knowu by the modems. See Herodotus, 
Aklpomene CXCI. and note 166. 



looked w aecessarj. an iqgrediest. The renuias of the br«M founde* 
lies discorered in our kiagdoim, shew that tiaj wete acquainted widi t 
it. The knowled^ of tins mineral, in after agei, was long lost. Be< 
fere the r^gn of Elizabeth much was in]|iorted from Sweden, but at 
that period it was disooTered agmu tx tie MentUp hUii ; and, fortui- 
Batdy. at tite same time that the woricing of the copper nnnes in 
Cumberland was renewed. Our country abounds with it ; but, till 
within Aese mxXj years, we were so i^orant of its value, as to mend 
onr roads with it.**— Tear in Wales, Vol I. p. 66. 

From a considerstioo of the foregoing circumstances, the writer's 
oonjeetive is, that the eave of bones was an exhaiuted pMtion of the 
mine, ooBTeited into aa osraary, by the miners, fat Uie remains of the 
oxen and deer which they tied on. It is also prohable, that a military 
guard was stationed at the mines. It will naturidly be asked, why 
they should so care&lly throw the bones into so secret and secure a 
place? to which it may be repHed, that these bones m%bt attract the 
wolves, and endanger their lives; they thus prevented that risk. 
E^rery English reader knows, that king Edgar commuted the punish- 
ment for crimes, into the acceptance of a certun number oi wolves* 
tongues, from each criminal In Wales, the taxes of gold and silver 
were converted into a tribote of wolves' heads. 

In after thnts, rewnids were offered, and lands were held on condition 
of destroying the wolves. 

" In my last I told you that my lord of Cherbory was appointed by 
his Majesty to make inguiry touching the bones found near Glou- 
cester. His lordship showed me the bones be had collected, which 
were a buckle bone, part of the shoulder blade, some parts of a tooth. 



and the bridge of the nose, all of a huge bigness ; but his lordship's 
opinion ^as, that they were not the bones of a man, but of an elephant, 
because Claudius, who brought elephants into Britain, did build that 
city, for which be voucheth Ponticus Ymmticus de rebut Britm^ 
mcig, who saith, the ancient name of the city was Claudieeatria ; and 
Mr. Camden, as you rightly observe, saith, that tiie Komans had a 
colony thereabout. 

His lordship told me, that these bones wore found minted witii 
those of oxen, sheep, and hogs, and he shewed me the tusk of a boar 
found amongst them. There was a great square stone lying by them, 
which we conceived might be the upper stone of an altar, and that 
the bones were the relics of some great sacrifice celebrated there. 

The bridge of the nose was what confirmed his lordship's, and my 
opinion, that it could not be that of a man, for it did rather seem to be 
a bone very apt to bear up the long snoutof an elephant His lord- 
ship further told me, that Dr. Harvey, a great anatomist, opined, that 
they were the bones of some great beast, as an elephant. Dr. Clayton* 
his Majesty's professor of physic at Oxford was of the same opinion. 
One of the teeth of this pretended giant, by the special favour of my 
lord of Gloucester,! had the happiness to see; which I found to be of 
a stony substance, both for hardness and weight; and it should seem> 
by his lordship's letter to me, that he himself wot not coiffitient thai it 
was the tooth of a man. — Bishop Hakewill's ^ology, p. 228. 

Note. — We must not wonder at an Ostiack, and a Swede or a German, 
confounding narwals, elephants, walruses, and whales, by the same 
name of mammoth, their languages are imperfectly known to each 
other. — Vide Strahlenberg, p. 404. 



In Dablui, A. D. 1681, an elephant was accidentally bant to deatk. 
^PhU. Tnuis. No. 836. 

At Magheny, near Belturbet, in the county of Cavan, four fosed 
grind^s (rf^an dephant were found. 

Note. — It is not improbable that these teeth may have behmged to 
an exUbited elephant : nor is it impossible that they should be of Ro- 
man origin. Ptolemy has given a better map of Ireland than of Scot- 
land : and the Romans had garrisons and settlements on the coast of 
feitain opposite to Ireland for upwards of three hundred years. 

At Kirkdale> in Yorkshire, in a cave, were found remains of the ele- 
phant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, hysena, bear, tiger, wolf, deer, ox, 
rabbit, water-rat, mouse, and birds. (For a particular description of 
the cave, and of the remains of the animals, the reader is referred to 
Professor Buckland's volume.) 

Note. — Kirkdale is about twenty-three miles north of York, or Ebo- 
racum, which was the Roman capital of Britain for above three hunr 
dred years : and the head quarters of the Roman Empire for more than 
three years. 

The bones which have been fbund at Kirkdale, correspond aecurate- 
ly with the beasts killed in the amphitheatres in Italy. Tigers 
are rarely noticed ; and it is very worthy of remark, that Sevenis had 
Hgera. — See Dion Caseins, " Severus." He also had foreign bulla. 
The skull of a bull (fossil) found in England, supposed to be of an ex- 
tinct species, is in the museum of the Royal Coll^;e of Surgeons. We 
find in the Augustan History, that when Didius JuUanus was in- 
formed that Severus had commenced his march, nothing was to be 
seen at Rome but elephants, horses, and troops, training for service. 



la Sptrtlan's life, of Sotctub, we road, tbst, when he wis m Bgypt, he 
was much pleased with his voyage, because of the singultr ftrangenesv 
of the aoiioato and places which be haw ; therefore, notl^iig is more 
probable than that he possessed hippopotami^ rhlnooeroses, crooodileo, 
aad bymlas; all of which are natives of EgTpt, Mid have been found 
At Kirkdale and Whitby, in afowil Mate. 

It bae been conjeeturedr from Hhe appeuiuiee of the bonos, that tiie 
flBinuOs had met with a violoat death. Severn* died at York, atA 
one of the signs fore-running his deatli was that a-figure oC Victory, 
upon a platfbrm near the Emperor's throne, was blown down whiie 
J the games of the ctrau were celehraiing *. The description of the val- 
ley corresponds exactly with what the Romans would select for such 
an occasion: and particularly for the display of the hippopotamus in 
his own element |, 

It can scarcely be doubted that such spectacles were oommoo at 
the chief city, when we find the nins of several amphiUieatres visi- 
ble at this day, in Britain. 

MHien three Emptors were in the island, as might be expected, 
some of the animals were of rare occnrroice, the tiger in particular. 

It may be observed that the bones of hippopotami have been found 

at 'Harwich, Rew, and Kirkdale, all in the envtroiw, (as is nsoal), of 

', the three principal Roman cities. In this collection of bones the 

tiger is Asiatic, the hippopotamus is ./I/Wmm, and the small animals 

an, we may presume, Evropean, 

There arc still remaining in Pickering moor, some small Roman 

* Spartiaot Life of S«t. S6« rIbo Ch. XIIL in tlin Vol. 

t " Some ampbitheatrM were little more tban Dalaral rallies-with beDcbet cat 
ID the Burrouudin^ hills." Reea'a Cyc "Amphitheatre." There isaralleysi- 
nilarto thisAtKirkdtde, in the Val. d'Arno, near which fossil bonea of the same 
kisdt of beasts hare beea foaad. 



camp§. drowii^ of which mmy be mnin Vtc/fa MOltarj AntiqadHieB.— ^^J^' 
(SeealBoDnke'syorkj,p.9«). l^ereraethereinahuofaRoiBMifiKt^ >^-„^' 
fication at old Malton*, and of Roman quarries, nearMaltm. — (Drake, 
p. 56.) 

York wa« surrounded by otiier Roman towns. Caturactoninm, 
(iiowT%omborough)i is full of RoaumTeBtigee. MBglore(GrHiabridge), 
Magi, (Piercebridge), and Derrestione, on the Derwent, were all ita- 
tions of prefects of detacbmenti. — (See Horsley and Camden). At 
Toik itsdf, there was always a consideraMe miUtary force. The 
sixth l^on was at that station three hundred yearB.^Drake, p. 8). 

At Roinn Hood's bay near Whitby ; at Scarborough; at Bridlii^- 
ton; xemaiiu<tfdephaiits^>4hiarterly Review, LYII. 

Note. — Tliere is a Roman road to Whitby, (Dunus Sfaiu«) : «bo to 
Flamborough, throogh Bridlingbm ; which last ii named, by the Ro- 
JMU», GabrantoTicorum Poitus; they name the bay ^nns Salutarii, 
a reputation m\ac\i it still enjoys.— See the map in Ptolemy's Oet^ffk 

In the interior «f Noriblk, Sufiblk, and Essex, renuunsof elephanla. 
Quarterly Review, LVII. p. 152. 

Note. — Colchester, (Camelodunum), was the capital, of the most 
powerful British king. Norwich was the capital, (Venta Icenonun, or 
Caster), of the unfortunate heroine, Boadicea. After their connection 

* Mtlloa », in Ptol«9Bi7*« m«f, named Camelodunum ; whldi probably caated 
the emuaoDB anertion of some Mllion that MaldM ■> £mw was the other CwpdP- 
dunam, instead of Colchester. 



CHAP, with the Romans, the Britoos pat dephants on their coins. — ^P^i- 
vm*vW nuifs Wales, Vol I. p. 69.— See Plate of coins in Ch. XUL 

Remains of elephants have been found at Dorchester, Lyme R^:iis 
Cfaarmouth, Whitchurch near Dcwchester; at Burtcm and liodera, 
near Bridport. — Quarterly Reriew, LVII. 

Note. — At Dorchester, there was an amphitheatre; all these places 
are Trithin twenty miles of the amphitheatre. 

At Box and Newton, near Bath, were found dephwts' remains. 
In an these cases they are found in the superfidal diluvial detritus, 
consisting of either gravel, sand, loam, or clay, and are never em- 
bedded In any of the regulac strata. — Quarterly Review, LVII. These 
extracts are quoted from Professor Bnckland's work; the argummts 
concerning them, which are noticed in Chapter XVIII, of this 
volume, are by the reviewer. 

Note, — Bath was a celebrated Roman resort for its waters. The Bri- 
tish Emperor, Carausius, accompanied by his empress, and his son, 
gained a battle near Bath over the Cean^.--See Ch. XIII. 

"A horn of the fossil rhinoceros was found in a marl pit at the loch of 
Forfar, and is in the Edinburgh Museum. 

" Two horns of the rhinoceros, we have been informed by Professor 
Jameson, have occurred in Blair Drummond Moss, on tiie banks of 



Uie Forth. Two trnks^ and some small bonee of an elephant were 
found at Greenhin sandstone quarry, near the water of Carmel, in the < 
parish of Kilmaars> Ayrshire, in 1817, embedded in clay, at the depth 
of serenteen feet and a half. 

On the west of Clifton halL in the county of Edinburgh, in 1820, 
a lai^e tusk was found in s thick bed of clay, seventeen feet below the 
snr&ce. At no great distance, the workmen, in excaTating the canal, 
on the estate of Bonnington, found a copper battle axe, four feet deep, 
in a bed of clay, covered with seven feet of sand, and nine of moss. 

(The accuracy of the statement referred to in the text is question- 
ed by the Editor of the magazine). 

" The hones of the exHnct elephant, rhinoceros, and cave hear, are 
fotind in company with those qf the common bear, the tpo^, the fox, and 
the horM." — Remarks on the influence of society, on the distribution 
of British animals, by the Rev. J. Fleming, D.D. F.R.S. &c. 

Note. — The scene of Agricola's fame was Forfarshire. The forts of 
Agricola, and the rampart of Antoninus, built by Urbicus, were on the 
very road where some of these remains were found, and as they were gar- 
risoned for a great length of years, it is fair to presume, that they were 
supplied like other Roman stations, with the usual amusements. The 
mention of such trivial circumstances, as wild beasts accompanying 
the armies and camps, was beneath the dignity of such historians as 
have been preserved to the present time. It is worthy of remark, that 
no collections of bones, of a variety of foreign animals, have been dis- 
covered, (as &r as the writer is informed), either in Scotland or Ire- 
land, where the Romans did not permanently dwell. It is not at all 
improbable that some animals may have been ewhibiied in Caledonia. 



The writer does not Temember to have seen in any geological 
I remarks on fossil bones, that they hare erer been referred to Aa 
ordinary occurrences of society. Louis IX. sent to Hemy IIX. King 
of England, an elephant which was kept in the Tower. (Peonaaf s Zoo* 
logy). Six centuries mi^t place the remains of this andnd in a posi- 
tion to subject it to the suspicion of an antediluvian origin; or of an 
extinct species, if from tiie north of Asia, or firom Egypt. Many 
other remains have been found in Britain, but the foregoing appear to 
be the principal coUeeUoiu of bones. (See Professor BucUand's " SaU~ 
gwa ZHltmamtE." Where the reader will find a rery full description 
of the fossil bones, and of the places in which they hare been found. 

Some fossil crocotHles have been found in England. A fossil croco- 
dile in the Alnm-shale, near Whitby, upwards of fourteen feet long, 
and when perfect must have been eighteen; and other remaini of cro- 
codiles have been found near Whitby: also three- or four species of 
icthyosauruB in the Alum-shale of Whitby. — Zoologioid Jonmai, Ajwil 
IS25, p. 141. 

Mr. Kingdom mentions bones of a very large size, appearing to be- 
loi^ to a whale and a crocodile, being found completely embedded in 
the Oolite quarries a mile from Chipping Norton, near Chapel-house. 
— Zool. Journal, July 1825, p. 264. The coasts of Yorkshire and Dor- 
setshire, Bath, and Newark in Nt^tingfaamshire, are places where tliey 
have chiefly been found. — See Parkinson, Letters XVllI. and XIX. 

There is in the possession of Linkius a large fossil crocodile almost 
entire, which was found in the side of a large mountain in the midland 
part of Germany, and in a stratum of black fossil stone, somewhat like 
our common slate, but of a coarser texture, the same with that in 



which . the fossil fish id many parte of the world are foiind. — Rees's CHAP. 
Cyc. " Crocodile." v-i^-v-^ 

Note.—Vfe find in Dion Cassius^ B. LV. that Augustus amused the 
people with the hunting and killing of thirtj-six crocodiles in one day. 
There can he no good reason why these animals, when grown, should 
not bear the climate of England for six months of Uie year at least. 
It is near eighteen centuries sinceClaudius arrived in Britain, apd four 
thousand one hundred and seventy-three years since the period gene- 
rally assigned to the deluge : have any of these animals, in a fossil state, 
been discovered in situations where natural accidents may not have 
pUced them in sev^iteen centuries? 

The writer of tiiese notes is not sufflcienty acquainted with geology 
to oflbr an opinion on that subject. It must be recoUeeted, with regard 
to the crocodile, icthyosaurus, and other animals, that Egypt belonged 
to the Romans, during the whole period of their possession of England. 
If crocodiles were once naktrai to England, would their remains not be 
found also in Scotland and Ireland? Have any been found in those 
parts? I believe not: nor any ro22m;2MHW of bones. If so, is it not a 
ttvong argumeni agamtt a former hoi eUmatef The remains of the 
crocodiles in England, have been found in such places as may justly 
nake us so^ct them to hare been brought by the Romuis. 



Desi^ption of the living Asiatic and African Elephants, which 

are noticed by Nattiralists. List of Countries in which Ele~ 

phants and other Wild Beasts are found. Tusks ofjifteen 

thousand Elephants imported into Great Britain in eleven 



CHAP. A FULL grown elephant has, generally, eight grinders. They are 
.^_ ^ • ^ composed of vertical plates, of a bony substance, enveloped in enamel, 
and joined together by a third substance, called corUcaL 

The grinders succeed or replace each other, not from beneath, as 
our second grinders succeed to our first, but from behind; so that in 
proportion as a tooth is worn away, it is pushed forward by that which 
comes after it. Thus the elephant has sometimes one, sometimes two 
grinders on each side; four or eight in all, according to the period. 

It is said that some elephants thus change their grinders eight 

They shed their tusks only once, while under a year old. 

Only two species of elephants have been recognized. 

I. The Indian elephant has an oblong head, a concave forehead, and 



tiie crowns of its grindera present undnlating ribbons, which are parts 
of the plates which compose them, worn by trituration. The females < 
bare only short tusks. The males, of the kind called Mookna, resem- 
ble females in this respect. The perfect Asiatic elephant has fire nails 
upon the fore feet, and four upon the hind feet. 

II. 'llie African elephant has a round head, a convex forehead, and 
grinders presenting lozenges on their crowns. The tnsks of the fe- 
iPulPH are as large as those of the males*. They are found from Se- 
n^pil to the Cape. There are females on the east coast, according to 
Ludolph and Bruce, with small tusks; and Le Vaillant speaks of a 
race of elephants, (in his second travels at the Cape), which never have 
tusks, and the head of which is less elongated than the other sorts. 
The AMcan elephant has four fore-nails, and three upon the hind 

The elephant, when full grown, is about ten feet high at the shoul- 
der. There is, however, good reason to suppose that the elephants of 
some countries attain to a consideraMy greater height. The writer 
of this Volume has seen great numbers of Bengal elephants : the taA- 
est was ten feet eight inches J : it was of the Mergee or long-l^ged 
description: the tusks were of a very moderate size; and the animal did 
not appear aged. It was caught, with thirty-six others, in the Cas- 
simpore woods, in the province of Dacca, Bengal " The Nabob of 
J>acca had one ten feet high ; and the Nabob of Oude possessed one 
which measured correctly ten feet six inches §." 

* The fetnale, Mventeen years in ih« meosgerie of Loaii XIV. (he tkeletoa of 
which ia iq ihe miueom at Paris, baa larger tuska than any we hare known of kb 
Indian male or female of the same height. — Cavier. 

t Cuvier; Corae; Reea'a Cyc; Bowdich; Phil. IVans. No. 836. 

{ It muGt be added, that (bis is given from meniory; but he ia certain tliat il 
waa the tallest elephant which he had ever seen. 

S Hamilton's Gazetteer, p. 891. 





Elbphants Bhed Uieir mUk tusks the first or second jeat, wbcn 
they axe abotit two inches in lengthy but are not known to shed the 
second tusks. 

Tnaka are related to have been of the extraordinary weight of three 
hundred and fifty pounds, a single one : and many hare been known 
of two hundred pounds weight*. 

■* The tusk is, in its alveolus, like a nail driven into a plank; no- 
Aiug retains it there except the elasticity of the parts which inclose 
it. We may change the direction of the tusks by genUe pressore. 
The tusks of an elephant were brought so close together as to con- 
strain the motion of its proboscis : we separated them by means of a 
bar of iron^ the middle of which was in the form of a vice f ." 

The degree of curvature of the tusks varies almost as much as the 
sise of elephants. There is now in the museam of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons. ** a spiral or wreathed tu^, presented A-cmu the 
Royal African Company by Thomas Crisp, Esq. It is about an ell 
long: at the base a foot in circumference, from the thin edges whereof 
it is conically hollow for near half a yard. It is furrowed lengthways ; 
the furrows do not surround it, as in the sea unicorn, but are parallel. 
"This tnsk is not round, but somewhat flat J.* 

• RcM^s Cyo. ** Ivory." Mr. Admm saw a tuak of a mammotb at Jakutsk 
** de la loagner de deux toises et demi (fifteen Fi«neh feet) ; et qui avoit I'epab- 
seur d'une archioe (twenty-eigbt iocbea English) pr48 de h racioe: elle peaoit 
•ept ponds," ^two bvadred andfifty-4wo ponndBEnglNfa). Tbia, rrom ita length, 
is a most rare and iueatimable apecimen, and perhaps the greatest curiosity of its 
kind in (he world. 

t Curier. t Nehemiah Grew, p. 31. A. D. 1681. See Plate, page 295. 



" Cavier knowB. from Air. Fabroni. Uiat there is one of the same C^IAP. 


description in the Florence gallery*." Grew eajs, he will not deter- \,^^'-^^ 

mine whether the tusk has been natorany twisted, or by art, having 
xeftd. that they may be reduced to any shape by firef. 

In the muaenm of the Royal Collie of Surgeons, there is a tusk* 
HuHer than foew's, shnilar in shape : both of them are corroded, as if 
by disease. There U a pair of tnsks in tiie same museom, slender* 
Md very near a drde in form, b^ween Ihur and fire feet in length. 
6e« the Plate, page 395. 

" Les defenses ne peuvent etablir de caractere certain, ni &itte les 
espSces rirantes, ni entre celle ci et I'esp^e fossUeJ." 

In the pTOvince of T^era, there are three kinds of dephants. 

I. The Roomarsah, called Danntelah m large tuiked. It is fuH 
bodied, short le{^;ed, strong, and large. 

II. The Mergee, long legged, tall, and weak, with a thin probosdit 
tiie tusks not so long as the first kind. From these two breeds indis> 
tinct varieties are produced. 

ni. The Mookna, whose tusks are quite small* and always pout 
downwards, like those of ihe wahrus. 

The females in general, of each kind, have the tusks so small as to 
be nearly hidden by the fiesfa of the tnink: but some females have 
tusks almost as large and long as the male Moc^na. 

Elephants conple like other quadrupeds, and go wi<^ young about 
twenty-two months. They breed in their tamed state §. Formerly 

* Rees's Cyc. " Ivory." f Vide Paas»iia«, (Taylor*! Edit), Vol. IL p. 83. 
t Cuvier.Vol.lV. p. 176. 

% Corse, Phil. Trans. ** Elephants couple as the cow, or mare, and cany 
(beir young eighteen months." Anian's Indian Hiat. Ch. XIV. 



CHAP, it was thought unlucky to allow elephants to breed, but the Emperor 
.,_ ^^.1^ _> Akbar surmounted that scruple. The elephant lives about one hun- 
dred and twenty years*. 

The writer saw an elephant in Bengal, when it was only eighteen 
hours old: it was about thirty-three inches high, weak and tottering, 
but very playful; twistinginits proboscis a few bhtdfesofUrgegraflsfj 
It sucked with the mouth, not with the probosds. 

Elephants swim well. Mountain elephants axe the largest and 
most courageous. They will easily carry three or four thousand 
pounds weight, and will on occasion go as &r in one day as usually 
requires six J. 

The elephants of Cochin China, and their tusks, are larger than 
those of Mosambique §. 

Elephants bear cold that kilts men and horses ; we have seen in these 
notes, about thirty of these noble beasts encamped upon the ice with 
Hannibal upon the Little Saint Bernard ; and five hundred of them 
supporting the rigour of winter in the wars of the Emperor Mo- 
mood (A. D. 1007) against the king of Cashgar, when men and horses 
perished by excessive cold. 

The elephants that hare been dissected and described 1^ natural-. 
ists aro those of Senegal, Guinea, the Cape of Good Hope, in Africa; 
and those of Bengal, in Asia. 

• Ayeeo Akbari, Vol. I. p. 116. 

t Elephanta, when young, are very playful. " When merchants bring ele- 
phants to any place for sale, 'tis a pleasant sight to see tbem go along. There are 
old and young bother, and when the old are gone by, the children run after the 
little ones, and leap upon their backs, giving tbem something to eat; but perceir- 
iug their dams are gone forward, they throw the children off, without hurting tbem, 
and double their pace." Tavernier, Part II. B. I. 

t Buffon, XXVni. p. 163 to 166, { Eiicyc. Brit. " Elephaa." 




The writer has been &voured, by the proprietor of the menagerie 
in Exeter Change, with several hairs taken ham the large male 
elephant. One from the fetlock, a light brown colour, thicker than 
the hair of the human head» five inches and a half in length. 

One from the top of the head, black, as thick as horse hair, two 
inches and nine-tenths long. 

One firom the under lip, also like horse hair, black, and three tncheB 
and a half in length. And one from the f^ont of the proboscis, black, 
about twice the size of horse hair, three inches and four-tenths long*. 
These were taken hastily, as opportunities offered, and were not the 

A female elephant died at Dundee, April 27, 1706, and the skeleton 
was prepared by Mr. P. Blair, Surgeon. It was eight feet six inches 
high, and supposed to be twenty-seven years old. 

" The cuticula was covered all over with a strange sort of scab, 
like short pieces of whalebone, much divided, but adhering fast: they 
were from one-sixteenth to one-sixth of an inch in length ; I take 
them to be a distemper from the coldness of the climate. The hairs 
are every where pretty long, some two, some three inches: — in places 
subject to rubbing, an inch, or only half an inch, lliere are passages 
Ibr them through the cuticula: they arise from the cutis; they are 
black, and many of them stifTer than those in a hogf." 

" In some scraped off particles of the skin of an elephant, I dis- 
covered short small hairs. I saw two hturs on one of the particles, 

• See Plate, page S95. t Phil. Traiw. N". 826. 


but by means of a microscope I discovered four. The yearly shedding; 
' of the matter that is upon the skin, may be thus accounted tot: when 
the time comes that thero is do increase of the hur, but that it is, as 
it were, at a stand, as we see in other creatures that shed their hair, 
the same thing happens to the elephant *." 

" It may be obserred that, in propriety, the life and growth of hain 
is of a different kind irom that of the rest of the body, and is not Ua- 
mediately derived therefrom. It is rather of the nature of vegetatiott. 
They grow as plants do out of the earth, or as some plants shoot 
from the parts of others ; from which though they draw Uieir nouriBb- 
meat, yet each has, as it were, its several life and a distinct, economy. 
They derive their food from some juices in the body, bat not from the 
nutriciouB juices of the body; whence they may live, though the body 
be starvedf ." 

With respect to the colour of elephants. Monsieur Vaillent men- 
iions having seen some of a red colour, but it was very probably 
caused by the colour of the earth where the animals had been wal- 

The toMte elephants, for the possession of which so many kings 
have lost their lives and dominions, are apparently of the same nature 
as tJie albinos, diseased irregular [H-oductioDs, such as frequently occur 
in many animals. The writer happens to possess an old coloured draw- 
ing of a very fine elephant, which he conjectures, from the appearance 
of the natives attending it, to have belonged to a king of Pegu. The 
whole of the proboscis, great part of the cheek and ear, and a large 
proportion of the chest are what is termed white. It is in reality a 
flrah-colour, with a rosy hue, and covered witJi numerous Uack spots. 
The remukable circumstance attending this painting is, that the 

• Leeawenboek. Phil. Trang. N». 336. f Encyc Brit. « Hair." 



pops and the iris of the eye are rtd, which is perhaps the caw with ^^* 
tSl animalB wmatnraUy white *. v^-v-«^ 


EiOPHAMTS are found in their wild state in moit parts of Hindoetan, 
particularly in the neighhourhood of the N^pal monntains ; in the 
province of Tipeia, the coast of Malahur, and many other places. 

India beyond the Ganges abounds with them: they are found in 
Assam, the Barman .empire, Pegu, Slam. Tonquin, Cochin Chim, 
Laos, Cambodia, the Chinese provinces of Yunnan and Quangsi, the 
frontiers of the kingdom of Bontan near to Great Tartary-f, and Tan- 
gatX- In the islands of Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, and Borneo. 

In Africa, wild elephants are found in Abyssinia, Ethiopia, and the 
country of the Troglodytes §, Dar-Fnr||, Bomou**, in Senegal, and 
southward to tiie Cape of Good Hop^ both on the west and east 
coasts. And anciently in Lybia beyond the Syrtesff, Mount Atlas, 
And other parts of G«tulia§§. 

• See SooIdb' Bufibn,To). XXVIU. p. 274. 

t Tavernier, Part. II. B. I. p. 96. 

X Peiis de la Croix, p. SS8, and 368. In D'Anville's gjeat map, improved by 
3olton, Tangut begins in N.Lai. 30*; (now Lat. 30* ia Awam]. 

S Brown's Trarels in Africa. 

II Reel's Cyc. *' Dar Fur ; " and Brown's Trarela. 

** "Herda of elephanla, giraffes, bufialoes, and antelopes orrarious kinds are 
every where Been, and especially on (he borders of the Lake. Major Denham 
aays, be counted forty-devea targe elephants in one group." — "Crocodiles and hip> 
popotami abound : and an animal in these lakes, called Cm Kergay, is mentioned 
by Burckbardt; it is said to be as lai^e as a rhinoceros, with a very small head and 
mouth, and perfectly harmless." Quarteriy Review, December, 1823, pp. &2I, 
K3. tt Cnner,p.74w 

}g The Tallies of Mount Atlas are diversified with fweats and plentifid springy 



ESephanta are captured either singly, by means of Uie females, and 
' then it is always males that are taken; .or else in droves, being fright* 
ened into a large enclosure of trees, so arranged as hot to be visible to 
the animals, as a trap, till thej are conducted into it. It is in Hindos- 
tan called a keddah, and has been accurately described by Mr. Cone. 
The writer passed through Tipera, when a keddah of, he thinks, 
eighty-Uiree had been captured a few weeks, and he rode several 
miles to view it. The animals were then picketed in a plain near the 
keddah, at a convoiient distance from each other; there was not one 
of a very large size. Some were unruly, and require to be occasionally 
^cked with an iron spike at the end of a long bamboo. In their exertions 
to free themselves from the ropes round their legs, many had wounded 
the skin ; and some suffered severely from swarms of flies settling upon 
the ulcerated parts ; to keep them off, the attendants shook and rattled a 
bamboo split at one end into slender canes. Some of the elephants 
were roaring lustily; and many of them were, with their trunks, toss- 
ing about large plantain leaves and stems, and, probably, to keep off the 
flies, covering their heads and hacks with the coarse grass with which 
they were supplied, in abundance, for food. 

a country fit forltie maintaiDing of elephants. Th« iababitants are called "MMi" 
They are from Arabia Felix. Fil is ihe Arabic word for elephaot. Elephants* 
(iiska are exported from Morocco: but may be conveyed thither by the caravans 
from SoudaD. Can there be elephants now inkahitiag the extenave range of the 
Mlas mountains? Perhaps no modem European traveller has visited the coun- 
tries on the south and east neig'hbourboods of Mount Atlas, but they could scarcely 
be unknown to the French and English consuls, if there were elephants in those 
regions. Vide Rees's Cyc. " Atlas, TaGIet. Morocco." Gselulian archers 
fought with Poinpey's eighteen elephants, iu the amphitheatre, (B. C. 55); tbey 
being used to hunt and kill them. Catron, Vol. VI. p. 127. Pliny, B. VIII. Cb. 
VII. The counlries about Senegal and the Niger, were by some called MelantK 
gstulia and Nigritia. Nothing positive can be known about the bounds of G«tulia. 
There is a great desert between Morocco and Senegal. 





In Bomoui we have seen, that Major Denham counted forly-sBeven 
elephants in one group. In Dar-Fur, they are seen in herds of four 
or fire hundred ; and sometimes, it is reported, even of two thousand*. 
fat Assam, five or six hundred may be procured in one yearf . In 
Siam, they capture as many as a hundred and forty at one time %■ In 
Ceylon, a hundred and sixty have been taken in one keddah §. The 
Subah of Bengal is said to have furnished annually, in Akbar^s reign, 
four hundred and fifty-two elephants, of which number the Circar of 

* See Sees'a Cyc. Dar-Fur; aod Brown's Travels. The RomaiK were most 
probably supplied from Ethiopia, called Nubia by the Arabs, and sometimes by 
the RomaoB, (now Bomou, Abyssinia, and Dar-Fur), through the port of Syene; 
of which place Jurenal, the satirist, was governor, in the reign of Domitian, who 
kept herds of elephants in the Butulian forests. 

** But now, such lOnoge caprice has seized the great. 

They find no pleasure in the costliest treat. 

Unless wide yawning panthers, towering high — 

(Enormous pedestals of ivory. 

From teeth the JBtbiopian realm 8upplies(a), 

Or Indian, or from those of larger size. 

Which, DOW too old, too heavy for the head. 

The beasts in Nabalhean (£) forests abed) — 

The spacious orbs suppcvt ; then tbey can feed. 

And every dish grows delicate indeed !** — Juvenal, Sat. XL 

(a) " Quos miltit porta Syenes." " Syene was the capital of the Insula Ele- 
phantina, so called from the number of its elephanls." — Madan's Juvenal, Sat. XI. 
note 124. 

(i) Meaning Eastern, (from Italy). 

t Sir William Jones's Supplement, Vol. I. p. 333. 
X Embassy of tbe Chevalier Cbaumont, 
§ Le Brayn, Vol. II. p. 184. 



Syfbet Bupplied one hundred and ninety, and the Circar of Ghoraghaut 
' fifty, and Sunargong two hundred: besides three hundred and twen- 
ty-three from the Subah of Allahabad: two hundred and twenty from 
the Subah of Agra: ninety from Malwa^ &c.*. There is scarcely any 
limit to the number that might be collected by an Asiatic or African 
monarch f. 

Elephants are now not made use of in wai&re, except for canTUig 
their owners and the tents and baggage. The mmuchs of Oude 
keep a great number for hunting expeditions ; even at the present day 
more than a thousand : which is shewn in Ch. VIII. of this volume, 
with many instances of the numbers formerly kept, generally much 
exaggerated* but at the lowest number that need be credited amount- 
ing to vast establishments. 

More than fifteen thousand " half reasoning elephants," were slain 
to supply Great Britain with knife handles and toys, in eleven years, 
from 1788 to 1798. According to an account delivered to the House 
of Commons eighteen thousand nine hundred and fourteen cwt of 
ivory, were imported. — See Rees's Cyc. " Ivory." Seventy pounds 
weight are allowed for each tusk, which is probably much more than 
the average weight. 

• Ayeen Akbari. Vol. II. pp. 30, 39, 48. 185. 18d, 18f». This edUion of the 
Ayeen Akbari, p. 16, says, Bengal supplies one hundred and seventy elephants: 
the above is taken from the detail of the Circars: but another edition says, Bengal 
suppliesono thousand onehundred and seventy. See Ayeen Akbari, 4to. by Glad- 
win, dated Calcutta, 1777, printed in London. 

f At Angola, where Andrew Battetl lived mnDy yean, he relates that the 
natives have idols of wood, id the midst of their towns. They are called MoAUto, 
and are fashioned like a negro. At the foot of the idol is a vast number of ele- 
phants' tusks; three or four tons of them, stuck in the ground, and npon them 
were set the skulls of men slain in the wars, as a token of victory. Purchas^Tol. 
L p. 869, B. 




In Asia. — ^The one-homed rhinoceros is fbond in tlie Panjab; !■ 
Guserat; in the SimdeibimdBofBengiliaAd other parts of Hmdostan; 
in the Birman empire; Siam; Cochin China; Qnangd in China*; 
and, probably, in all the countries called " India beyond the Ganges;" 
hn Jara; Sumatra, &c. The rhinoceros with two horns is foond in 
Sumatra, and is described 1^ Mt. Bell in the PiiiloBophical Tramao- 
tions, 1798. 

In Juried. — " It is certain that the one-bmmed rhinoceros is found 
towards Cape Gardafui, by the stnnts of Babehnnadel; and, if the na- 
tives are to be believed, the one-homed is found also in the kingdoai 
of Adelf." " In the royal stables at Ispahan there was a rhinoceros 
with one horn. It was brought for the king by an ambassador fi-om 
Ethiopia}:.'' The two-homed rhinoceros, which was frequently exhi- 
bited by the Romans §, is known to inhabit Abyssinia, Congo, Angola, 
the Cape of Good Hope, and other countries in Africa. " The rhino- 
ceros brought by Mr Campbell fivm the interior of Africa, as &r as 
respects the appearance of the horns, is entirely a new species. The 
hom is a yard long, very small at the point, and two feet in circumfer- 
ence at the base: the small hora is close to it, and stands up perpendi- 
cularly behind the base of the long one, and is only twelve inches 
high, while its circumference at the base, is twenty-four inches [|.* 

• Abb* Grosier, Vol. I. p. 112, t Bnice's Travels, Vol V. p.86. 

X Sir Joba Chardin'a Travels. 

§ See Rees's Cyc. "Rhinoceros," where it is said there are 6ve species: Ibat 
deGcribed by Sir E. Home niakes a sixth. See also Martial's Epigrams. 
II Sir Ererard Home, Phil. Traas. 1921. 



Hippopotamu0 — is found in Senegal*. Abyssinia, Dongola,Dar-Fiir, 
Bornouf, and many parts of southern Africa. Also in the Nile in 
upper Egypt: sometimes in lower Egypt. Two were killed near Da- 
mietta. A. D. 1600 1- They are not known to inhabit Asia. In a 
French translation of Pallas, Vol. Y. p. 204, the walrus is named 
Hippopotamus. — See Ch. XVI. of thb Vol. 

O^trichet. — Numidia, Dar-Fur^ Bomou, and numerous other ^aces. 

Tigert. — Senegal §, Hindostan, Chinese Tartary, the Altai moun^ 
tfuns, and many other parts of Asia||. 

Lions, Leoparda, Panthers. — India, Persia, Abyssinia, Bornou, 
Morocco, Dar-Fur, and many other parts of Africa and Asia. 

B^aloes — are found in most parts of India, and many parts of Asia 
and Africa. In Pegu they are of a monstrous size**. 

^y(»tc».— Hindostan, Persia, Asia Minor, Syria, Barbary, Abyssi- 
nia, Dar-Fur, &c. 

Asses. — Plentiful in Persia and Armeniaff. 

Zebras. — Congo, Abyssinia, and other parts of Africa:[J. 

* Adanson. 

t TheriverShary empties itself by two branches into the lake Tsad. Croco- 
diles were basking on the banks, fish and water fowl abounded, and the huge hi^ 
popotami came so near as to be struck with the paddles. — Qaarterly JBeview, 
LXII. March 1825. 

t Rees's Cyc. " Hip." Bruce, Vol. V. p. 86. 

} Adanson. " What are called Tigers, in Morocco, are leopards. The royal 
tiger is there unknown." — Chenier, Vol. I. p. 171. The first tigers seen by the 
Romans, were those presented by the Indian ambassadors to Augustus, while be 
was at Samos. — See Crerier, " Augustus." This may be deemed a proof that 
tigers are not known in Africa. 

II Leopards, panthers, &c. are irequently called tigers by travellers. 

•• Purchas, Vol. L p. 666. B. 

ft Xenopbon, Exp. of Cyrus, p. 27 ; and SirB. K. Porter's Trarels, with an 
engraving of one. 

Jt Mod.UniT.Hist.Vol.Vl.p.l85. Lobo, Vol. I. p.291. Fees'sCyc 



C^amelopm-dt. — Siam in Asia*, SeDegal, Abyssina, Bornou, Dar- CHAP. 
Fur, the Cape of Good Hope, and other parts of Airica. The Reem, ■•^^^f^^ 
translated in the book of Job umieom, is most probably the camelopard, 
which must have been known to Job. Bruce remarks that Reem, in the 
Hebrew and Ethiopic, is derived from erectness, or standing straight; 
and he supposes that it alludes to the upright position of the horn, as the 
rhinoceros has bending knees. The commentators on Job, Chapter 
XXXIX. and on Numbers, Cfa. XXIII. v. 2-2, think that the original 
means wild bull, goat, antelope, &c. The camelopard was probably 
not known to the translators; it is but recently that it has been 
aeeurateltf known. HeHodoras speaks of the camelopard being 
brought, among other presents, by the Ethiopian ambassadors to 
Rome. They were often exhibited at the games after Egypt belonged 
to the Romans. 

Bears — were found in perhaps every part of the continent of 
Europe, and also in Africa and Asia. Bears' flesh was much esteemed 
by the ancients as food, and is still served up at the tables of princes. 
The Emperor of China will send a hundred leagues to procure bears 
for an entertainment. The fur has always been valuable. The Ur- 
aarii were servants in great fiunilies among the Romans, who had the 
care of breeding and feeding these animals. The English nobility had 
officers of this kind : the fifth earl of Nortiiomberland paid one of 
them a salary of twenty shillingsf . In early times it is not improba- 
ble that bears were fed and bred by the barbarous nations of Germany 
as ordinary food. 

* Vincent Le Blanc, p. 116. As I bare not met with any other anibority, 
I venture to cunjcctnre, that tbove mentioaed by Le Blanc had been imported 
from Africa, for the parka of the Mvereigns. 

f Rees's Cyc. *< Bear's fleah," and " Bear w«rds." The Bomana exhibited 

Numidian beara—See Beloe'a Herodotiw, Melpomene, CXCl. and note 188; 




On the Fisheries in the Arctic SeaSf of the Walrus, (the Mavmtoth 

of Siberia) t and the Narwal. Svrpri^ng mmhers of ihe»e 

Animals, Description of the Walrus by the Emperor 


CHAP. JL HE Trichechns Rosmanis is generallT known by the names, wal- 
\.,^..y~m^ ru8, morse, morsch, mea-horse. It is sometimes called sea-lion, sea- 
ox, hone-whale, and senrelepbant. By the Samoyedes it is luuned Ti- 
ute*. By the eastern and other Siberians, Behemotf and Mam- 
moth ;[. 

• Tooke's Banian Empire, Vol. III. p. 91. 

t Musclikin Pnscbkin, Vairode of Smolenako, aad latendant of the Chancery 
of the gorernment of Siberia, A. D. 1685 FideYalher Avril's Travels, p. 176. 

{ "TheRuBsian.VanunoMcertainlycamefromtheword Behemot It is currenl- 
ly believed by the Siberian populace, that mammoths were amphibious tres- 
tures." — Strahlenberg, p. 404. ** The Kasnam drive a great trade to Pekin in tbe 
teeth of a sort of fish, which are much finer, whUtr, and more precious than ir** 
ry."— Du Halde, Vol. II. p. 363- A note at tbe bottom tX tbe page adds, " th«y 
are those called mammot'a teeth, fbond lately to be teeth of elepfaants." This aote 
was probably added by the translator. " A great maoy mammoths' teeth, wfc kli 
arewAtte, are carried for sale to China." Slrahlenberg, p. 402. 

y Google 


From Sliaw's Zoology 

/'uihskfii jpra Ji^j'fgf. 

Digitized by CjOOQIC 

y Google 



Fits toes to each foot, dimJnMhing from the great toe to the small 
vne, on the fore feet; but the great and smell toes are the longest on 
the hind f^, and the intermediate the shortest: the fore feet enve- 
loped in the skin of the body as far as the carpus ; the hind feet enve- 
loped almost to the heel; short tail. 

It surpasses the largest bulls in size, attains twenty-four feet in 
length*, and is covered with a yellowish close fur. The lower jaw is 
without incisives and canines; in the upper jaw are two enormous 
tusks, pointing downwards. Crrinders, like short cylinders cut 
obIi(|neIy> four on each side, above and below, two of the apper fiUUng 
at a certdn age; two indsives. like grinders, between the canines; 
and between these, (in young individuals), two small and pointed inci- 
sives. The enormous sockets, necessary for their tusks, curl up 
the fore part of the upper jaw, in the form of a large swelled muffle : 
these tusks receive a pivot from the bases of their alveoli, or sockets. 

They appear to live on sea-weed and animal substances, and inha- 
Idt every part of the frozen ocean. The ivory is said never to change 
ita colour; it ia granular, and presents small close round spots. That 
of the elephant and mammoth is reticulated in a lozenge f . 

The tusks of the walrus are found in great numbers along the shores 
of the Arctic aea. There are two in the museum of the Royal College 
of Snrgeons in Ltncoln's-inn -fields, which appear to be about two 
feet long. At Schalanginski, among the Tschudski, where the nnm- 

• ** Ce paiaibile ampbibi a qaelqnes fois pitu de viogt quatre pieda de 

longueur." Leveaque, Vol. VL p. 31 . 

t Bowdich, " Mammdia," p. 43. JfowMOfA here meaiu the fonil elephant. 



ber found is great, and, they a£Bnn, detached from the animal, they are 
sometimes twenty-nine and thirty pounds weight, and an ell and a 
half long, (meaning probably the Russiui ell, or archine, which is 
twenty-eight inches English*). Bufibn observes that "le morse a 
deux grandes defenses dlvoire comme I'elephant, «nquel il resemble- 
roit en entier par cette partie capitale, s'il aroit one trompef.** The 
morse is bred in the Russian seas, and climbs upon the rocks by IJk 
help of his tusks, in order to seek his food X- I^ u said to feed alw 
on dead whales §. 


" The elder Gmelin has circumstantially described the vast extent 
of the haunts of the morse in his Travels, torn. 111. p. 165. They 
begin about the Kurilly Islands, are found in the parts contiguous to 
Behring's Island; and in general throughout the whole of the Russian 
Archipelago; proceeding thence towards the Anadyr, and the Tschuts- 
kian promontory, (where are found an astonuking quantity qf morte 
teeth, which leads Gmelin to believe that they retire into these unfre- 
quented regions for shedding their large old tusks for yonng ones); 
and they are found in swarms ^1 along the coasts of the frozoi ocean, 
as far as Greenland. Hermann's Statistische Schilderung von Russ- 
land, p. 254||. 

• Buffbn, Vol. XXXIV. p. 162. Encyc Brit. " Trichechos." Harria't 
Voyages, Vol. 11. p. 487. Travellers, in general, speaking of ells, and being of 
different nalious, it is impoftsible to know tbe measure which tbey allude to. 
When tbe ell is not specified, it is presumed to mean that ofKussia, when the re- 
mark relates to.tbat country. 

t Vol. XXIV. p. 169. : Milton's Historical Woriu. Vol. II. p. 133. 

% Strahlenberg, p. 19. || Tooke. Vol. III. p. 100. 



From Takatsk Tessds go to the mouth of the Lena to get narwal 
and whale oil ; the natives pretend to be descended from the Mongols < 
and Calmacs. • • • 

The towns of Tangriskoi and Mungaseja are on the Nijnajra Ton- 
guska, not for from the Jenesai; thej drive a great trade by land in 
tats, sea horse and mammoti^ teeth ; and from these two towns, they 
send oQt several vessels to the mouth of the river and the sea coast, 
to fish ft>r sea horses and seals f* 

" Octher, the Norw^pan, made a report to king Alfred, about the 
year 890, of the chaoe of the walrus ; having made a voyage beyond 
Norway for the fishing of horse-whales, which have in tiieir teeth bones 
of great price and excellency, whereof he brought some, at his return, 
unto the king. In fact, it was in the northern world, in early times, 
the substitute to ivory. The morse feeds on sea herbs and fish, also 
on shells, which they dig out of the sand with their teeth, which they 
abo make nse of to ascend rocks or pieces of ice, &stening them to 
the cracks, and drawing their bodies up by that means. Besides maa- 
kind they seem to have no other enemy than die white bear, with 
whom they have terrible combats; but generally come off victorious, 
by means of their great teeth X' 

We caught and killed one fish whose head was so large, that his 

t Isbrandla Ide«, Vol. 11. pp. 957, 958. Thtt probably meuH walrtM and de- 
plianta. On anotber occasion lbi» author edit tbe morse tasks sent to China by 
the name of mnmmotb See Harrn,Vol, IL p. 9S8. ' 

t Eocyc Brit, " Trichechus, 

y Google 



great teeth wdgfaed, each of them, tweaty^tAne or thirty poonds 
(French) f. 

Cherry Ishund (so called in hononr of Sir Francis Cherry) lies south 
of Spitsbnf^n, where in one season tlie orew made twenty tons of oil 
out of the flesh, and got three hoj^heada of awraea' teeth. In 1610, 
the Russia Company took possession of it, and that ;«ar they killed a 
thousand morses, and made fifty tons of oil. They discovered three 
lead and coal mines upon this and the small islands near it. Towards 
the end of June the pitch ran down the sides of the ship with the 
heat of the weather. The Island abounds with wQd finrl, leali, and 
bears; but haa not be^i visited the leak hundred years. In the re^ 
of Alfred thesv was a profitable fishery in these seas |. 

" We saw many imrses swimmii^ near oar ships, and heard withat 
so huge ft ncwK of roaring, as ii Atae had been a himdred Uods. 
For all we could do, out of above a thaueand, we kilted but fifliaen. I 
fikund a tootit, aad, going a little farther, found as many nwe as fitted! 
a hogshead; all which we dad d^ver ta Master Wekteiu" 

" Under a large cliff upon the beach we found nearathoaaandn 
We killed thirty, and took off their heads §." 

t Voyage des pays SepteotrioDaux de M. de la MarUniere. A. D. 1671. 

$ HanJB'B Voyagcc VoklL p. 38». 

§ Voyages of JoMuPook to Cben^ labttd, aboatldOi la 160B Parcfaaa, Vol. 




" The Bume teeth>'t8k»B about Petchora, are almost two feet iaag, 
«nd weigh eleren or twetre ponn&f ." 

The teeth of the wahns have been found m Me eurih about Ana- 
dinki, aod aie ki^er than the common sort from Archangel, Kola, and 
Greenhmd. QtmtUUt* ijf /Am> home* atefowHd tm the eoa*U ^tke 
marthem *ea%. 

The nmth day we got one tierce of morses* teeth, besides four hun- 
dred other teeth. We brought a young living morse to court, where 
King James, and many honourable personages, behdd it with admira- 
tion. It soon died. It was of a strange docility, and very apt to be 

There are annual expeditions tnm M esen, near Archangel, to No- 
va Zembla, for morses' teeth ||. 

In north latitude 68° 1', lon^tude 188° sa we sent our boats ia 
pursuit of the sea horses, which were in great numbers on the 
pieces of ice that surrounded us. Our people returned with three 

t l>r. Fletdier, ambanador firom Queen Elizabeth to the Emperor llieoclor. — 

t Encyc. Brit. " Siberia." Goldsmith's Nat. Hist: These are what hare been 
reported lo Pallas, Billings, and others, as mammoth remaini. 

S Voyage of R. Stereos, orHanricb, to Cherry Isiand, in 1608.— PurdiM, Vol. 
III. p. 660. The skeletoo of this animal may probably be fonnd in or near Lon- 
don. Others may hare been brought to England when these fineries were pur- 
sued. H Levesqae, Vol. VI. p. 21. 
MM N 3 



large ones and a young mte. besides killing apd wounding several 
' others. On the approach of pur boats towards the ice, they ^ 
took their cubs under their 6nB, and endeavoured to escape with 
them into the sea. Several, whose young were killed or wound- 
ed, and left floating on the surface, rose again and carried them down, 
sometimes just as our people.were gcnng to take them up into the boat, 
and might be traced bearing them to a great distuice tfarongh the 
water, which was coloured with their blood: we afterwards observed 
them bringing them, at times, above the surface, as if for air, and again 
diving under it, with a dreadful bellowing. The female, in particular, 
whose young had been destroyed and taken into the boat, became so 
enraged, that she attacked the cutter, and struck her two teeth through 
the bottom of'itf. 

The principal objects of the sea chace, about Spitsbergen and 
Nova Zembla are whales and morses, a toilsome and dangerous 

The people who go out to catch the morse, are hired by a ship owner, 
fitted out with provisions and other necessaries, and they receive a 
share of what they take, or else five or ten rubles for the summer. 
They usually carry out a year's provision, as they are often obliged to 
pass the winter on board their ships, which are provided with an 
oven, wood, and water, with which, when Uiey go ashore, they prepare 
quas. When the morse catchers are happily arrived at their destina- 
tion, they anchor near the huts which have been left by their prede- 
cessors in this hazardous warfare. They commit themselves to the 
small boats, of which every vessel takes one or two, and proceed to the 

t Captains Cook and King's Voyage, Vol. III. p. 347. 



conflict. The first fine day they asaally find morBes on the land or 
the ice, where those monsters go to cast their young, and remain a \ 
month or two, frequently in prodigious numbers. These fat animals 
emit a horrid stench. 

When the captors hare reached this formidable encampment, they 
quit their boats, armed with pikes : they cut off the retreat to the sea, 
and pierce those morses which come first to save themselres in the 

As these animals scramble over one another in their attempts to es- 
cape; from the numbers of the slain, there soon arises a bulwark, 
which effectually choaks np the passage to the living; and there the 
c^tors proceed to the slaogfater, ttU they have not left one alive. 

It sometimes happens that so great are the heaps of the dead, that 
the vessels can only contain the heads or the teeth; the fat, blubber, 
and skins, are then left behind. 

Easy as it is to kill these animals on land, the conflict is dangerous 
in their own element. When any escape into the water, the captors 
leap upon the ice, and harpoon them, if they can, in the breast or belly. 
They then drive a stake into the ice, and tie the harpoon-cord to it, 
drawing the animal about till he is exhausted, when they kill him out- 

When the morses are so near the water as to leap in ere the at- 
tack begins, the captors fasten the cord, when they have thrown the 
harpoon, only to the head oftheboat; which is then drawn by the hnge 
animal so deep into the water, that the sailors must all run a-stem. 
Then the morse rises erect upon the surface of the water, and makes a 
furious attack ; sometimes he is so successful as to shatter the boat with 
his long stout tusks, or to throw himself suddenly, by a leap, into the 
midships. The crew then jump overboard, and hold by the gunnel, 
till other morse-hunters come to their assistance in this desperate 


Of the mofse skim are made traces &r carriages, horse hameasas, 
, &c. and eicellent size fig paper mannfiwrtories. Apood ofmoraeteeth 
ooBts apon the ^wt twenty or thirty rubles. In 1793, the exports by 
sea from all the ports amounted to one hundred and ninety poods of 
mammothB' bones and morse tusks, value six thousand one hundred 
and thirty-six mbles. 

The frozen ocean likewise teems with the narwal and many oUier 
animals valuable for their skins or their blubber f . 

At Malone the track for horses is generally finished, though the n»- 
tives do sometimes go as far as Nishney Kolymsk,on the Kolyma, uid 
even to the frozen sea, in search of sea horse and mammoths' tnaka. 

On one day the Tschuktchi ware particularly flush of sea horse teeth, 
and they were at a reduced prioe. Another day, they brought four or. 
five hundred, and bartered them %• 

" The Russians, says Father Avril, have discovered a sort of ivoiy 
which is whiter and smooUier than that which comes from the Indies; 
not that they have any elephants, but other amphibioiu animals, which 
they call by the name Beiemot^, and which are usually found in the 
river Lena, or upon the shores of the Tartarian sea. 

t Tooke's Russian Empire, Vol. III. B. X. 

X Capt. Cocbrane's Pedestrian Journey, pp. 233, 263, 968. (Elepbante tmbs 
(lave been found in tbose regions; but in Cbap. XV. it is seen what an uncommoii 
occurrence it is). Captain C. irhen be beard the word mamtuotb, would no doubt 
cwtclude tbat it alluded to the elephant. 

$ Bebemot is by the Russians corruptly pronounced Mammoth. Strahlenbcav, 

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Sereral teeth of tbia monster wen sbewn ub at Moscow : tbey were CHAP. 

ten inches (French) Img, and two in diaaiefeer at the root; nor are the ^.^-v-^ 

elephant's teeth comparable to tbem either for beanty or wkiienen. 
the Persians and Turks who buy them up, prefer a scimitar or dagger- 
baft of this precious irorj, before a handle of massy rilver or gold. 

They were beholden fot the discovery of this to the inhabitants of « 
certain island, ont of which, they say, issued the first coknries that erer 
peopled America. Tkos much we learnt on this snfaject from Musch- 
kin Puschkin, Vaivode of Smolensko, a person of as great wit as a 
man can well meet withj and perfectly acquainted with all the coun- 
tries that lie beyond the Oby, as having been a long time Intendant 
of the Chancery of the govemmeikt of Siberia. 

With regard to America, "there is" daid he, "beyond the Oby, » 
great river ca&ed Kawoina, into which another river empties itaelf, by' 
tbe name ci Lena*. At the mondi of the first river that discfaa^es 
itself into the frozen sea, stands a i^adons island very well peopled, 
and ipUch is no less consideraUc for hunting tbe Behemot, an ampM- 
bicms animal, whose teeth axe in great esteem. The inhabitants go 
frequently upon the side of tbe ftotea sea to hunt tbis monster, and, 
because it requires great labour and assiduity, they carry Uieir families 
along with them. Now it many times happens, that, being surprised 
with 8 thaw, they are earned away I know not whither, upon huge 
pieces of ice, that break off one from another. 

p. 403. It doea not appear that Father Arril vaa acquainted with the diicorery 
of the bones of elephants. 

* Tbegff^rapby of Siberia was at that tiaw Dot knowa. Tbe Karina i* 
many hundred miles Ironi the Lena. Tb« Bwuth of the Lena was discovered in 
1696. (Levesquc, VIII. 12). This conTereaiion was iD 1685. Moschlcin Pascbkin 
had been a long time Intendant; which makes it probable, that when walrmes 
were named Behemots, eleplianls* remains bad not attracted the notice or£ur»- 
pean«{ ii i* they, aad not tbe Siberiaas, wbo aame aleiihaDts naaunolha. - See 
Strahlenberg, p. 409, 



CHAP. For my part, added be, I am persuaded that sereral of those hunt- 
'^.^-Y'-...' era have been carried upon these floating pieces of ice to the moat 
northern part of America, which is not far off &om that coast of Asia 
which juts out into the sea of Tartary. What confirms me in this 
opinion is this, that the Americans, who inhabit that country which 
advances farthest towards that sea, have the same physiognomy as 
those unfortunate iskmders, whom the over eager thirst after gun ex- 
poses, in that maimer, to be transported into a foreign countryf ." 

The first voyage from the Kovima was in 1646, under Isaac Ignatief, a 
native of Mesen. In a bay, latitude 72°, they met with some of the 
Tschuktchi nation, but would not venture on land. They spread th^ 
commodities on the shore, of which the natives took what they pleased, 
and deposited in tbeir place Widrus teeth, and articles made of that 
species of ivory. In the voyage of Deshnef, a few years afterwards, 
towards the Anadyr, the Tschuktchi had piled up on the west side of a 
river, a number of whales' bones, or, according to other reports, they 
are the tusks of the walrus. They are raised in the form of a tower. 
. — Rees's Cyc. " Asia." 

The Chinese appear to have been long acquainted with this animal 
and its ivory. " A kind of flying rat," says the Abbe Grosier, " is 
seen near Keon-onoi: it is larger than the common rat, and has wings 
like those of the fox, already mentioned. 

A much more extraordinary rat, called the fen-chau, is found beyond 

f Father Arril's Travels to discover a new way by land to Cbina; p. 176. 
He was seat by Loois XIV. 

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the Tai~iong-kiang, upon the coast 6f the uorthero sea, which is al- 
most &\w«jB frozen. This animal is shaped like a rat ; but it is as < 
kiTge as an elephant. It inhabits obscure caverns, and carefiilly shuns 
the light. The ivory it famishes is as tphite as that procured from the 
elephant; but it is much easier to be worked, and never splits. 

An ancient Chinese book, called CMn-y-Jting, speaks of this animal 
in the following words : — " lliere is in the northern ectremities, 
amidst the snow and ice which cover the country, a ehou (a rat) 
which weighs a thousand pounds: its flesh is very good for those who 
are overheated. Another kind, of a less size, is also mentioned, which 
is only as large as a buffalo : it borrows in the earth like a mole, flies 
from the light, and remains almost always shut up in its subterranean 
retreats. ^ What we have here related is extracted from a printed col- 
lection of observations, by the celebrated Emperor Kaug-ki f ." 

The following extract is from the Baron Cuvier's great work, and is 
more interesting and decisive, from these meaimotAs having been seen 
alive upon the plains, in the year 1671. 

Les Chinois nomment les comes de mamonth tien-schu-ya (dents de 
tien-schu). On trouve dans la grandehistoixe naturelle Bun-zoo^;ann- 
mu composee au XVI. siecle, que I'animal nonune tien-schu, dont U 
est dSja parU dans I'ancien ouvrage (du V'. siecle avant Jesus Christ) 
sur le ceremonial, entitule Ly-Ki, s'appelle sussi tyn-schu ou yn-schu, 
c'est k dire, la souris qui se cache. 

t Groaier's China, Vol. I. p. 668. The Chinesfi have ]ong known Siberia for the 
sake of the ivory, furs, and hawks and felcons, which are of rery ancient use. It 
is supposed that the ancient Germans learned falconry from the Scythiana. See 
Strahlenhei^, p. 361. 



II Be tient contanneDement dans des oaremes ioutemno); 3 resem- 
ble h une aouris, mais £gale en grandeur un boeuf on un buflle. II a** 
point de queue, sa couleur est obscure. II est tr^t fert et ae creuse 
des cavemes dans les lienx pleins de rochers et de fbrdt*.* 

Un autre ecrivam cit£ par eejui la, s'ezprime ainsi, " Le tyn-soha 
»e se tieot que dans des endroita obscurs et noB-frequent^s. II meort 
si tot quit Toit les rayons du soleB ou de lalune: ses ^eds sont court* 
i proportion de sa taille, ce qui fait qnlX nuuxshe mid. 8a queue est 
langue d'une aune Cbinoiie. Ses yeux sont petits et son coa courbs. 
I] est fort stupide efe paresseox. 

Lore d'ime inondaiion aux eaTircons du fleuve TaoHScfaiiaBB-tuy (es 
Fannde 1571), il se montra hemicoup ds tyn^chu dans laplame, lis se 
Boortssoient des racines de la plante fu-kia." 

Ces details enrfeux, sont estnuts d'une note eommuniqnee k TAc*- 
demie de Petersbourg par M. Klaprotfa et imprimee par M. Tilesius, 
dans les memoires de cette Academic, t. V. p; 409. 

M. Klaprotb dit aussi dans cette note, q'ayant consults un numa- 
scrit mantscha il y traura ce q«i suit : " L'animal Bomm^ fin-sc^, ne 
w» tronre que dans les-. regkaaa froides, aux bords du fleure Tat-tnas* 
giann, et plus au nord jusqu a la mer septcntrioiiale. II resemUe h 
me souxis mais est aussi graad qu'utt elepbaot. II craint k litmiere 
Qt se tient sous tores dans de& grottes obscures. Sea os sont bltmci 
oomnke de I'iroire. se laissent ns^ent travailler, et n'ont ponit de 
fissures. Sa cbair est d'une nature firoide, et fixpt saine*.** 

The Yakutes„ on the Lenst. are formed of three pawerfiil people: 
• Curier, p. 142. 



Mongols, Tartan, and Manjoura. TholaBt are now, since 1644, upon 
the tfanme of China. All the three, at times, hare invaded and con- ' 
quered that empire : nothing ia therefore more probable, or rather cer- 
tain, than that the abore alludes to the walnu, and the river Lena. 
See Leveaque, VoL VII. p. 437. Neither Mr. Adams, Pallaa^ Strah- 
lenberg nor even Levesque make mention of the Lena fishery of the 
walrus. Levesque alludes to the fishery at Novaia Zemlia, of this ani- 
mal. Pallas, VoL V. p. 304, sa^, " Lorsque lea Samoiedes sont k la 
proxinute des ootes de la mer, ils prennemt les k^apopotames et les 
Teau marins qui se placent snr les rocbers voisins da rivage, ou sur la 
glace." Pallas descrifaea the latter but makes no further mention of 
the first, which were no doubt walruses. This extract is from the 
translation of fais original Gr^rnuni work. The reader is requested to 
compare the above Chinese history with the first five pages of Chap. 
YL and he wiU perceive what extraordinary ocmfostmi and errors 
have proceeded fnm calling both the morse and the elephants, &c. by 
the name of mammoth. It thus iqipears that the Chinese have been 
acqu^ted with the walrus two thousand three hundred years; fiir 
there can be no doubt of the above being that aniaud: and we here 
perceive that the fimciftil stories about this animal hare been trans- 
ferred to the elephant by Strahlenberg, Isfarandts Ides, Bell, and others, 
who would never credit the Siberians, who tdH them that mannooths 
are amphibious animals. 


The narwal or narwhal, monodon, monoceros. sea unicorn, or sword 
fish, is sometimes more than twenty feet long from the mouth to the 
tail ; and at once distinguishaMe from^very other species of whale, 



by its very long hom-llke tooth, which is generally straight, of a white 
' or yellowish white colour, spirally wreathed throughout its whole 
length, and gradually tapers to a sharp point. 

llie horn or tooth measures from kIx to tea feet in length, and pro- 
ceeds from a socket on one side of the upper jaw, having a large cavi- 
ty at its base or root, running through the greater part of its whole 
length. Id young ones, and sometimes in those that are full grown, 
there are tw^o teeth, but in general the narwal is found with a single 
tooth, the socket of the other being closed, or at most but ol»curely 
visible ; and now and then the appearance of a second tooth, in an ex- 
tremely small state, or just beginning to emerge, is perceptible, as if 
intended by nature to supply the place of the other, if broken or cast. 

It is commonly seen in the small open or unfrozen spots, to- 
wards the coasts of the northern seas. To such places the nuwals re- 
sort in multitudes for the conveniency of breathing, and because th^ 
are sure to find near the shores a due supply of food. 

They are taken by means of harpoons. The flesh is eaten by the 
Greenlanders raw, boiled, and dried; the intestines and oU are also 
used as food; the tendons make good thread: and the teeth serve the 
purpose of hunting horns, as well as that of building tents and houses *. 

There are several narwals' horns in the museum of the Royal Col- 
lege of Surgeons, London; some are bent like a cork-screw pulled 
nearly striught. 

The narwals are caught in prodigious numbers, near Kamtchatkaf, 
at Weygat's Straits X, and in most parts of the Arctic seas. 

• Vide Bee's Cyc. " MonodoD." f Le Bruyn, Vol I. p. 138. 

} De Ih Marliniere. 



" On the 20th August, 1728, they saw forty perwHiB on board four 
small boats, they were Tschudskoia. They had with them dried fish, • 
fox skins, and four narwal's teeth, which they exchanged for pins and 
needles, with the seamen, lliese people said, that they travel with 
their rein deer as far the river Kovyma, and one of them said he had 
been at the foot of Anadirski +." • • • 

" The horns are sometimes found near the mouSh of the Lena, and 
at Kamtchatka. 1 have seen at Tobolsk one of these twisted hoVns 
which are often put in the shop windows of druggists, three Russian 
ells long X" 

The horn of the narwal has been found t^ the earth, near the rivers 
Indigerska and Anadir§. 

A throne, made for the Danish monarch, is said to be still preserved 
in the castle of Rosenberg, composed entirely of narwals' teeth, the 
material being anciently esteemed more valuable than gold ||. 

" They found a great dead fish, round like a porpoise, twelve feet 
long, having a horn five feet ten inches long, growing out of the snout, 
wreathed, and straight like a wax taper; and might be thought to be 
a sea-uhicom : the top of it was broken. It was reserved as a jewel 
by Queen Elizabeth's commandment in her wardrobe of robes, and 
is still at Windsor to be seen**." 

t Captain BebriDg, in Harris, II. 1020. % Strableobei^, p. 380. 

S Encyc. Brit, " Siberia." Strahlenbcrg, pp. 380, 406. Tfaera is part ofa Tcw- 
sil narwal'a horn in the museum in Lincoln's Inn Fields. 

U Shaw's Zoology, Vol. II. part. II. p. 476. 

«• SirMartinProbisher'aVoyage,inl577. Purchas,VoI.I. 917.B. Tbesehorns, 
like those of the rhinoceEos, vrere much valued aa supposed antidotes to poison. 

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The horns of the narwal have contributed their share to nicrease 
the mlBapprehensions about the mmiert ^ mammoth^ horns said to 
have been found. Hiey are about the sanu length 99 those of the de- 
phant, are found in the earth, in the same r^ions. and are spirally 



On the rapid changes which the surface of ike Earth undergoes 
frofn FloodSf Earthquakes, and other Causes. 

M. HE object' of this chapter is to endeftvoor to prove, that, in consc- 
queneeoffte'eftanges to wMch the sor&ce of the earth is subject < 
from floods of rivers, earthquakes, and other accidents, it is very diffi- 
cnlt to form a satirfaetory decision as to the causes of the depths or 
situations in which the f<»sil bones of animals have been buried. 

It bfts been remained thstt we shonM commence onr researches in 
geology, with subjecthig to a earefol examination what nature pro* 
duces, as it were, under our own eyes ; such as the mangold alterations 
that have taken place in the physiognomy of tracts of country, almost 
within the memory of man. How scanty are the genuine observations 
we possess on the process of alluvial deposition! on the detritus accu- 
makited at the fbot of mountains by means of the decomposition of 
various rocks! How little do we know of the process employed to 
prodaoe petnfiwtionB I and- yet many of these will adhnit of eonsUer- 



CHAP, able elucidation, by applying to them sound principles of logic and 
N„^-v-^ induction f." 

Camden, out of Giraldus, reports that a part of Pembrokeshire an- 
ciently ran out, in the form of a promontory, towards Ireland; as ap- 
pears by a speech of king William Rufus, "that he could easily with 
his ships make a bridge over the sea, so that he might pass on foot 
from thence into Ireland." This tract of ground bemg all buried un- 
der deep sands, during the reign of Henry the Second, was, by the 
violence of a mighty storm, so far uncovered, that many stumps of 
great trees appeared fastened in the earth, and the strokes of the axe 
upon them, as if they had been cut but yesterday; so that it now made 
a show of a wood, rather than a stirand. Such is the wonderful change 
of all things ];. 

A vast tract of land at the eastern mouth of the Ganges, (where for- 
merly stood the city of Bangalla, a place of great antiquity), has disap- 
peared in a short period. 

Extensive islands are formed in the channel of the Ganges during 
an interval far short of that of man's life. The Cosa, equal to the 
Rhine, once ran byPumeah; itsjunctionnowisforty-6ve miles higher 

' The evident state of decay prevailing in these calcareous moun- 

t Rees'a Cyc " Geolo^." X Biakop Hakewill's Apology, p. 34. 

§ Rennell's Memoir, pp. 57, 266. 


tttiu^ the divided rocks fronting the eminences, and the whole utua- 
tion, render it probable that the river Belbec anciently flowed throng 
the valley of Kara-Has^ which is at present watered only by a small 
stream of the Souk; and though the former now runs at a consider- 
able distance &om this pUce, yet its current is so powerful and rapid, 
that it may in past ages have dissevered the heights above mentioned f. 

" An inundation at Dagenham, in Essex, made a breach in the 
Thames wall one hundred yards wide, and twenty feet deep in smne 
places; by which means a number of trees were laid bare, which had 
been buried for many ages: one was a large oak, with most of its bark 
and some of its head and roots: the others were alder, or horn-beam: 
one had the sign of an axe ; its head had been lopped off. Many think 
they have lain in that state since Noah's flood, but I think them to 
be ruins of some later age J." ' 

" The city of Atria, also called Hadria, we are certain, was formerly 
on the edge of the coast; it is now fifteen miles and a half distant from 
the nearest part of the mouth of the Adige; and the extreme point of 
the alluvial promontory is farther advanced into the sea six miles §." 

On a reconnu h. Hadria, actuellement Adria, I'existence d'une couche 
de terre parsemee de debris de poteries Etrusques, sans melange d'au- 
cun ouvrage de fabrique Romaine. L'Etrusque et le Romain s^e 

t Patlas. Journey in the Crimea. $ Pbil. Tnuu. No, 3S5. 

% M. Prony. Supplement to Curler's Theory of the Eaith. 

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OMP. tTwavent meles.dans une oomohe superioure, Bnr laqoaile oa ft deooa* 
■_^-_^ , ' rnrt les veatigce d'nn theatre, l^ine et I'autrc couohe tont ibrt abaisiteft 
an deaaoiw da boI actuel *. 

The Keta falls into the Ohy, and wiods so frequeatly as to astonish 
the traveller, when at night he perceives how near he is to the place 
he left at noon. The natives use dogs to draw their sledges, they can- 
not use horses, the snow being sometimes a fathom deep upon the 
0)»y t- 'I'he borders of the Tobol are low, and subject to be overflow- 
ed in the spring, yet they are inhabited by Mahomedan Tartan and 
Russians {. 

M The kst overflowing of the Volga fonned a new bank of seven 
feet high above the common bed of the river §." • * • 

When the snow melts, the Oby, Jenesai, and Lena, swell to such a 
degree, as to become torrents, baA carry away with them considerable 
pieces of monntains ||. 

" My route lay along the Colyma, Zysanska, Omekon, Okola, and 
Indigerska, all <^ of whioh are large, rapid, dangeiousi and almwrt i^ 

• Curier. 

t Tbe reader may judge, by the quantity of snow, what iiuiDeiise inuDdalioDB aad 
rapid torrents miiBt take place in springy. Milton (Historical Works, Vol. II. p. 
136) meotions, thai the Jenesai, on the western side, overflows about seven^ 

J Isbi^ulsldes § Captain Cocbrmie'tJoaniey, p. 84. 

n Abul Gbazi, Vol. II. ffiS. Strablenberg, p. 124. 



pMiable rivers. It h but twentj years Binee the present centre of '^f * 
the rircr waft the centre of the city of Setinginakf . v-^-v-^ 

In 1788, near Aix in Provence, in quarrying ItmeBtone of a deep 
grey, and soft, but which hardeni in the air, the strata were separated 
from each other by a bed of sand mixed with clay. After tiie first ten 
beds were removed, the inferior surface of the eleventh, at forty-five 
feet deep, was covered with shells : the stones of this bed being re- 
moved, under a stratum of argillaceous sand, stumps of columns, and 
frsgmentt of stones (like the quany) half wrought, were found; imd 
also coins, bandies of hammers, and a board one inch thick and sereti 
feet long, broken, but the pieces all there, and could be joined : tt 
was like the boards used by quarry men, and won in the same man* 
ner. The stones had not been changed, but the pieces of wood were 
changed into agate J. 

** There was found ia the year 1714, upon sin&ing a well on ^ 
top of the bill, near Tobolsky, na^y-four/athoma deep in the earth, an 
oaken beam, quite Uack, not round, bot she^d. 

Jt happens every year that the sea BweOs so high <m the east Me 
of Tartary, in the bay of Lama, near the habitations of the Kora^ 
and Lamnta, that whalesand other great sea ttiimals are carried op into 
Sffveral rivers, and, when the water fiUb, are left upon the shwe f .* 

t Capt Cochrane, pp. 836, 47S. 

X Coont BoamoD. Phil. Mag. Vol. LVII. p. 48& { Strahlenbei^, p. 40fi, 



Cft^- Daring the battle gained by Hannibal at ThrasTinene there was an 
\^-v-«^ eartfaqaake which orerthrew large portions of many cities in IttJy, 
turned rapid rivers out of their course, and levelled mountains -f. 

Cunusium, in Apulia, where Hannibal was defeated, and five of his 
elephants were killed J, was destroyed by an earthquake in 1694 §. 

Pisa is only four miles from the sea; its port was anciently at the 
mouth of the Amo. According to Strabo, the Ausar flowed into the 
Arno at Pisa, though it now falls into the sea, at the distance of at 
least ten miles from it Rees's Cyc. " Pisa." 

" There is no country upon the globe which is not subject to earth- 
quakes. The histories of all times record an immense series of them. 
There is hardly a month, week, or perhaps a single day unmarked by 
their devastations. Seneca, Strabo, Callisthenes. Pausanias, Pliny, 
Tfaucydides, and others, mention a variety of stupendous effects pro- 
duced by earthquakes, either preceding or during their lifetimes; such 
as the separation of mountains, the appearance uid disappearance of 
islands, the destruction of a great many cities, some of which were en- 
tirely swallowed up. Under the reign of the Emperor Gallienus, A. D. 
264, the greatest part of Italy was shaken; various fissures of the 

t Li7y, B. XXII. t lavj, B. XXIU. § Reat'a Cyc. " Canosa." 



earth repeatadlf opened and closed, swaUowing up a vast number of CHAPt 
human beings. ^.^.^.^ 

. In the year 36fi; the shores of the Mediterranean were left dry, 
but the tide soon returned with the wei^tof an immense and irresist- 
ible deluge, which was severely felt on the coasts of Sicily, Dalmar 

During the rdgn of Justinian, each year is marked by earthquakes : 
enormous caverns were opened, the sea alternately advanced aiKl re- 
treated, a mountain was torn from Libanus. 

In the kingdom of Naples, near the Avemlan lake, a hill rose and 
was formed by the accession of ignited matter, in one night, in height 
one thousand one hundred and twenty-seven English feet from the 
level of the sea. 

In the year 1783, there were, in Calabria, five hundred and. one 
diocks, of the first d^p%e; two hundred and thirty-six of the second; 
three hundred and seven of the third and fourth d^;rees; besides five 
great commotions, which shook, altered, and destroyed the whole face 
of the coimtry. The interruption of rivers, in consequence of the 
fill! of hills and the alteratioi^ of the ground, caused unappret^^ble 
ef." ■ 

There is a cause of change on the surface of the earth, which has 
not, as far as the writer is acquainted with the subject, been sufficient- 
ly regarded : the most obvious causes are sometimes the last which 
attract notice. It is dtut. The operation of this agent is so slow in 
its progress, that it does not excite much attention: but, on reflection, 
it will be found a powerful one, when local circumstances favour it. 
In caves, meadows, marshes, ponds, rivers, &c. so situated as to retain 
t Keea's Cyc " Canbquakea." 



the dtut blown into them, it will be eonly allowed that a aizteentb of 
' an inch ia depth may be accumulated in one year : which in a omtury 
would be six inches. Hare any fosril lemains been found, in caverns, 
Uke that at Kirkdale or in other places, covered with the aftcnmidated 
dust of the surrounding soil? 

If we consider the more rapid effects of sand, we may well swppott 
that an oasis in Africa is the top of a hill, standing in a once fertile 

Sand, by being blown in, has probably prindpellg otrntributed to fill 
np the branch of the Oxus> which formerly discharged its waters into 
Uie Caspiim sea *; and rivulets must often chuige tiieir courses ficom 
this cause. 

Many more instances of the mutations of the surface might be 
produced: but those contaiBed in ths chapter are deemed sufficient 
to 8how,how difficult and hazardous it is to judge of the eaiue of fos- 
sil bones having been buried in tmy particular placet either by their 
d^th, or by the strata with which they are oovered. 

* It has been said, that this brancb of tbe Oxus was deaignedly impeded, ftvm 
political motives. 

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Smneom Nottoiu respecting GhntSy Mammoths^ Extinci Spe' 
cies of Quadrupeds, and SpirtU Tuski.~~~'~Concludmg Ae- 


The wonder and mysteTr connected with tlie diKOvery of lanre fos- CHAP. 


sH bones, bare existed &om the eailiest timei, arising, no doubt, ftom ^..^.^^.-^^ 
the sciences of anatomy and osteology not having been studied by the 
ancients *. The merit of dissipating these errors will be due to the 
laborious and Taluable accuracy of very modem authors, and to the 
Baron Cuvi» in particular. 

The bones of whales and elephants, till within a oentnry or two, 
have been imagined and believed to be tiie remaiaa of giants. This 
notion would have been confirmed in the minds of those attached te 
tike marvellous, if the skeleton of the child with the head of an elei^nt, 
bom at Rome ia the year 209 before Christf , had been discovered in 
the seventeenth century, without its being known that it was a kutie 

* "Aug^ostuB adoraed his palace at CapivK wilh the huge limbs of eeftimioiHten 
and wild beaata, which aome affect to call the boaea tf gJaota, and the amu of old 
heroes." — SueloBiuB,LXXll. 

t Catrou, Vol. lU. p. 362. 



naUira. The particulars of the TnembUnce are not Btated: but the 
accuracy of modern naturalists would hare detected the truth. 

Since the introduction of the equivocal word Mammoth, giants are 
no longer thought of. Whales, elephants, narwals, mastodontee, wal- 
ruses, and even oxen or buffaloes, are n«tc all mammoths f . A rery 
few instances of giants will suffice. Sertorius X, being in Lybia, fbund 
there buried the body of Antsens, being sixty cubits in length. 

In the fourteenth year of the Emperor Henry II. ihe body of Pallas, 
the companion of ^neas, as it was thought, was dug lip at Home. It 
was found in height to equal the waHs of that city§. 

In Asia Minor and Syria the ancients pretend to have found Rants' 
bodies. The pretended body of Geryon, found in Upper Lydia, was 
probably an elephant's. Pausanias relates that great boms, (tusks, no 
doubt), are often discovered there. He also mentions a body eleven cu- 
bits in length, found in the bed of the Orontes, near Antiochj). With 
respect to elephants' bones, in particular, the mistakes have been ve^ 
numerous .^ 

" We very justly suspect, (that which Suetonius hath not spared to 
write), that the hoses of huge beasts or sea monsters both have, and 
still do pass current for the bones of giants. When Claudins entered 
this island, he brought with him a mighty army both of horse and foot, 
as also elephants, whose strangeness then amazed the Britons, and 
whose carcasses falling in this land, their late bones found, no doubt, 
have bred our error, being supposed to be of men, and not beasts. A 
very notable story to this purpose we have recorded by Camerarius, 

t See Baffon, Vol. XXVlil. p. 233; and Chap. VI. of lliis Vol. 
+ Plutnrch. § Hakewill'e Apol<^,p. 225, 

II Cuvier,p. 152. J. Parkinson, Vd. IlL 341. 



who reports that Francis tiie First, king of Fruice, being desirous to CHAP, 
know the troth of those things which were comuKHily spread touching ^ j-^-^f 
the strength and stature of Rouland, nephew of Chailemagne, caused 
his sepulchre to be opened, wherdn his bones and bow were fbund 
rotten, but his armour sound, though covered with rust; which the 
king commanding to be scoured off, and patting it upon his own 
body, found it so to fit him, as, thereby, it appeared that Rouland ex- 
ceeded him little in bigness and stature of body, though he himself 
was not exceedingly tall or stout *.' 


It has frequently, on the examination of fossil bones, been pro- 
nounced that the species to which they belonged are extinct The gene- 
ral reader finds himself much puzzled to apply mi accurate meaning to 
the word species. 

The ferocious powerful buU-dog, and the gentle diminutive spaniel, 
are of the same species; as are likewise the Shetland and the Flanders 
horses. If naturalists meant that word to signify that animals are of 
different spectra, because they will not perpetuate aibreed, they have 
not always used it in that decisive sense; and, moreover, it is. now 
known that the dog and the wolf will breed, and that hybrids thus 
produced, are capable of having offspring. The same is the case with 
the horse and the ass, as has been ascertained in New Holland. 

" Let us examine two elephants, the most dissimilar that can be am- 
ceived, we shall not discover the smallest difference in the number and 
articulation of the bones, the structure of the teeth, &c.f" 

• K^op HakevilPs Apology, p. 43. t Curier. Theory of die Evtli» p. llSb 



CHAP. Hiem are two speaks of living elephants described, named bjr 
v^v"^ CuTier Capesflis and Indicus ; for the full description of which the 
iwader is referred to Qiapter XV . 

The rery sli^t and imperfect knowledge which we possess of liring 
elephants, has shown, that in the sin^e district of Tippexah, there are 
three Ifinrfgf 

I. Short-le^^d, foll-bodiedj thick-tudied, strong elephants. 

IL Long-legged, thin-bodied, thin-tnsked, and weaker. Jkfatt^ i». 
dUHnct varieties are ptoduced hy the imtermixturt ^tieae two breeds. 

III. Males, the tusks of which are like those of females, and some- 
times scarcely protrude beyond the flesh of that part of the proboscis 
which covers them; these tusks tUway* point dowmeards. 

The African female skeleton in the museum at Paris (the ani- 
mal was seventeen years in the menagerie of Lottis XIV.) has larger 
tusks than any Indian maie of the same height. 

Le Vaillant speaks of a raoe of elephants irtiich nerer hare 

Fsr thefoUousmg raatont it eamtoi, m ow m pa rf nt itjfbrmatian, be 
/airltf eoneUided that theJossU kinds are extinct. 

I. There are perhaps thirty large tdagdoma in Africa, the living 
elephwit of whioh has not been seen by naturalists. 

li. There are many parts of Hindostan, particularly the North- 
ern, the Kvbig elephant of which has not in modem imee been brought 
to Eunype. 

III. Tbore has probably Dever been brought under the examiaeF- 
Uva of naturalists an dephantfinm Malacca, Sumatra, Siampa,Cambo- 
^, €echln China, Siam, Laea. TuMptin, Yumun, Qouigsi, Pegu, 
Burmah, Silhet, Assam, Tangnt ; most, if not all of them, were sulked 
to the Grand Khans, (Kublai and his grandson, Timur Kaan), whose 
ffteat, armies invaded Siberia for thirty yearB. There are perhaps fif- 



tr exteDBiTe countries in Afirica and Aria, whidt poness wild ele- CHAP. 


pbantB ; not a single molar tooth of whidi h» ever been seen t^ Eu- \,^~y-,^ 

IV. There has never been a large full, grown male elephant brought 
to England or France, since they were used by the Romans, for wars 
and sports: those now brought in ships, are five or ten years old, and 
do not live to attain a full size. Those brought for the purpose of 
war, were probably fcMrty. fifty, or more, years old. Elephaats attain 
the age of one hundred and twmty years, and perhaps, in modem 
times, there has never been one in Europe of the age of forty. 

V. The very first specimens of living elephants, noijrom Jfriea or 
HmdotUm^ which have come under the eyes of naturalists, are from 
Ceylon;*and the jaws of two elephants were found to differ in shape: 
also, "Monsieur Camper possede one machoire de Ceylon qm iiemrte 
heaucov^ de celle de Fespece vivant dont nous avras parU jua 

VI. Among the grinders from Hindostan, lately presented (in 1824) 
to the Royal College of Surgeons, there is one which is more like the 
African specimens than any hitherto seen. 

VII. If we confine oursdves strictly to the definition " that there is 
no difference in any two elephants in the number of bones, or structure 
of the teeth," as in the dog and the horse, then are there more than 
one species? Is not each sort only a variety? 

VIII. The curvature of the tusks, in some fossil specimena, has been 
deemed as indicating a difi^erent species; and yat males in India, with 
tusks scarcely beyond the flesh of the proboscis, and idwapt pointing 
downwards, and females in Africa with tusks larger than those of In- 
dian males of the same height, are not called different species. 

• CuTier, p. 1S&. 



Does scientific arrangement admit the difference in the snrfiwes of 
^ the grinders to form a distinct species; and at the same time exdnde 
from that privilege the remarkable contrariety in the direction of the 
growth, and in the sizes, both of the tusks of the males and of 
the females? Or, does the number of ntuls decide the species? or the 
shape of the skull? 

The numerous and unknown kinds of tiring elephants, and the 
little additional knowledge acquired by modem researches, make 
it appear quite unphHosophical to pronounce fossil remains to be 
of extinct species; for it may, with great apparent probability, be 
concluded that the Romans and Moguls did not, either of them, pro- 
cure their elephants from those countries, which have supplied natural- 
ists with the specimens from which that inference has been drawn. 

Sene^I may probably have furnished the Carthaginians with ele- 
phants: Gtttulia is, however, the country named. 

Egypt* was a Roman province for above six centuries f , during the 

* The aacieot Eg^yplians were very differest from the modern. When the 
Emperor Adrian was in "Egypt, he wrote a letter to the consul Servianus. " The 
Eg'yptjana are an inconstant, light people. Those who worship the god Serapis 
are neverthelesa Christians, and those who call themselres Bishops, are alao vota- 
ries to Serapis. When the patriarch of Alexandria comes hither, he is by soQie 
obliged to worship Serapis; by others, CEirist. They are seditious, vain, and in- 
jurioiis. No one lives idle in Alexandria: every one appears to follow some art, 
such as making glass, puper,or linen: the goaty in hand or foot find something 
that they can work at, and even the blind are employed. I have restored to this 
city its ancient privileges, for which they thanked me while I was present ; but I 
was no sooner gone, than they spoke a thousand things against me: so I leave them 
to their eggs and chickens, which how they hatch, (that is, in a dunghill), it is a 
ahame to mention. A priest gave me three cups of changeable colours : [ dedi- 
cate them to you and my sister for festival days; and take care that your young 
son does not handle them too roughly, and break them." — Angustan Hist. Salur- 

t From the conquest by Julius Cssar, B. C. 48, to the reduction of Egypt by 
Amrou, the general of the Caliph Omar, A.D. 640: at which period Alexnudria 

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rage for amphitheatrical games*. Augustus, by his lieutenant Pe- 
treius, subdued countries mucb to the south of Egjpt ; Nubia and the ^ 
kingdom of Meroe submitted to the Romans f. 

The same arguments may be applied to induce the belief that it is 
equally hazardous to pronounce the fossil rhinoceroses to have belong- 
ed to extinct species; tram the epigrams of Martial, we find that the 
Romans possessed both the single and the double homed kinds. 

It must be particularly borne in mind, that the Romans procured 
their animals firom the interior of Africa, and by land from northern 
India, while Europeans now bring those animals from the coatt* of 
those countries. 

It has been said, that, " the hyena, elephant, rhinoceros, and hip- 
popotamus, found in the cave at Kirkdale, belong to species that are 
now extinct, and to genera that exclusively live in warm climates ; 
and which are now found associated only in the southern part of Africa, 
near the Cape %." Were we to seek the animals agreeing with the 
Kirkdale list, they might be found ^br/y or Jifty degrees of hititnde 
nearer than the Cape is to Kirkdale: either at Senegal, Bomou, Dar- 
Fur, or Abyssinia : with the remarkable exception of the tiger, which 

contained Tour thousand palaces, twelre thousand shopa for the sale of vegetable 
food, forty thousand tributary Jews, four thousand baths, and four hundred thea- 
trea or places of amusemeot. — Letter of Amrou to Omar, Africa, south ofEgypt, 
was known by the Romans in the reigns of Augustus and Adrian as fiir as Lat. 14* 
South.— See Esprit des Loix, Lir. XXI. Ch. X. 

* The Emperor Aurelian, in his letter to the Senate, says, " We hare defeated, 
taken, and killed Firmus, the Egyptian robber, (he bad assumed the purple in ttw 
remains of Zenobia's country); there is no more now, my Romana, to be afraid of. 
The tribute of Egypt, which that wicked robber bad suspended, wilt now come 
entire to you. Entertain yourselres at the pastimes and show* of the circus. — 
Bernard, Vol. II. p. 304. 

t See Bruce, Vol. I. p. 477. Rees's Cyc. " AbysBinia." 

X Quarterly Review, LVII. p. 147. 



is supposed to be " peculiar to Asia*." Adanson idates, th^ there 
' are tigers in Senegal: but Chenier, Uie French consul, sajs, that what 
are called tigers in Morocco are only leopards, the royal tiger is time 
unknown f. 

The fossil grinders of elephants do not resemble those of the Beu^ 
and Airican living Unds; therefore, it cannot be admitted that the ani* 
mals of the south have formerly lived in the north, their species not 
being perfectly identical ^. The Nyl-gui is bat recently known to 
modem Europe. The Om-Rergay. mentioned by Burckhaidt §, will 
probably turn out to be an animal supposed extinct. Under all theaa 
ciTcumstances, is it not in such cases more just and safe to say, thMb 
" the true analogous living aitimal U not known ||," than to pronounce 
it extinct, whether itbe reckoned by naturalists a species or a varieUff 


In the accounts of tusks, or boms, as they are generally named, 
which have been found in Siberia, it is often remarked, that they wa« 
spiral. This word has not a precise meaning; and in the inquiries 
made by Europeans, among the Ostiacks and Tungusians, regard- 
ing the number and shape of the tusks, teeth, or horns; the word, or 
even the description, of spiral, will apply to the elephant, the morse, 
and the narwal; tusks or horns of all of which are frequently found 
in a fossil state, in Siberia ■]-. 

• Rees'sCyc. " Felig." 

t Present state of Morocco, Eitg. Ed. Vol. I. p. 171. The first tiger teen bg 
Ihe Romaru was presented to Auguslns by (he ladian Ambassadots. — Crevier, 
« Augustus." See p. 386 of tfaia Vol. f Jtees'a Cyc. '* Bones." 

§ Quarterly Review, LTIII. page 621. || Cuvier. 

4. Id Chap. XV. it has keen shown that the ivory used in Britain, in eleven 



In Todd's Edition of Johnson's Dictionary we find, 
" Bfire. — L A corre line; any thing wreathed or contorted, ewrf 
wreath being in a different plane; acnrl; a twist; a wreath. 

2. Any thing growing up taper ; a round pyramid, so called, per* 
hapi, because ft line drawn round and round in less and less circles 
would be a spire; a steeple. 

3. The top or uppermost point. 

Spiral. — Curre; winding; circularly involred like a screw. 

The European trarellerSj whose inquiries hare been abont ekphimts 
aikl spiral tusks, bare no doubt considered all the replies fr(Rn the 
Siberians as confirmatory oP elephants tusks being meaai ; and if UuM 
natives added their word mammoih, (with them the morse), no fore^^ 
CT would doubt it Europeans did not ever think of inquiring if mom* 
moths were amphibioas, but treated that assertion as ignorance. The 
errors every way relating to the whole ei this subject are endless. 
" On a donne souvent pour ivoire malade des portions de dents 
canines de morse dont la texture est natureHement grenue. H y en 
k de decrites sous ce titre dans Daubenton lui memef." 

Fosdl ivory has been Ibfind very for back in hntory. There is no* 
thing to wonder at from tUs circnmstance, when we see how jerj 

j«an, required thirt; tboutand tusks. How many elephants must be kifled an* 
Dually to supply tbe vast empire of Cbinal It nay be preaamed that there an 
teTeral elephaot countries adjoining tbst extensive empire, tbe tasks of wbidi 
bare never been brought to Europe. Iftbere be a race of elephants, with what 
are called spiral tasks; or if among ordinary atrimals there sometimea are Ibaad 
individuala of that description, they would no doubt be carefnUy preaemd for 
the Grand Kbans, or as animals of superior Talne. 
f CuTier, p. 49. 



,CHAP. much ivorr was in use in kioir David's and Solomon's reigns; and 


\_^\-^^ there can be no reason to suppose that it was then first introduced. 
—See Psalms, XLV. 8. 1 Kings, Ch. X. 18. Ch. XXII. 39. No 
fossil ivory can be mentioned till fire or six hundred years afterwards: 
Herodotus, the first profane historian, having written his work 
B. C. 445. 

Female elephants, or young ones, rarely occur in the fossil state. 
This is as might be expected, as males only are employed in battle. 
Females led the way for Hannibal's elephants, when be found some 
difficulty in crossing the Rhone. They are employed to carry loads, 
and to keep the males tractable : but they were not likely to bo found 
in such numbers as the males. Pyrrhus lost a battle at Benerentum 
through a young elephant and its mother. (See p. 293). 

We learn, from a passage in St. Chrysostom, that the beasts intend- 
ed for the public games were kept in the envirmu of the cities; and 
Procopius makes particular mention of a spacious place in Rome, called 
the Vivarium, appropriated to that use. Agreeing with this custom, 
we have seen that remains have been found at Kew, Brentford, Ilford, 
and Romford, near London. At Kirkdale, near York. At Walton, 
near Colchester. At the distance of three leagues from Verona. 
Three leagues from Placentia, &c. This is too systematical to be ac- 
cidental. The na/ura/ deaths of the animals, at these places, in a few 
centuries, would account for great numbers of fossil remams. 

The reason why we so seldom meet with the mention of games and 
spectacles given by the Romans, is, that those historians, whose 



works have reached us, deemed such subjects beoeath their notice. 
" Few events during the second consulship of Nero, occurred worthy ^ 
commemoration," sa;s Tacitus, " unless any writer liked to fill pages 
in magnifying the foundations and wooden structure of the new am- 
phitheatre. But to the dignity of Uie Roman people it belongs, that, 
in their history, should be inserted illustrious events only; and in the 
city journals such descriptions as these f ." 

These city journals were posted in the streets of Rome. The writer 
has seen, he forgets in what book, a copy of one, which contains as fol- 
lows : " This morning, Caius Julius Csesar departed for Bsetica in 
South Spain, having, since his appointment to that government, been 
detained in Rome by his creditors." 

We have also seen that it was the policy of Cnsar, and probably of 
other generals not to diminish their fune by mentioning the merits 
of the elephants. 

It is more than two thousand years since elephants were brought 
by the Greeks and Romans into Europe ; and how many animals since 
that time may have been, in different parts of Europe, exhibited for the 
sake of private gain? AH these skeletons, whatever their number be, 
must be in existence. Those brought by land from Asia, before the dis- 
covery of the Cape, were probably large. 

An instance has scarcely occurred within the knowledge of the 
writer, of abstruse theorists ever attributing a fossil animal to this 
source. The number is possibly greater than all the remains that 
have been found. The same reasoning equally applies to other 

t Taeitas, B. XIII. Cb. S». 



It is usual, in Siberia, to attribute the remains of elephants to the in- 
[ TSsioDS of Tamerlaue ; the writer does not daim one animal m Sihe- 
ria from Timur-6ec*s wars in that countrf, but from those of Timur 
Kaan, a centurj before Tamalane. 

After perusing Chapter XVII. and the following description of tbe 
■ituations in which fossil remains of quadrupeds have generally been 
found; it will not appear very improbable that the lapse of flve or six 
hundred years in Siberia, and of fifteen hundred or two thousand years 
in Europe, are sufficient to hare placed them under the drcnxnstauceB 
described by those who hare discovered them. 

" The bones of species (of quadrupeds) which are, apparently, the 
same with those that still exist alive, are never found except in the 
very latest alluvial depositions, or those which are either formed on 
the sides of rivers, or bottoms of ancient lakes and marshes now dried 
up; or in the substance of beds of peat; or in the fissures and caverns 
of certain rocks ; or at small depths below the present sur&ce, in 
places where they may have been overwhelmed by debris, or even 
bmried by man. 

Ancient formations may have been transported into new situations 
by partial inundations, and may thus have covered recent formations 
eontamtog bones; they may hare been carried over them by debris 
so as to surround these recent bones, and may hare mixed with them 
the prodacttons of the ancient sea. The true character of their re- 
positories has almost alwa^ been overlooked or misunderstood by 
tiie people, who found these bones, not being aware of the necessity 
to be observant f." 

t CuTi'er. Theory of the Earth, p. 110. 



RemuDS of African and Auatic animals bare been found in the 
same place — the hippopotamus and tiger at Kirkdale — tigers are not 
known, firom any decisive authority, to inhabit Africa ; nor are hippo- 
potami found in Ana. 

At Walton, near Harwich, the hippopotamus, elephant, rhinoceros *> 
&c. were found with the Irish fossil elk. Here we have animals of 
hot and cold countries mixed together. (Could the high prices which 
the Romans gave for all strange animals have caused the extirpation 
of the elk in Ireland? One of these animals having been found, which 
had been wounded by an arrow or spear, it is no longer thought to 
be antediluvian f .) 

The rein-deer, along with animals of hot climates, has been found 
near Paris. These would, indeed, be odd effects of a diluvian opera* 
tion. With respect to the supposition, that England and France were 
once hot countries; how do the elk and rein-deer support that hypo- 
thesis t But when we find that Sevems lived at York, and that he » 
known to have possessed tigers, animals so rarely exhibited, and Uiat 
he had a triumphal ceremony there, and that all the other bones are 
precitely of such animals as were usually employed in Italy % \ and, 
if we add to this the rein-deer found at Paris, where the Roman Em- 
peror Gratian had a park, and Scythian hunting friends firom the 

* Both the one honied and the two homed were exhibited by the Roniam. 

f Vsat numbers hare recently been found in Ireland. Sereo adulta and • 
tmall ikeleton in one place. — See Mr. Wearer's letter in the Pfailoaophical IVaoi- 
actions, 1825, Part 11. 

% Serenis had visited Memphis, the labyrinth, and pyramids, with great can, 
and was much pleased with bis voyage into Egypt, becanse of the strangeneai of 
the places and aaimals which he saw there.— Sparttan. 

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CHAP. Volga; wbo can possibly doubt tbese animals being of Roman origin? 
v.^-v^m' Are not such historical facts preferable to any theory, however inge- 

Captain Webb fonnd some fossil bones of deer, small horse and 
bear, at an elevation of sixteen thousand feet, in Uie Hemalaya moun- 
tains f . The musk deer and the bear are natives of those regions ; 
and the horse called Tanyan, a small species, it is well known, is like- 
wise a native of Thibet %• There seems nothing more extraordinarj 
in this, than there would be in finding fossil remains of wolves on the 
highest mountains in Britain, and of which in that island there must 
be great numbers; they may possibly sometimes have been mistaken, 
by cursory observers, for hysenaa. 

With regard to the mastodontes found with the other animal re- 
mains in Europe, if the arguments here offered be not overturned, 
the natural inference will be, that mastodontes are a species of ele- 
phant; and as likely not to be extinct as any of the other animals §. 

t Quarterly Reriew, LVII. p. 156. 

t See Rees'B Cyc. " Thibet." Rennell's Memoir, p. 326, 

§ Since writing the abore, there appears good reason to suppose that the most 
hopeless of the extinct elephants is uow in existence. " Commenced preparations 
for my departure from Choco. In the evenings made an excursion with Sefior 
Zereso, Don Luis, and others, to a small hill commanding the town ; when, the 
erening being tolerable, we had a fine riew of a ridge of mountains) which divides 
this valley from the Paci&c Ocean: ibeir summits are entirely covered with snow. 
Ttie smoke of a volcano is to be seen, which is situated on the other aide of the 
Bommit of the mountains. From a small chain of hills, near to this range of 
mountains, with a good glass, have been seen numbers of the camivorons elephants. 

y Google 


A full sued elephant is as \arge as any of the mastodontes fouod in ^^.^- 

RemaJnB of elephants and other animals are sometimes met with in 
places where it is difficult to account for them by the vicinity of a 
Roman camp or city; but in whatever conntry amphitheatres have 
been in use, the beasts intended for the spectacles must have been 
conveyed firom one place to another in all possible directions. 

' One elephant has been found in Italy only about a week old f . As 
females attended the armies, and might be pr^;nant when cau^t, as 
elephants will breed in the tamed state, and as Domitian had a herd 
of them in the Rutulian forest, this is a very natural circumstance. 

The roving life of die Mongols, and their passion for the chase, have 
contributed to spread fossil bones. " From the Danube to the rising 
sun they have divided Scythia amougst them, every captain knowing the 
bounds of his pasture ; in the winter, descending southward, and in the 

feeding on the plains which skirt these frozeo r^ions. Their enoriDona teeth 
have occasionally been seen: but no one has yet succeeded in killing one of these 
animals, or, indeed, in getting near to them. There are great quantities of wild 
calde in these plains, to kill which the Indians someiimes make excarsions. Tbb 
chain of mountains runs north-east and south-west." — Captain C. S. Cocbrane's 
Journal in Columbia, Vol. 1 1, p. S90. 

t Qnarterly Eoview, LVII. p. 163. 



CHAP. Grand Khan sent often to an island, and to the shores of the Arctic Sea, 
««.,»-v~«,^ for his falcons; and that he had elephants with. him on his hunting 

parties (see Chap. II.) ; and also vast numbers of ger-falcons and pere- 
grine falcons, and ten thousand falconers. It is therefore very likely, 
that elephants accompanied the persons who went to those regions, 
both for their safety and convenience. That territory, Yakutsk, is, 
upon Dela Croix's map, named northern Turqnestan ; and we find that 
Aferco Polo was correctly acquainted with the customs of the inhabit- 
ants of Yakutsk. We have also seen, in Chapter III. that the Grand 
Khan of the Turks had elephants, and conquered to the frozen ocean in 
the sixth century*. In Chap. V. and Notes on the Map, 28 and 29, it is 
shown that Kublai's and Timor Kaan's wars, and invasions of Siberia, 
lasted near thirty years ; that there were scarcely any other wars ; that 
the dispute was for the empire: that Kublai always employed elephants 
in his wars since the battle with the king of Mien and Bangalla; thathe 
possessed five thousand elephants ; and that Timur Kaan was viceroy of 
the elephant provinces. Such is the paucity of materials with which to 
compose a Instory or description of these wars and revolutions, that it 
would often be as difficult to prove that horses were employed, as it is 
that elephants were used in their invasions. During the long rebel- 
lion of Kaidou we find that the Emperor Timur Kaan was always 
obliged to keep itumerous armies in the west of Siberia f , which accounts 

* These distent regions possess more attractions than are generally known: 
they afford the most valuable of the Siberian furs; (Abul Ghazi, notes, Vol. II. p. 
639) ; mammoths (amphibious animals), whose teeth are preferred to gold by the 
Turks and Persians for their dagger-bundles ; (Muschkin Puschkin, in Pere Ami's 
Travels, p. 176); and the best falcons, the means of food and enjoyment tn the 
Mongol Emperors (see Ch. II.) and to the whole country. No Tartar hut but has 
its bitwk or falcon. (At Astracao). Olearius, p. 133. 

t HarcoPoto,p.74l,notel499. 



satisffactorily for the number of elephants* remfuns found in those CHAP. 

quarters. s.^.^-v^ik^ 

The important sciences of geology and natural history have not yet 
by any means attained that perfection and certainty to which farther 
researches will undoabtedly lead. If these historical notes be ad- 
mitted as a proof that naturalists have been, with regard to particular 
animal^t mistaken, still there is an ample field remaining for specula- 
tion and discoveries respecting the remiuns of others. Nor would a 
conclusion in favour of this disquisition reflect discredit on any for- 
mer opinions; on the contrary, it would prove how ingenious such 
authors must have been, to gain converts to their conjectures. It 
does not appear that any naturalist has examined history in order 
to account for these bones; but, had such been the case, is it possible 
to suppose that any one of the arguments hitherto held with regard to 
these particular remains of animals, could, in their minds,' have pre- 
vailed against such numerous proofs as are here exhibited of their more 
probable origin t 

In those cases, where history was procurable, the conviction seems 
irresistible. In other instances, when we consider how imperfect the 
Roman history is, and how defective in recording the details of such 
a subject as is here treated of: that the Circensian and Amphitheatri- 
cal games, and the Sacrifices, were continued for a series of centuries; 
that the amphitheatres of turf, and nearly all of those construct- 
ed of wood, cannot be traced or known: that with regard to Britain 
and Siberia, not one word of native history exists, relating to those pe- 
riods which are here considered; yet, that the constructive evidence 
is, notwithstanding, so strong, that, compared with the di£Bculties of a 



dihiTian origin, the hypothesis of a rotary axis, or of an inherent heat 
' in the earth independently of the sun, it surely claims a decided pre< 
ference, as offering proofe tJiat do not violate the common actions of 
society. The extensive space in which these bones are spread by the 
Mongob, must not surprise us, when we find that the Grand Khui 
Octai with a mighty force was carrying on a war in China, while his 
nephew was trampling Russia, Poland, &c. under foot with six hun- 
dred thousand cavalry*. 


The Romans and Mongols have subdued Europe and Asia: and, 
in their wars, amusements, and customs, they have employed certain 
animals, the fossil remains of exactly the same kinds of which are found 
fiuthful to the residences and tracks of those conquerors. To resist this 
probable origin with success, it must be shown that, by tlu laws, or by 
the casualties of nature, the fossil remains of the very same kinds of ani- 
mals, mixed'together in the variety of menagerie collections, some pe- 
culiar to Airica, some peculiar to Asia; some natives of torrid cli- 
mates, some suitable to the coldest regions, are found in the very 
places where we might have expected the Roman and Mongol bones. 
It must be recollected that the appearance of those bones, found in 
many parts of Europe, induces a belief that the animals had been alive 
<Mi the spot, and had met with noleni deatka. 

The subject of this volume being of high interest to geography, 
natural history and geology, it is to be lamented, that it has 
not been investigated by some one better qaalified in the classical 

. •P.delaCraiz,pp.a8&,S87. See Chap. V. of this Volame. 



and oriental languages, and other requisite acquirements, to do it 
iull justice: the author professing no other attainments than those 
of a general reader, who has passed most of Uie leisure hours af- 
forded by a commercial life, in his library; and this being his first 
literary attempt. 



Explanation of the Flags upon the Map; ahomng the Conquesta 
of the Mongols; and some of the Places of Residence of the 
Family of Genghis Khan^ ^c 

OeNGHIS khan vanquished the preceding Grand Rhan, A.D. 
1202; and in the year 1280, the Mongol empire, the largest that ever 
was known, had attfuned its greatest extent, and was divided as 
follows : . 

Kvblai was the Grand Kban. He was the grandson of Genghis ; 
he resided at Fekin, called also Cambalek, Khanbalig, and Cam- 
balu. He governed all China; dl the countries between Hindoostan 
and China down to the ocean; part of Sumatra; Thibet; Tangut; 
Great Tartary ,^rom the country of the Ighurs to the sea of Japan, in- 
cluding Corea; the eastern division of Siberia, to the Arctic sea and 
the straits of Anian (Behring's). 

Kaidott, great grandson of Genghis, governed central Siberia, and 
some of the countries in the southern neighbourhood of the little Altai 

Sheibani (grandson of Genghis) or one of his descendants, resided 
at Genghidin or Sibir (near Tobolsk); and governed the western divi- 
sion of Siberia, to the mouth of the river Yaik which runs into the 
Caspian sea. 



Batot^g grandfion, consequently a great-great-grandson of Genghis> 
gOTemed Capschac, and resided at Seru on the Volga. This empire 
comprised Little Tartary, (the Crimea), and was bounded on the east 
by the river Taik, on the west by the river Don, on the south by the 
Caucasus mountains, and on the north by the Arctic sea. — All Russia 
was tributary. 

ZagaiaXt (son of Genghis) descendant reigned over Zagatai; which 
comprised Transoxiana, or Maverulnere or Turan, the country of the 
Ighurs, Cashgar, the kingdom of Badachshan, and the city of Balk 
or Balich. He resided at Cashgar. 

^ioea, (son of Hulacou) great grandson of Genghis, reigned over 
Persia to the Indus; Syria; Mesopotamia, (Bagdat) ; Chaldea; and 
Anatolia. He resided at Maraga. 

Viceroys, always near relations of the reigning sovereigns, were 
spread over all the above countries, to govern subordinate districts as 
extensive as European monarchies: few particulars are known of the 


Taueblane passed this place with his army, and erected obelisks; FLAG 1. 
and near which the great Ogus Khan (VII. century B